PT3 proposal by jzi65410



       Project OTL (Opportunity to Learn) is predicated on the collaborative efforts of a

dynamic consortium, including state and private universities and local school districts.

Lead organization, California State University, Bakersfield (CSUB), an officially

designated Hispanic-serving institution, is located in a vast, largely rural, service region

containing significant underrepresented populations and economically disadvantaged

individuals. The University has a growing enrollment that, in fall 2002, consisted of over

7700 undergraduate and graduate students or approximately 6600 full time equivalent

students (FTES). It is the only comprehensive university that offers a range of

undergraduate, certificate and graduate programs for a diverse population of nearly 1

million people who reside in the Southern San Joaquin Valley. Through its growing

satellite campus, CSUB also serves the growing Antelope Valley community in

Northeastern Los Angeles County and offers a range of undergraduate, certificate and

graduate programs. CSUB is Western Association of Schools and Colleges and National

Council for Accreditation of Teacher Education accredited and its teacher credential

programs are accredited by the California Commission on Teacher Credentialing

(CCTC). Teacher education is a primary focus of the institution’s mission and has the full

support of administrators at all levels, as evidenced by their support for the following

statement (see letters in Appendix 6):

       “I fully support the goals and objectives of Project Opportunity to Learn.

California State University, Bakersfield places a priority on teacher preparation

and engages in on-going efforts to reform curriculum. I will ensure that California
  Project OTL                                                                          Page 2

State University, Bakersfield allocates real operational funds and resources as

needed by Project OTL.

       The California Technology Assistance Project, Region 8 technology proficiency

system was adopted by the School of Education as the method of meeting the

requirement of the state technology standard. All instructors are expected to earn Levels I

and II certification. Our experience with this certification system has revealed an

effective and efficient procedure to raise the technology skill levels of university

instructors, which then are applied in their classes and serve as models for practicing and

future P-12 teachers. Technology-proficient teachers can be expected to increase the

opportunity for all students to learn and succeed in a standards-based school system.

Project OTL will yield useful findings on the links between teacher technology-

proficiency and student achievement.”

       The California Technology Assistance Project, Region 8 technology proficiency

system was adopted by the CSUB School of Education as the method of meeting the

requirement of the state technology standard. All instructors are expected to earn Levels I

and II certification. The experience with this certification system has revealed an

effective and efficient procedure to raise the technology skill levels of university

instructors, which then are applied in their classes and serve as models for practicing and

future P-12 teachers. Technology-proficient teachers can be expected to increase the

opportunity for all students to learn and succeed in a standards-based school system.

Project OTL will yield useful findings on the links between teacher technology-

proficiency and student achievement.

  Project OTL                                                                     Page 3

       Partner school districts of the CSUB OTL project are members of the Kern

County Superintendent of Schools’ (KCSOS) Beginning Teacher Consortium, a state

funded program that supports new teachers. Participating schools will be selected by

considering a variety of factors, including proportion of economically disadvantaged

individuals and underrepresented minorities, status as a “low performing” school, and

feeder school conditions. The intent of selection is to ensure that project classrooms

contain students from diversified backgrounds so that findings can be applied to a wide

range of current school realities.

       California State University, Fresno (CSUF) is a comprehensive state university

with and enrollment of 17,338 undergraduate, 3,967 graduate, 21,305 total. Its student

population is composed of American Indian 1.1%, Asian 14.3%, African American

5.6%, Hispanic 32.5%, and White 46.6%. CSUF will also target regions of its four-

county service area that contains significant populations of economically disadvantaged

and underrepresented minorities and low performing schools. Areas experiencing high

unemployment rates will be identified utilizing the California Department of Revenue’s

monthly calculated city and county unemployment rates. Specific school sites within

these high unemployment areas will be selected based on the percentage of minority

students and the school’s percentage of students who receive reduced or free lunches (a

direct indicator of family income levels). In addition, selection will be based upon the

school’s feeder status and its level of technology reported in the school’s annual report

card to the California Department of Education.

       The University of San Francisco (USF) was founded by the Jesuits in 1855 and is

the city by the bay’s oldest university. USF’s credential programs collaborate with some

  Project OTL                                                                     Page 4

of California’s most diverse and culturally rich K-12 school districts. Primary among

them are San Francisco and Oakland, CA which are federally designated enterprise

empowerment zones. USF’s five campuses and two regional programs allow the teacher

education department to reach across the state and to provide immersion experiences for

English-Language teachers in Xiamen, China and Tijuana, Mexico .

        The teacher preparation programs at USF are distinctive for their appeal to

individuals who are committed to serving the needs of children and adolescents while

dedicating themselves to contributing to a better society. It is USF’s mission to prepare

graduates of USF programs to become intellectual, social and moral leaders in the

educational community. USF teacher education programs in elementary, secondary and

special education are hosts to three specially designated cohorts: 1) under the

directorship of Herb Kohl, the Center for Teaching Excellence and Social Justice seeks to

produce progressive reform-minded teachers for urban centers; 2) USF is the national

center for the TEAMS AmeriCorps program which addresses the critical shortage of

teachers of color in the Bay Area and urban schools and 3) USF prepares environmental

educators for the Yosemite National Institute at the Marin Headlands for their field-based

science program designed to inspire personal connections to the natural world and

responsible actions to sustain it.


        The commitment to “leave no child behind” requires teachers to provide every

student with opportunities to learn. Results of numerous studies indicate that when

educational technology is used by well-trained teachers within a well-defined curriculum

  Project OTL                                                                     Page 5

framework it can provide standards-based learning opportunities for students with diverse

abilities and interests. A problem with many of these studies is that they define “well-

trained” using self-reported data or the number of technology training hours teachers

received, rather than performance assessment results which require demonstration of

standards-based skills.

