improving flexibility by stretching

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					Flexibility and Stretching
                             Flexibility Activity

   Flexibility is an
    important but often
    neglected part of
    an exercise
    program

   The importance of
    flexibility for health
    and well-being
    becomes more
    important with age
2                                      Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 5e
                                     Flexibility

       NOT the same thing as stretching
        – Component of health-related fitness
        – State of being
        – Improved by stretching
       Long muscle-tendon units (MTUs)
       Range of motion (ROM)


3                                       Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 5e
                  Facts about Flexibility

   Flexibility is joint specific
   Flexibility is enhanced if
    body is warm
   Decrease in joint mobility
    – Lack of use, injury,
      disease
    – Static positions
    – Improper exercise
4                                   Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 5e
          Factors Influencing Flexibility

       Anatomy
       Gender
       Age
       Race
       Proper Exercise



    5                           Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 5e
                      Benefits of Flexibility
   Freedom of
    movement
   Decreased risk
    of back pain
   Decreased
    risk of injury
   Effective functioning
   Improved athletic
    performance

    6                               Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 5e
                    Types of Stretching

       Static
       Ballistic
       PNF




7                              Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 5e
                 Methods of Stretching

       Active stretching
       Passive stretching
       Proprioceptive neuromuscular
        facilitation




8                                  Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 5e
                             Static Stretching

       Stretch slowly until tension
       Hold stretch for 10 - 30 sec.
       Relax the muscle
       Increase stretch a bit more
        (developmental stretch)



    9                                   Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 5e
                         Static Stretch

                                   Passive
                                   (Self Assisted)




     Active        Passive                           Passive
              (Partner Assisted)             (Gravity Assisted)
10                                       Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 5e
                       Ballistic Stretching

        Dynamic movement
        Specificity of movement




11                                 Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 5e
                        Ballistic Stretch




     Active        Passive
                                         Passive
              (Partner Assisted)
                                   (Gravity Assisted)

12                                 Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 5e
          Proprioceptive Neuromuscular
                       Facilitation (PNF)

        Combines (active and passive) methods
        Most effective method for
         improving flexibility
        Promotes increase in strength




13                                  Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 5e
                            PNF (CRAC) Stretch




 Step 1: From a          Step 2: Relax calf muscles
 lengthened position,                                      Step 3: Continue active
                         and contract dorsiflexors (shin   contraction while rope
 contract calf muscles   muscles) in active stretch of
 isometrically against                                     provides assistance.
                         calf.
 resistance of rope or
 partner.
14                                                            Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 5e
                                    Stretching

        For flexibility to be increased, you must
         stretch and hold muscles beyond
         normal length
        To increase flexibility, exercises must
         be repeated an adequate number of
         times
        Warm-up exercises NOT the same
        Best time for stretching

15                                     Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 5e
                                FIT Formula
                            (Static Stretching)


     F   3 - 7 times per week

     I   10% beyond normal length of muscle

     T   10-60 seconds



16                                 Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 5e
         Guidelines for Safe and Effective
                               Stretching

        There is a correct way to perform
         flexibility exercises
        Stretching is specific to each muscle or
         muscle group
        Overstretching may make a person
         susceptible to injury or hamper
         performance

17                                     Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 5e
                 Stretching Precautions

     1.   Don’t force it to the point of pain.
     2.   Elderly people or those with
          osteoporosis or arthritis should use
          special care.
     3.   Avoid vigorous stretching after a body
          part has been immobilized (such as in
          a sling or cast) for a long period.
     4.   Avoid stretching swollen joints.

18                                   Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 5e
           Stretching Precautions, con.

     5.   Avoid over-stretching weak muscles.
     6.   Use great care in applying passive stretch
          to a partner; go slowly and ask for
          feedback.
     7.   Some (but not all) people with high blood
          pressure should avoid the PNF techniques
          because the isometric contractions may
          increase arterial blood pressure
          excessively.
19                                       Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 5e
           Stretching Precautions, con.

     8.   Beginners should use static stretching
          rather than ballistic stretching.
     9.   Well-trained athletes who use ballistic
          stretching should precede this type of
          stretching with static stretching.




20                                    Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 5e
                    Benefits of Stretching

        Relieving muscle spasms
        Prevent or inactivate trigger points
        Positive effects for women
        Ineffective in preventing muscle
         soreness



21                                     Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 5e
          Basic 8 for Stretching Exercises

     1.   Calf Stretcher
     2.   Hip and Thigh Stretcher
     3.   Sitting Stretcher
     4.   Hamstring Stretcher
     5.   Leg Hug
     6.   Trunk Twister
     7.   Pectoral Stretch
     8.   Arm Stretcher
22                                  Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 5e
                           Flexibility Tests

     1.   Modified Sit-and-Reach
     2.   Shoulder Flexibility (Zipper Test)
     3.   Hamstring and Hip Flexor Flexibility
     4.   Trunk Rotation




23                                    Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 5e
          Lab 10a
          info

                    Assessing Flexibility

        Make sure that you are warmed up prior
         to testing.
        Follow the instructions as close as
         possible since the best use of the
         results is to compare scores over time.




24                                   Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 5e
                     Lab 10a Information
                               Evaluating Flexibility


        Perform each of the stretches in the lab
         (Be sure to check left and right separately
        Complete ratings and then evaluate your
         personal flexibility needs according to
         your results.




25                                     Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 5e
                                     Web Resources

        Flexibility Exercises – www.mhhe.com/fit_well/web10 - click 05
        Orthopedic Physical Therapy Products (source for stretching
         ropes) – www.optp.com
        The Physician and Sports Medicine – www.physsportsmed.com




26                                                    Concepts of Fitness and Wellness 5e

				
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