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Sci 7 Study Guide U4

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Sci 7 Study Guide U4 Powered By Docstoc
					    Earth’s Crust
    UNIT 4:
   Classify minerals based on their properties
   Define what a mineral is
   List and describe properties of minerals including:
   Colour
   Streak
   Lustre
   Hardness
   Cleavage
   Fracture
   Using a classification Key identify the following minerals:
        o Quartz
        o Calcite
        o Magnetite
        o Mica
        o Pyrite
        o Galena
        o Gypsum
        o Talc
        o Feldspar
        o Hematite
   Classify rocks based on their characteristics and method of formation
   Define rock
   Define igneous rock and describe their formation
   Differentiate between magma and lava
   Differentiate between intrusive and extrusive igneous rock using examples.
        o Granite (intrusive) –Magma
        o Basalt (extrusive)- Lava
   Relate crystal size in igneous rocks to rate of cooling
   Define sedimentary rock
   Know examples of sedimentary rocks. Include:
        o Shale (small particles)
        o Sandstone (medium particles)
        o Conglomerate (Large particles)
        o Limestone (plant and animal particles)
   Define Metamorphic rock
   Know how metamorphic rock forms
   Know examples of metamorphic rocks and their parent rocks
        o Slate from shale
        o Marble from limestone
        o Quartzite from sandstone
        o Gneiss from granite
   Be able to sketch label a diagram of the rock cycle
   Know how igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks are related
   Know where the following minerals are mined
       o Gold (Nugget Pond)
       o Granite (Lumsden)
       o Iron ore (Lab City)
       o Slate (Burgoyne’s Cove)
       o Gypsum (Flat Bay)

   Sketch and label a model of Earth’s layered interior
        o Inner core
        o Outer core
        o Mantle
        o Crust
   Know how the Earth’s crust is broken into pieces (plates) and movement occurs where
    plate margins meet (plate tectonics)
   Know how tectonic theory has changed given new evidence
   Know that Alfred Wegener was responsible for Continental Drift Theory
   Describe the theory of continental drift and the evidence that supports it, include:
        o Continental fit (paleographic)
        o Fossils (biological)
        o Rock layers (geological)
        o Climate (meteorlogical)
   Know the technological advances that help support the current theory of plate tectonics.
    Include:
        o Sonar
        o Magnetometers
        o Deep sea drilling

   Know the three different types of boundaries
       o Divergent (pulling apart)
       o Convergent (pushing together)
       o Transform (sliding past)

   Identify convection currents in the Earth’s mantle as the driving force behind plate
    tectonics
   Understand how a scientific explanations have changed over time as new evidence has
    been gathered
   Earthquakes, Volcanoes and Mountains
   Compare Earthquakes and Volcanic eruptions that occur on the Earth’s surface
   Define earthquakes
   Know why earthquakes occur based on plate tectonics
   Define volcano
   Know how and where volcanoes form:
        o Areas where plates collide (converge)
        o Areas where plates separate (diverge)
       o Areas where plates pass over stationary hot spots

   Know how volcanoes and earthquakes are distributed geographically (Ring of Fire)
   Explain the process of mountain formation
   Define folding and faulting
   Explain how mountains are formed using the theory of plate tectonics. Include:
       o Folding
       o Faulting
       o Volcanic Eruption
   Describe Geologic time scale in terms of the four main eras and the major events that
    occurred. Include:
       o Precambrian-formation of Earth and appearance of simple life forms
       o Paleozoic-appearance of more complex life forms
       o Mesozoic-appearance and extinction of dinosaurs
       o Cenozoic-appearance of humans
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