       There is evidence that an efficient and effective means of producing more

technology-proficient teachers is needed. Becker and Ravitz (2001) reported that only

10% of 4100 teachers surveyed were classified exemplary computer users and point out a

need for effective professional development in this area. Cuban, Kirkpatrick, and Peck

(2001) found that teachers who used computers for instruction often used them to sustain

common teaching practices. Zhao, Pugh, Sheldon, and Byers (2002) found that successful

technology-integrating teachers were influenced by several factors, including technology

proficiency, pedagogical compatibility (degree of consistency between instructional

practice and implemented technology), and social factors. The Region 8 California

Technology Assistance Project (CTAP8) technology-proficiency certification system

addresses each of these concerns by requiring to demonstration of proficiency including

examples and reflective narratives on how the examples address the proficiency.

       Wenglinsky (1998) studied National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP)

math scores and found a positive correlation between high scores and access to

technology with technology-proficient teachers. Students in the latter case learned new,

higher-order concepts effectively. The author mentioned correlation between areas of

teacher training and the effectiveness of computer use and noted that there is pronounced

inequity across socio-economic status, race and geographic locale.

  Project OTL                                                                      Page 6

       Ringstaff and Kelley (2002) conducted a survey of major technology studies from

the past decade to gain policy and pedagogy insights. They cite several studies that

demonstrate the effectiveness of learning “from” computers via tutorial programs and

point out that computer technology has advanced to where such uses, however successful,

do not meet the technology’s pedagogical potential. They then explore a number of

studies in which students learned “with” computers, using them in ways that helped

develop higher order thinking skills. These results are confirmed by the researchers in the

Apple Classroom of Tomorrow (ACOT) longitudinal study who found that ACOT

students, as compared to non-ACOT students, “routinely employed inquiry,

collaborative, technological and problem-solving skills uncommon to graduates of

traditional high school programs.”

       The Ringstaff and Kelley (2002) study summarizes additional findings which

substantiate the need for Project OTL. Their results are confirmed by another national

study which indicates that if well-trained teachers use technology effectively it will lead

to improved student achievement. (National Center for Educational Statistics 1999).

Sivin-Kachala and Bialo (2000) studied 300 studies of technology use and found that

teacher training was the most important factor in teachers’ use of technology to improve

student performance. Whereas, Mann, Shakeshaft, Beker and Kottkamp (1999) reported

teacher training was key to technology-integrated programs success. These studies

document that effective use of technology is linked to higher achievement in problem

solving and critical thinking when trained teachers used the technology, i.e. the greatest

gains in student achievement was found in students who had technology-trained teachers

(Schacter, 1999).

  Project OTL                                                                       Page 7

       Project OTL will study teachers who have been certified as technology-proficient

based on portfolio assessment of artifacts and skill demonstrations of the standards set by

the International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE ) National Educational

Technology Standards (NETS) for teachers. The California technology standards-based

CTAP8 technology-proficiency certification system has been aligned with the ISTE

NETS standards by a member of the writing team for both sets of standards. The

performances in both sets of standards were found to be aligned by skills (see correlation

chart in Appendix 8a).

       There is currently a need for more research linking teacher technology-

proficiency with student achievement. An underlying assumption is that effectively

integrating technology into instruction can increase students’ opportunity to learn. Project

OTL will build on studies that have inquired into determining what constitutes teacher

technology-proficiency and others that studied the effect of technology on student

achievement. Using findings from these studies, Project OTL will implement a research

design intended to provide evidence of links between teacher technology-proficiency and

student achievement. As pointed out by Cradler, Cradler and Clarke (2003), the U. S.

Department of Education’s Joint Dissemination Review Panel found that both statistical

significance and educational significance are needed “to inform decisions about how to

replicate the intervention”. The project will be designed to collect evidence of statistical

validity and evidence of educational significance that can have practical applications. A

plan of evaluation will ensure the collection of useful data and allow for altering the

project as new and unexpected factors emerge.

  Project OTL                                                                       Page 8

       In project year one, an intensive, three-part needs assessment will be conducted in

the participating universities. The first part will be an analysis of existing technology

resources available to project partners. The second part will be the development of

evaluation instruments and procedures that can be used to obtain useful evidence of the

link between teacher technology proficiency and student achievement (Dirr, 2003 ). This

process will be ongoing throughout the project, with formative evaluation procedures

yielding evidence that can assess the relationship of project variables and their effect on

student achievement. The third part will be the development and implementation of a

dissemination plan for both project findings and a model for replication of the

technology-proficiency certification system in diverse settings addressing the ISTE


       CSUB, CSUF and the USF in fall and winter of project year one will participate

in the needs assessment and prepare to serve as the first phase of a plan to replicate the

certification system in project years two and three. Each partner university offers

diversity in their constituent populations and contexts that will help develop a replication

plan that can be applied to a wide range of schools. In project year three, all partners will

focus on developing a cost effective and workable replication plan that can have

sustainability beyond the life of the project.

       The regions covered by the experimental groups contain gaps and weaknesses in

services to underrepresented minorities and economically disadvantaged individuals. The

technology-proficiency certification system directly addresses the needs of these groups.

In the CTAP8 region, underrepresented minorities and economically disadvantaged

individuals are not represented proportionately in teacher preparation programs. The

  Project OTL                                                                      Page 9

efficient and thorough technology-proficiency certification system is providing everyone

in the region with access to skills that are facilitating outreach and advisement resources

that are intended to increase target populations’ proportions in teacher preparation

programs. Currently, other funding sources are being sought to create an electronic

professional pipeline to help underrepresented populations from high school future

teacher programs, through community college under division program, through university

upper division programs, through teacher preparation programs and into professional

development programs leading to National Board Certification. The basis of this effort is

to provide all potential teachers with an electronic portfolio account containing file

structures for requirements and class assignments throughout the pipeline, creating

unprecedented access to accurate advisement information, contact with advisors and

instructors, and a place to assemble the required portfolios. The technology-proficiency

certification system is central to this effort by providing both future teachers and program

faculty with a common skill set for demonstrating technology-proficiency.


