Diet and Hypertension

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					   Diet and Hypertension

                    Created by:
 Tricia Fleming, University of Kansas Dietetic Intern
Tammy Beason, MS, Nutrition Education Specialist,
          Family Nutrition Education Program
                  December 2001
What is Blood Pressure?

 The  force of blood against the wall of
  the arteries.
 Systolic- as the heart beats
 Diastolic - as the heart relaxes
 Written as systolic over diastolic.
 Normal Blood pressure is less than 130
  mm Hg systolic and less than 85 mm
  Hg diastolic.
High Blood Pressure

A   consistent blood pressure of 140/90
  mm Hg or higher is considered high
  blood pressure.
 It increases chance for heart disease,
  kidney disease, and for having a stroke.
 1 out of 4 Americans have High Bp.
 Has no warning signs or symptoms.
Why is High Blood Pressure
Important?
 Makes   the Heart work too hard.
 Makes the walls of arteries hard.
 Increases risk for heart disease and
  stroke.
 Can cause heart failure, kidney disease,
  and blindness.
How Does It Effect the Body?
The Brain
 High blood pressure is the most
  important risk factor for stroke.
 Can cause a break in a weakened blood
  vessel which then bleeds in the brain.
The Heart

 High  Blood Pressure is a major risk
  factor for heart attack.
 Is the number one risk factor for
  Congestive Heart Failure.
The Kidneys

 Kidneys   act as filters to rid the body of
  wastes.
 High blood pressure can narrow and
  thicken the blood vessels.
 Waste builds up in the blood, can result
  in kidney damage.
The Eyes

 Can  eventually cause blood vessels to
  break and bleed in the eye.
 Can result in blurred vision or even
  blindness.
The Arteries

 Causes  arteries to harden.
 This in turn causes the kidneys and
  heart to work harder.
 Contributes to a number of problems.
What causes High Blood
Pressure?
 Causes   vary
 Narrowing of the arteries
 Greater than normal volume of blood
 Heart beating faster or more forcefully
  than it should
 Another medical problem
 The exact cause is not known.
Who can develop High Blood
Pressure?
 Anyone,  but it is more common in:
 African Americans- get it earlier and
  more often then Caucasians.
 As we get older. 60% of Americans
  over 60 have hypertension.
 Overweight, family history
 High normal bp:135-139/85-89 mm Hg.
Detection

 Dr.’swill diagnose a person with 2 or
  more readings of 140/90mm Hg or
  higher taken on more than one
  occasion.
 White-Coat Hypertension
 Measured using a spygmomameter.
Tips for Having your blood
pressure taken.
 Don’t  drink coffee or smoke cigarettes
  for 30 minutes before.
 Before test sit for five minutes with
  back supported and feet flat on the
  ground. Test your arm on a table even
  with your heart.
 Wear short sleeves so your arm is
  exposed.
Tips for having blood pressure
taken.
 Go to the bathroom before test. A full
  bladder can affect bp reading.
 Get 2 readings and average the two of
  them.
 Ask the Dr. or nurse to tell you the
  result in numbers.
Categories of High Blood
Pressure
 Ages 18 Years and Older)
 Blood Pressure Level (mm Hg)
 Category Systolic Diastolic
 Optimal** < 120 < 80
 Normal < 130 < 85
 High Normal 130–139 85–89
Categories of High Blood
Pressure
         High Blood Pressure

   Stage 1      140–159 /90–99
   Stage 2      160–179 /100–109
   Stage 3      180 /110
Preventing Hypertension

      Adopt a healthy lifestyle by:

 Following a healthy eating pattern.
 Maintaining a healthy weight.
 Being Physically Active.
 Limiting Alcohol.
 Quitting Smoking.
DASH diet

 Dietary Approaches to Stop
  Hypertension.
 Was an 11 week trial.
 Differences from the food pyramid:
 an increase of 1 daily serving of
  veggies.
 and increase of 1-2 servings of fruit.
 inclusion of 4-5 servings of nuts,seeds,
  and beans.
Tips for Reducing Sodium

 Buy fresh, plain frozen or canned “no
  added salt” veggies.
 Use fresh poultry, lean meat, and fish.
 Use herbs, spices, and salt-free
  seasonings at the table and while
  cooking.
 Choose convenience foods low in salt.
 Rinse canned foods to reduce sodium.
Maintain Healthy Weight

 Blood pressure rises as weight rises.
 Obesity is also a risk factor for heart
  disease.
 Even a 10# weight loss can reduce
  blood pressure.
Be Physically Active

 Helps  lower blood pressure and lose/
  maintain weight.
 30 minutes of moderate level activity on
  most days of week. Can even break it
  up into 10 minute sessions.
 Use stairs instead of elevator, get off
  bus 2 stops early, Park your car at the
  far end of the lot and walk!
Limit Alcohol Intake

  Alcohol raises blood pressure and can
         harm liver, brain, and heart
What counts as a drink?
 12 oz beer
 5 oz of wine
 1.5 oz of 80 proof whiskey
Quit Smoking

 Injures blood vessel walls
 Speeds up process of hardening of the
  arteries.
Other Treatment

 IfLifestyle Modification is not working,
  blood pressure medication may be
  needed, there are several types:
 Diuretics-work on the kidney to remove
  access water and fluid from body to
  lower bp.
 Beta blockers-reduce impulses to the
  heart and blood vessels.
Other Treatment

 ACE   inhibitors- cause blood vessels to
  relax and blood to flow freely.
 Angiotensin antagonists- work the
  same as ACE inhibitors.
 Calcium Channel Blockers- causes the
  blood vessel to relax and widen.
 Alpha Blocker- blocks an impulse to the
  heart causing blood to flow more freely.
Other Treatment

 Alpha-beta  blockers- work the same as
  beta blockers, also slow the heart down.
 Nervous system inhibitors- slow nerve
  impulses to the heart.
 Vasodilators- cause blood vessel to
  widen, allowing blood to flow more
  freely.
Conclusion


 Hypertension  is a very controllable
 disease, with drastic consequences if
 left uncontrolled.

 Great   Resource: www.nhlbi.nih.gov

				
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