Planning and Writing Proposals by pvj16859

VIEWS: 7 PAGES: 24

									 Planning and
Writing Proposals
Prof. Stephen A. Bernhardt

    Dept of English
 University of Delaware

      September 2006
Writing and Science
Thinking, planning, coordinating,
proposing, tracking, running,
        ScienceScience     Writing
recording, reporting, concluding



              Writing
Types of Documents
   Plans to govern work
   Memos and letters to
    keep work flowing
   Proposals to describe
    and persuade
   Presentations to
    deliver
   Reports to detail,
    analyze, and interpret
    Plan example
Planning document
   What are you trying to do?
    Purpose, goals, deliverables
   Who will use the document?
    Your team, your manager, your
    agency
   What is the best approach?
    Detail on tasks, roles, & deadlines
   How should it be designed?
    Graphic, organized, explicit
Planning document
 Project overview
 Team and contact info
 Goals and deliverables
 Tasks, milestones, critical path
  activities
 Team rules
 Schedule, time allocation
 Budget
Why plan?
 Teams with shared visions (in
  writing) work better.
 Teams need rules and schedules
  (and wiggle room).
 Teamwork demands complex
  resource planning.
Nutshell the Proposal
   What is your purpose?
   Who is the audience?
   What is your plan?
   What will you deliver?
   When?
   By whom?
   With what resources?
   At what cost?
Proposal Quality
 Responsive to RFP—shared
  mission
 Clear need
 Quality of deliverables
 Credible expertise: ability to
  perform
 Realistic schedule and budget
Be Deductive and Explicit
 Purpose and scope up front
 Preview main messages and
  issues
 Lead sentences on sections and
  paragraphs—top line skim
 Plenty of navigation devices
 Emphasis on most important sell
  points
Two Organizational Schemes

 Deductive       Inductive

 Main Point




                 Main Point
    Organization
   Main messages, summary statements, or
    conclusions appear at the beginning of
    sections and paragraphs
   Document sections are organized
    deductively, from general to specific, from
    most important to least important
   Procedural steps are sequential
   Organizational devices are used to guide
    the reader
Elements of Design
 Effective formatting, layout,
  and design
 Headers and footers
 Page numbers
 Consistent use of styles
 White space for separation
  and emphasis
Front Matter
Orients the Reader
   Cover with title, date,
    sponsor, proposer
   Executive summary
    or abstract
   Table of contents for
    organization
Summaries
   Summaries provide broad, descriptive
    coverage of development activities and
    outcomes.
   Summaries attempt to show the whole and
    its parts.
   Summaries work at a coarse level of detail,
    at coarse grain, but are still completely
    representative.
   Summaries should be visual: easy to
    skim/scan.
Body of Proposal
      Provides Main Elements
   Introduction and overview
   Statement of problem
   Proposed solution with objectives
   Methods and materials
   Work plan: milestones, deliverables,
    checkpoints
   Schedule (high level graphic)
   Budget: costs and benefits
Introduction

   Reviews the project context:
     Who requested the work?
     Why?

     For what outcome or benefit?

   Overviews the plan of this
    proposal
Statement of Problem

 Provides clear and compelling
  description of the problem
 Defines the need
 Discusses any critical issues
  associated with the problem
 Details any constraints on the
  problem's solution
Proposed solution
 Identifies broad strategy or
  planned approaches
 Lists specific, measurable
  outcomes to be accomplished
 Ties objectives clearly to
  problem
Methods and materials
 Describes in detail what the
  team proposes to do to find a
  solution (action steps)
 Includes specifics—amounts,
  numbers, locations, tools,
  instruments, etc.
Work Plan (in proposal)
 Focuses on management of the
  project
 Shows how the team will be
  coordinated, scheduled, and
  monitored
 Commits to dates (aggressive or
  realistic or both)
 Works at high level for client
Schedule
 Presented in visual format
 Places all activities on a timeline
 Highlights critical or key
  activities
 Convinces audience that the
  timeline is realistic
 Serves as the proposal
  “at a glance”
Budget
 Presented in visual format
 Provides rationale and
  commentary (budget narrative)
 Forecasts/determines costs for
  staff, materials, support, and
  overhead
Back Matter/Appendices
  Bibliography or references
  Computer documentation

  Instrument descriptions or sources

  Full resumes

  Raw data to back up summary
   points made in the body of the
   proposal
Writing Resources
   UD Writing Center (831-1168), basement of
    Memorial Hall
   Johnson-Sheehan, Richard. Writing
    Proposals.
   Brusaw, Alred, and Oliu, Handbook of
    Technical Writing
   Diane Kukich (CEE) dkukich@UDel.Edu
   Steve Bernhardt sab@udel.edu

								
To top