        Project OTL has the potential to produce significant impact the advancement of

theory, knowledge and practices regarding links between teacher technology-proficiency

and student achievement. It is different from most educational technology projects by its

application of a proven technology-proficiency certification system based on accepted

technology standards. Certification to a level of proficiency guarantees mastery of the

targeted skill set.

  Project OTL                                                                      Page 10

       From 1996-1998 the California technology standard for teachers was developed

by a panel of experts representing a diverse constituency from across the state. Two sets

of developmentally appropriate technology skills were set for teachers, Level I for pre-

service teachers and Level II for in-service teachers who have greater opportunity to

integrate technology in their practice. By focusing in on California’s intern teacher

population (teachers without credentials who are in programs that support them as they

earn credentials), this project will be able to evaluate the relationship between technology

proficiency and student achievement at both of these technology standard levels.

   During the writing of the California technology standards, panel members requested

the state librarian be commissioned to conduct a survey of the literature to ascertain

whether educational technology has a positive impact on student learning (Umbach,

1998). The resulting report referenced several scientifically based studies indicting the

value of educational technology but relied heavily on qualitative research and anecdotal

communication to support those findings. Project OTL proposes to definitively and

scientifically substantiate that technology proficient teachers produce students who

achieve higher academic scores in mathematics along with greater ability with higher-

order thinking and problem solving skills.

       Project OTL builds on the work of CTAP8 which operationalized the skills in the

state standard into required components of a technology-proficiency portfolio. CTAP8

realized, however, that in order to implement a portfolio-based assessment system, they

must have trained evaluators . Thus, a third level of proficiency was added to their system

to certify teachers who wanted to serve in leadership/mentor capacities. These Level III

teachers are trained, among other things, to certify other teachers to Levels I and II.

  Project OTL                                                                         Page 11

       The CTAP8 system has been adopted by all 212 K-12 schools in the Kern County

region to demonstrate teacher proficiency, a geographical area approximately the size of

the state of Massachusetts. Having a common certification system has allowed

professional development to be offered in a coherent and efficient manner. Schools and

the county office of education offer trainings in required skills, with the realizable end

product being certification. This has eliminated piecemeal trainings with random


       CSU Fresno, the University of San Francisco and CSU Bakersfield were selected

by the state of California to develop model teacher credentialing programs infusing the

new technology standard. Each institution has already implemented methods for

credential candidates to earn Level I technology proficiency before student teaching and

Level II before obtaining a professional clear credential and for the faculty at the

university level to better employ technology in their teaching. When CSUB adopted the

CTAP8 certification system for its faculty as well as its students, unprecedented

articulation between LEAs and the university was attained regarding technology training.

Since this time, all educators in the CTAP8 region have shared the same system of

demonstrating technology proficiency.

       Project OTL will build upon the success of the certification system by producing

findings about the effect of technology-proficiency certification on teaching practice and

student achievement. Effective teaching practice and student achievement will be

documented through classroom observation and other data collection procedures. Cohorts

of ten interns will be selected at each university. In project year one, evaluation

instruments and procedures will be developed and implemented that will garner useful

  Project OTL                                                                         Page 12

evidence of the relationship between teacher technology proficiency, teaching and

student achievement and the ISTE NETS for teachers. OTL also proposes to develop a

dissemination plan for both the project findings and the ISTE NETS model for a national

technology-proficiency certification system to provide for replication of the model in

diverse settings. In subsequent years, the cohorts will be studied using the instruments

and procedures developed in the needs assessment.


       The design of Project OTL will be informed by a number of studies that

investigated various aspects of effective and appropriate use of educational technology

upon teacher behavior and student achievement. While there are many confounding

variables in such studies, they do provide fruitful starting points for further empirical


       Project OTL has the unique advantage of beginning with a proven technology-

proficiency certification system that ensures that subject teachers have the skills

necessary to effectively integrate technology into instruction. By adapting this system to

national standards and systematically recording the effects of technology upon the

teaching and learning process over time, useful trends and methodologies can be

identified and correlated to standards-based curriculum . These findings may be adapted

to a variety of situations. Models for successful professional development programs

aimed at producing technology-proficient teachers capable of helping students achieve in

a standards-based context will be created and shared via publications and presentations.

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       Haertel and Means (2000) is a good starting point for developing a conceptual

base for the Project OTL initial needs assessment. This study constituted, “a synthesis of

ten papers commissioned by the U.S. Department of Education and written by research

methodology experts. The papers address the need for guidelines to steer a national

research agenda focused on technology use in education emphasizing the effects on

student learning and achievement. The authors report two common mistakes in

technology evaluations. These are using scores from standardized tests that measure

content unrelated to the intervention, and using measures of opinion, implementation, or

consumer satisfaction in place of measures of student learning outcomes (p. 2).”

       During the project year one, a systematic needs assessment will be conducted.

Instruments and procedures will be developed that avoid the mistakes identified by

Haertel and Means (2000). Technology standards-based observation instruments

developed at California State University, San Jose to collect data related to the California

technology standards will be adapted to the ISTE NETS for teachers . A TIMMS research

observation form developed in Nebraska (see Appendix 8b) will be examined and

adapted or revised to measuring observed teacher behaviors and student work samples

relative to mathematics instruction and problem-solving skills.

       Research shows that student achievement largely depends on opportunity to learn

(OTL) that is available to the student. Assessment of OTL is conducted in specific

classrooms. Thus, the existing Shavelson (1976) model is pertinent to the OTL

assessment. An improved version of this model contains two dimensions (Marsh, ): 1. on

the external dimension students may compare the OTL among their peers from

diversified family backgrounds so that effective measures can be identified to leave no

  Project OTL                                                                      Page 14

one behind; 2. on the internal dimension, the assessment is conducted in a subject area.

Students may compare OTL in reference to other subjects they concurrently study. This

internal assessment will help enhance equality of OTL enrichment among different

subjects. Instruments will be developed to measure internal and external perceptions of

students’ OTL.

       Cohorts of ten intern teachers will be identified at each university. To control the

research study for the independent variable, teacher knowledge of mathematics, the

project will focus upon California single subject credential interns in mathematics who

will have proven their proficiency in their subject matter area via the state’s rigorous

subject matter examination. Interns’ baseline proficiency with educational technology

will be collected via performance-based tests and training will be aligned to those needs

within the first 3 months of funding. As part of the credential program at the universities,

appropriate professional development will be conducted and evaluated.

       Interns will be certified to CTAP8 Level I by spring 2004 and initial data

gathering on technology-infused practice and student achievement will be collected and

analyzed from May to June. A rubric for scoring the level I portfolios will be piloted,

normed and employed to evaluate the first year portfolios from 30 interns. Student

attitude surveys, demographic information and performance data on state standardized

tests will be collected along with classroom samples of work relative to problem-solving

ability. Finally, participants, their administrators and the OTL leadership team will be

surveyed for feedback on the process and activities conducted in the first grant year.

       During project year two, we will replace any interns lost through attrition and will

conduct the same battery of evaluation measures for teachers and students outlined for

 Project OTL                                                                       Page 15

year one as needed. The Planning Committee will review the evaluation results and the

current project design to make appropriate changes to improve the quality of data

collection and resultant findings. The cohorts will be given support for attaining CTAP8

Level II proficiency. Data collection will continue, building a body of evidence that can

be compared between Levels I and II. In the spring, teachers demonstrating exemplary

technology-integrated practice will be video taped. The project web site will include a

section for posting streamed videos with supporting resources and select videos will be

posted on the Apple Learning Interchange.

       Project year three will conclude data collection activities and, in the spring,

evidence will be analyzed and findings described. The Planning Committee will write a

sustainability plan for maintaining ongoing features of the project. Dissemination efforts

will continue and the replicable model will be posted on the ISTE web site and on the

Apple Learning Interchange.

       Project OTL poses to study the following research questions and will analyze the

data collected for evidence of links between the teaching practice of technology-

proficient teachers and student achievement relative to standards-based curriculum and

assessments. Each question has a substantial body of evidence upon which new findings

can be constructed.

      How do technology proficient teachers influence student academic performance?

       (CEO Forum on Education and Technology, June 2001)

      How do technology proficient teachers help students develop higher order

       thinking and problem solving? (Clements, & Nastasi, 1999; Resnick, 1999).

  Project OTL                                                                          Page 16

          How do technology proficient teachers improve student motivation, attitude, and

           interest in learning? (Bracewell, Breuleux, Laferriere, Beniot, & Abdous, 1998).

          How do technology proficient teachers help prepare students for the workforce?

           (De Leon, J., & Borchers, R. (1998)


          How do technology proficient teachers address the needs of low performing, at-

           risk, and learning handicapped students? (Amberg, 2000; Kumar, Wilson, 2000).

           To support these research questions along with the implementation and

dissemination of Project OTL, the following goals, outcomes, and brief summaries of the

evaluation mechanisms have been determined (see section 6 for greater evaluation


GOAL 1: Conduct a thorough needs assessment to provide the project with the

resources it needs to accomplish its mission

        Objective 1.1: Identify technology resources from each partner.

            Activities: The Planning Committee in its first meeting will develop a resource

            form for use at each site and a calendar of partner site visits for the Project

            Director. Site Directors will use the forms to identify resources and needs

            regarding data collection.

            Outcomes: Resource Forms from partner sites will be analyzed by the Planning

            Committee at the second meeting. A comprehensive list of resources available

            to the project for data collection and processing needs will be posted to the

            project website.

 Project OTL                                                                   Page 17

        Formative Evaluation: The Resource Forms and Planning Committee

        Comprehensive List of Resources and Needs will be reviewed by the Evaluator

        and included in reports.

     Objective 1.2: In project year one, the Planning Committee will develop and/or

     identify instruments and procedures to measure effective instructional practice

     and student achievement.

        Activities: The Project Director will report on potential instruments and

        procedures from research evidence to the Planning Committee, which will make

        further suggestions and develop a list of instruments and procedures to be used

        in the project.

        Outcomes: An effective set of evaluation instruments and procedures will be

        available to provide the evidence needed to meet project goals. (Dirr, 2003)

        Formative Evaluation: The Planning Committee will include a report on the

        rationale for each instrument and procedure, including the intended skills or

        knowledge with reference to appropriate standards and standardized tests. In the

        final report, the Evaluator will include a summary analysis on the effectiveness

        of each instrument and procedure in documenting student achievement in a

        standards-based context.

GOAL 2. Identify linkages between technology-proficient teachers and their

students’ achievement.

     Objective 2.1: Orient ten teachers certified to CTAP8 Levels I & II at intern

     program schools.

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      Activities: Human subjects research protocols will be completed; trainings will

      be provided, portfolios assembled and certified; orientation sessions will be


      Outcomes: A cohort of interns from each site will be prepared to participate in

      the study.

      Formative Evaluation: Keep evidence of protocols, training dates, evaluations

      and attendance, orientation dates, evaluations and attendance.

   Objective 2.2: Analyze evidence of standards-based, technology-proficient,

   effective teacher instructional practice.

      Activities: At scheduled times, interns and site directors will meet and plan how

      and when to gather such evidence as lesson plans, reflections on teaching-

      learning activities, journals, specific data on student achievement, how student

      data is analyzed and applied to find appropriate practices that meet the learning

      needs of all students, how technology tools are used to collect and analyze data

      on student achievement. Evidence will be collected in response to the project

      research questions listed above.

      Outcomes: Evidence of effective practice is analyzed according to the

      knowledge and skills described in SCANS and by Ringstaff and Kelley report.

      Formative Evaluation: Specified test scores will be collected and analyzed

      from the classes of interns, evidence of instructional practices will be described.

      A within study approach will provide comparison data by having project interns

      conduct lessons in some classes without using technology.

 Project OTL                                                                        Page 19

     Objective 2.3: Analyze evidence of student achievement to clarify relationships

     among variables and student achievement.

         Activities: Site directors will meet with interns at the beginning of each

         semester to make a plan for the types of evidence to be collected (such as

         written work samples, projects developed by collaborative and individual effort,

         teacher journal observations). Human subjects permission will be obtained from

         parents of students for survey administrations. District permission to release

         anonymous student test scores aggregated by participating teachers will be

         obtained. Interns are invited to contact the site director for clarification during

         the semester. At the end of each semester, the teachers and site directors meet

         again to reflect on student achievement in terms of knowledge acquired and

         skill developed. Site directors will attend quarterly planning meetings to share

         evidence and make project course corrections.

         Outcomes: Meetings between interns and site directors will provide valuable

         evidence that can be used by the project planning committee to establish clear

         lines of evidence and discuss ways to triangulate findings on student


         Formative Evaluation: Planning Committee minutes will form a record of how

         formative evidence is used to guide the project and clarify the relationships

         among project variables and student achievement.

Goal 3. Develop a scaleable, replicable national model of technology-proficiency


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   Objective 3.1: The CTAP8 technology-proficiency certification system will be

   replicated at USF and CSUF sites to have project teachers attain Level I in the

   first project year, and Level II in the second project year.

      Activities: Site directors will assist project interns in compiling portfolios in

      ways appropriate to the setting. Completed portfolios will then be examined by

      Level III mentors to determine whether they demonstrate proficiency. All

      interns will attain proficiency certification.

      Outcomes: A cohort of technology-proficient project teachers is identified at

      each site. Site directors keep journal of challenges and successes observed in the

      replication process.

      Formative Evaluation: Project Director verifies the certification of teachers.

      Site Directors report to the Planning Committee at each meeting on the progress

      of replication. Project Director and Evaluator collect evidence for project


   Objective 3.2: Refine the certification system so it can be adopted by a wide range

   of educational institutions.

      Activities: Site Directors will collect evidence of instructional practice and

      student achievement from project interns and their classes. Planning Committee

      members will analyze evidence of teacher technology-integrated instruction and

      of student achievement in order to make informed changes to the certification

      process so that it clearly addresses the ISTE NETS for teachers. Evaluator will

      collect evidence for project reports.

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         Outcomes: Assemble a body of evidence measuring effective technology-

         integrated instructional practice and student achievement. This evidence forms

         the basis for considering changes in the system of certification so that it can be

         replicated in diverse settings.

         Formative Evaluation: Evaluator will report on how evidence was used in

         making decisions about changing the system and on efforts by other institutions

         to replicate the system.

GOAL 4. Disseminate project findings.

   Objective 4.1: to facilitate the application of project findings to other settings

         Activities: Apple Computer will work with the project to disseminate its

         certification system model and videos of exemplary practice by posting them on

         the ALI. The International Society for Technology in Education will

         disseminate project products on its web site and publications. Professional

         meeting presentations, professional publications, web site with project resources

         and linked to other portals, directories and search engines.

         Outcomes: Project models, resources and findings are easily accessible by

         interested parties.

         Formative Evaluation: Planning Committee will review dissemination efforts

         at each meeting with suggestions on improving the process.

   Project OTL acknowledges the confounding factors surrounding this study and will

take special care to clarify the relationships among technological instructional practices

and student achievement. Analysis of the complex nature of “best practice” will be

ongoing and involve diverse voices.

 Project OTL                                                                      Page 22

   Project OTL addresses GPRA indicators in the following ways.

   Indicator 1.1 calls for an increase in the number of teacher preparation programs that

redesign their curriculum to incorporate best teaching practices in the use of technology

in teacher education. By providing a technology-proficiency certification system that

programs can adapt, a proven and efficient means of ensuring technology-proficient

teachers can disseminate widely.

   Indicator 1.2 calls for an increase in the number of technology-proficient teacher

educators. The experience at CSUB provides a successful model for getting university

faculty to become technology-proficient using a certification system. Adapting the

CTAP8 system to the ISTE NETS will make the certification process applicable in a

larger context.

   Indicator 2.1 calls for increasing the percentage of new teachers proficient in using

and integrating technology into instructional practice. Again, the case of CSUB, which

certifies 100% of its candidates to Levels I and II, can be a model for any other program.

As Project OTL findings are disseminated, records will be kept on how other programs

adapt its resources. These programs will be contacted annually to report on responses to

the GPRA indicators and such findings will be included in OTL’s annual reports.


       CSUB, CSUF and USF are all original members of the 1999-2003 California

Commission on Teacher Credentialing (CCTC) program to create statewide models for

integrating the new California technology standards across teacher education programs

and accreditation plans. As a result each institution’s faculty has been well-trained and

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prepared for this project over the past three and a half years; our infrastructures are in

place, we have more than adequate computing power and support along with completely

revamped programs of instruction to include the tech standards across curricula . In

addition, each of these universities has a bank of Apple iBook computers and wireless

technologies to which the participating K-12 teachers will have access for use in their

own classrooms should the participating school districts be unable to provide adequate

access to these technologies.

       Each of the consortium partners will contribute to OTL in complementary ways

that maximize the project’s resources and capabilities. CSUB’s School of Education is

the lead organization and will provide oversight to the entire project. As the lead

education agency in the grant, resources at CSU Bakersfield are highlighted as an

exemplar of similar structures that are in place at each of the other two partner

universities. CSUB has a well developed technology infrastructure, including broadband

internet access, ITV facilities, seven computer labs, a large and growing number of smart

classrooms, a state of the art library, and comprehensive technology support for faculty

and students.

       CSUB Media Services provides support for project activities by making

equipment available and offering technical assistance.

       CSUB funds the Teaching-Learning Center (TLC) to provide faculty with

technology and training for improving pedagogy in college classrooms. It will support the

project by making its services available to project participants and serving as a means of

dissemination by hosting project-based presentations. The School of Education is in the

  Project OTL                                                                     Page 24

process of improving its technology infrastructure by adding five smart classrooms each

year and providing computers and access to other technology to project participants.

       CSUB's Math, Science, Technology (MST) Conference provides a powerful

connection with teachers from the region. Project OTL will be an active partner in

planning and executing the conference, which draws 300-500 teachers a year.

       Kern County Superintendent of Schools (KCSOS) Beginning Teacher

Consortium, is a state funded project to support beginning teachers. Regional school

districts are represented and small districts are represented by KCSOS. The Beginning

Teacher Consortium will assist in the selection of the schools and interns involved in the


       Region 8 CTAP serves CSUB and four surrounding county education offices. It

will provide partners with materials, guidelines and training needed to certify

participating teacher interns to proficiency-levels I and II. CTAP8 will provide access to

computer labs, software review center at the Learning Center.

       Region 4 CTAP serving San Francisco and Region 7 serving Fresno will be asked

to provide similar support for USF and CSUF.

       Apple Computer will participate in developing procedures to make video

resources more universally accessible and disseminate project products, including the

technology-proficiency certification model on the Apple Learning Interchange

( or ALI.

       California Department of Education (CDE) oversees the CTAP projects, as well

as the implementation and development of the student curriculum content standards. A

member of the CDE will provide consultation on the implementation of Project OTL.

 Project OTL                                                                     Page 25

       Computer Using Educators (CUE) will provide guidance to OTL by discussing

the project’s progress at Association of State Technology Using Teacher Educators

(ASTUTE) meetings. CUE will also facilitate dissemination by including project

information in CUE conference presentations and publications.


       The project will have a number of safeguards to ensure that the objectives are

achieved on time and within budget. The Evaluation Procedures are designed to gather

data on the process and products described in the project design. The following roles and

responsibilities are designed to accomplish specified tasks.

       The Project OTL Planning Committee (representatives from the three universities,

California Department of Education (CDE), Association of State Technology Using

Teacher Educators (ASTUTE-CUE), KCSOS Beginning Teacher Consortium, CTAP8,

the International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE), and the external evaluator)

will meet monthly during project year one and quarterly during project years two and

three to implement the project design and provide oversight on the conduct of the project.

Other partners are welcome to attend these meetings and minutes will be distributed to

them. The project director will make site visits, video conferences and conference calls

with corporate, community college and professional organization partners as needed.

   The Project Director (83%) has the responsibility of providing organizational

development of each site study and will

          Schedule and chair meetings of the Planning Committee.

Project OTL                                                                     Page 26

       Conduct annual concern-based interviews with select project participants to

        provide formative and summative data for use in program revision and


       Conduct an Orientation Meeting at each site location.

       Assist in analyzing findings and preparing evaluation reports.

       Serve as site director for CSUB.

       Conduct a needs assessment at CSUB in project year one and oversee the

        process of developing instruments and procedures for the project from the

        results of the needs assessments at all three project sites.

       Confer semi-annually with the financial officer to ensure the appropriate

        expenditure of funds based on review of budget parameters.

                 Actively disseminate project findings and encourage other institutions

                  to adapt the technology-proficiency certification system by making

                  presentations at professional meetings such as the American

                  Educational Research Association (AERA), Computer Using

                  Educators, (CUE), ED Media, National Educational Computing

                  Conference (NECC), Society for Information Technology in Education

                  (SITE), Association of Teacher Educators (ATE) and the American

                  Association of Colleges of Teacher Education (AACTE).

       Review dissemination reports by participants on professional conference

        presentations and publications resulting from Project OTL activities, and

        discuss lessons learned at Planning Committee meetings.

Project OTL                                                                      Page 27

       Oversee the management of the OTL web site, containing resources of use to

        participants and those interested project findings and in adopting the

        technology-proficiency certification system.

       Maintain a list programs adapting OTL resources and contacts them annually

        to obtain GPRA indicator data.

       Archive OTL activities and participation, prepare and disseminate reports to

        the funding agency in collaboration with the evaluator.

 The University Site Director will

       Participate in Planning Committee meetings.

       Support the evaluator with needs assessments and evaluation measures each

        year as needed.

       Oversee interns and training at their sites.

       Collaborate with participating intern programs and schools.

       Ensure intern portfolios and data are collected according to the project


       Oversee local spending of OTL funds and report to LEA

       Contribute to reports prepared for funding agency

 Intern Program Directors will

       Assist site directors in selecting interns and participating schools

       Advise the Site Directors on maintaining good working relationships with

        participating schools

 Project Interns will

Project OTL                                                                    Page 28

       Be selected and oriented in project year one, attain Level I proficiency; attain

        Level II proficiency in Project Year Two and continue to participate in Project

        Year Three.

       Participate in data collection activities including observation, maintaining a

        structured journal, being interviewed and video taped, taking surveys,

        participating in focus groups, and conducting within-study control activities.

       Support the evaluator with collection of student data

 The External Evaluator will

       Work with the project statistician and Planning Committee to develop and

        implement formative and summative assessment instruments and procedures.

       Analyze formative evaluation evidence and make recommendations about

        clarifying relationships among project variables in order to make process

        changes and better identify links between technology-integrated instructional

        strategies and student achievement.

       Attend planning committee meetings.

       Assist in analyzing findings and preparing evaluation reports.

       Disseminate findings.

 The Statistician will

       Work with the external evaluator and Planning Committee to develop and

        implement formative and summative assessment instruments and procedures.

       Assist in analyzing findings and preparing evaluation reports.

       Disseminate findings.

 CTAP8 Directors will

  Project OTL                                                                       Page 29

            Review OTL site certification process.

            Consult in adapting CTAP8 system to replicable model.

            Provide cost-share resources such as facilities and technical support to the


    Dean of CSUB School of Education (10%) will

            Provide liaison with university faculty and administration.

            Consult with project participants where necessary.

            Provide cost-share support resources such as facilities, equipment, technical


    Project Administrative Assistant (100%) will provide clerical and logistical support.

    CSUB Technical Assistant (hourly) will provide technical support for web site and

video production at CSUB.

                             Project Timeline (Milestones in bold)

         Project Year One                  Project Year Two                  Project Year Three

Monthly Planning Meetings          Quarterly Planning Meetings       Quarterly Planning Meetings

Needs Assessment                   Revisit needs – make              Revisit needs – make

Conducted                          appropriate adjustments           appropriate adjustments

Evaluation Instruments             Analyze results and refine        Compare year 1 to year 2

Identified                         data collection procedures and results – refine data collection

                                   instruments                       procedures and instruments

Site Orientations in fall          Site Orientations in fall         Site Orientations in fall

Select Project Interns             Replace needed interns            Replace needed interns

OTL web site constructed           OTL web site developed            OTL web site developed

 Project OTL                                                                     Page 30

                                 OTL products posted on           OTL Model posted to ISTE

                                 ALI                              and ALI

Project Director Meetings        Project Director Meetings        Project Director Meetings

with Financial Officer           with Financial Officer           with Financial Officer

Annual Project Formative         Annual Project Formative         Sustainability Plan Begun

Evaluation Report                Evaluation Report

List and survey programs         List and survey programs         List and survey programs

adapting OTL                     adapting OTL                     adapting OTL

                                                                  Project Summative

                                                                  Evaluation Report


       The primary research goal of Project Opportunity to Learn is to determine the

effect of well-trained technology using teachers upon student achievement in the context

of rigorous professional and academic standards for teacher candidates and K-12

curriculum standards for students. To this end, Project Opportunity to Learn builds upon:

      prior research

      a close correlation of state and national standards for teacher technology use,

      longitudinal professional development in the effective use of technology for the

       IHE faculty involved,

      more than adequate resources and

  Project OTL                                                                        Page 31

      well-articulated and field tested teacher credential programs accredited by the

       State of California, WASC and NCATE that infuse the use of technology for

       teaching and learning across the curriculum for pre-service teachers.

       Each of these building blocks of the Project OTL foundation addresses a critical

element necessary to successfully augment support for new teachers through technology.

(Redmond, 2001) Accreditation teams from the State have found traditional barriers to

technology use such as access to appropriate and up-to-date-technology tools, software,

connectivity to the Internet and timely technical support, maintenance and repair have

been addressed at each OTL IHE.

       These foundational resources address what Ertmer (1999) described as first-order,

extrinsic, barriers to technology use; obstacles that reside outside the users themselves.

Because these types of barriers are tangible, they are easier to identify, quantify, and

eliminate. Second order or intrinsic barriers are rooted in the local culture and the persons

involved with implementing the technology. They have to do with the underlying beliefs,

both practical and philosophical, of the program and people involved. Because they are

less tangible, they are also harder to measure.

       The structure and activities of Project OTL are designed to provide data to

address these second-order issues in technology in education. Our primary research

question is: What is the effect of well-trained technology using teachers upon student

achievement? Through careful data collection and analysis we hope to discover insights

to the following sub-questions directly related to students’ opportunity to learn:

      How do technology proficient teachers influence student academic performance

       and opportunity to learn?

  Project OTL                                                                                  Page 32

        How do technology proficient teachers help students develop higher order

         thinking and problem solving?

        How do technology proficient teachers improve student motivation, attitude, and

         interest in learning?

        How do technology proficient teachers help prepare students for the workforce?

        How do technology proficient teachers address the needs of low performing, at-

         risk, and learning handicapped students?

            To determine the impact of technology-using teaching on student achievement

over time necessarily requires consideration of the underlying independent variables in

our research:

Independent Variable             OTL Control Measures                 Evaluation Activities
teacher knowledge of subject     Passing state subject mater exams    Document Passing scores

K-12 teacher knowledge of        Portfolio evaluation relative to     Adapt CTAP8 portfolio process to

effective use of technology in   technology standards                 the ISTE NETS standards

education                                                             Create evaluation scoring rubric

                                                                      for portfolio

                                                                      Develop or adapt classroom

                                                                      observation scales/rubric

Access to technology resources   IHE resources in place               Assess resource needs at K-12

                                 Mobile wireless labs available for   schools and provide necessary

                                 K-12 candidates                      support & materials

Student subject matter           State administered standardized      Develop or adapt a survey of

knowledge and problem            test scores                          student attitude toward learning

solving skills                                                        and OTL.

                                                                      Develop or adapt a survey of

                                                                      problem-solving skills

  Project OTL                                                                             Page 33

Independent Variable         OTL Control Measures                  Evaluation Activities
                                                                   Develop or adapt classroom

                                                                   observation scales/rubric

IHE Program and Faculty      IHE faculty training in technology    Collect Data from Program

knowledge of effective       use completed                         oversight agencies

technology use               IHE programs certified by state to

                             meet state standards for curriculum


        We must also consider the generalizability of our work. To this end, we will put

measures in place to ensure that our procedures and materials are normed to national

standards. For example, we will take the CTAP8 certification process and align it with

the ISTE NETS standards.

        The following chart documents the data collection methods and responsibilities in

the grant relative to our research questions and sustainability safeguards.

Goals & Objectives                Data Collection    Schedule         Measures/Instruments                                   Analysis
GOAL 1: Conduct a thorough needs assessment to provide the project with the resources it needs to accomplish its mission
Objective 1.1: Identify           Site: IHE          By October 17,   Quantitative: Resource form for data collection        List of resources available to the

technology resources from each    Director           2003             developed by evaluator and implemented (equipment,     project for data collection and

partner.                          LEA: Planning                       software, infrastructure and human resources.)         processing posted to website

                                  Committee                           Qualitative: Interviews and site visits by evaluator

Objective 1.2: In project year    Evaluator          By December 5,   Quantitative:                                          With the support of the statistician,

one, the Planning Committee       Project Director   2003             -The New Teacher Center at UCSC Formative              the evaluator will include a

will develop and/or identify      Statistician                        Assessment scale will be used to evaluate each         summary analysis on the

instruments and procedures to     Planning                            candidate’s professional development.                  effectiveness of each instrument

measure effective instructional   committee                           -State administered standardized test scores           and procedure in documenting

practice and student                                                  Qualitative: The TIMMS Observation report from         student achievement in a

achievement.                                                          Nebraska and the CSU San Jose technology               standards-based context and the

                                                                      observation tools will be combined and correlated.     results of the data analysis.

                                                                      Revised forms will be used to document student and

                                                                      teacher performances.

                                                                      Video taping of classroom practice.
                                Project OTL                                                                                   Page 35

Goals & Objectives                  Data Collection      Schedule            Measures/Instruments                                         Analysis
GOAL 2. Identify linkages between technology-proficient teachers and their students’ achievement.
Objective 2.1: Orient ten           IHE site directors   Level I in first    Quantitative: Scoring rubrics will be created, normed        Trends will be noted between

teachers certified to CTAP8         and CTAP8            year; Level II in   and field tested for judging the content of the portfolios   portfolio presentations and

Levels I & II at intern program     Level III mentor     second year         Qualitative: Portfolios will be scored on presentation.      teaching pedagogy.

schools                                                                      Evidence of protocols, training dates, evaluations of

                                                                             training and attendance collected

Objective 2.2: Analyze evidence     IHE site             June, 2003,         Human Subjects Protocols established, documents              Data will be compared to the

of standards-based, technology-     directors,           2004, 2005          signed.                                                      SCANS, NAEP and TIMMS

proficient, effective teacher       evaluator,                               Quantitative: Nvivo software will be used to code            reports. Within subject pool

instructional practice.             statistician                             qualitative data for analysis                                approach will provide comparison

                                                                             Qualitative: Lesson plans, reflections on                    data between technology infused

                                                                             teaching/learning, journals, videos and observations         lessons and standard instruction.

                                                                             will be collected

                               Project OTL                                                                                  Page 36

Goals & Objectives                 Data Collection      Schedule            Measures/Instruments                                      Analysis
Objective 2.3: Analyze evidence    IHE site             June, 2003,         Qualitative: Student work samples, survey results,        Planning Committee minutes will

of student achievement to          directors,           2004, 2005          classroom observations and interviews.                    form a record of how formative

clarify relationships among        evaluator,                               Quantitative: A student problem-solving scale will be     evidence is used to guide the

variables and student              statistician                             created from research. Pre and post scales will be        project and clarify the relationships

achievement.                                                                administered each year. Qualitative data will be coded    among project variables and

                                                                            and quantified for analysis.                              student achievement.

Goal 3. Develop a scaleable, replicable national model of technology-proficiency certification
Objective 3.1: The CTAP8           IHE site             project teachers    CTAP8 certification guidelines for portfolios will be

technology-proficiency             directors, CTAP8     attain Level I in   aligned to the ISTE NETS standards. Where possible,

certification system will be       directors,           the first project   performances will be quantified. Technology Mentors

replicated at USF and CSUF         evaluator, project   year, and Level     will be normed on evaluation measures for acceptable

sites                              interns              II in the second    and outstanding performance.

                                                        project year        IHE technology classes will be given the new portfolio

                                                                            guidelines. Faculty development will occur to support

                                                                            portfolio construction and evaluation

                                                                            Portfolios will be scored: See Objective 2.1

                               Project OTL                                                                               Page 37

Goals & Objectives                  Data Collection   Schedule         Measures/Instruments                                        Analysis
Objective 3.2: Refine the           IHE site          June, 2004 and   Qualitative: Sample portfolios will be collected and

certification system so it can be   directors,        2005             anonymously duplicated. Scoring rubrics and sample

adopted by a wide range of          evaluator,                         portfolios will be distributed through ISTE across the

educational institutions.           statistician                       US to scoring and feedback.

                                                                       Quantitative: Scores will be collected, correlated and

                                                                       analyzed for variance /deviation. Rubric will be

                                                                       refined accordingly.

GOAL 4. Disseminate project findings.
Objective 4.1: to facilitate the    IHE site          Throughout the   Project Director will collect copies of all project-

application of project findings     directors,        project and as   related materials given at presentations and

to other settings                   evaluator,        part of          publications. An agenda item will allow discussion at

                                    statistician      sustainability   each planning committee meeting. OTL findings and

                                                      plan             certification model will be posted to the OTL, ISTE

                                                                       and ALI web sites.

Evaluation of the project will be an ongoing formative process that will inform our

Planning Committee’s decisions. The illustration below represents recursive cycle of the

evaluator and statistician’s collaborative work with the director and planning committee


     Data Driven Decision-Making Cycle for Needs Assessment and Evaluation

       In conclusion, Project OTL is well positioned to discover and disseminate

significant new knowledge and procedures that will enhance the technology proficiency

of future teachers and increase student opportunity to learn.
Project OTL   Page 39


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