Chapter 8 Installing Linux by ozb45831

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									          Chapter 8:
       Installing Linux

The Complete Guide To Linux System
          Administration
                        Objectives

• Learn about the hardware components of your
  computer system
• Configure hard disk space to hold a new Linux
  installation
• Install Linux
• Automate installation of multiple systems




The Complete Guide to Linux System Administration   2
      Reviewing Your Computer’s
              Hardware
• Install operating system yourself
• Plan your installation to:
    – Make effective use of hardware
    – Prevent problems from occurring during
      installation
• Before installing
    – Gather information about computer
    – Determine best way to organize Linux on
      computer

The Complete Guide to Linux System Administration   3
         Understanding Computer
                Hardware
• Linux treats computer hardware as collection of
  devices
• Must be configured to use all devices on
  computer system
• Before installing Linux, gather information about
  computer system




The Complete Guide to Linux System Administration     4
          Understanding Computer
           Hardware (continued)
• Common terms that describe computer hardware
    –   Bit/Byte
    –   Megabyte (MB)/Gigabyte (GB)
    –   Random Access Memory (RAM)
    –   Read-Only Memory (ROM)
    –   Basic Input/Output System (BIOS)
    –   CMOS RAM




The Complete Guide to Linux System Administration   5
         Understanding Computer
          Hardware (continued)




The Complete Guide to Linux System Administration   6
          Understanding Computer
           Hardware (continued)
• Common terms that describe computer hardware
    –   Interrupt request (IRQ)
    –   Direct memory access (DMA) channel
    –   Port-mapped input/output (port-mapped I/O)
    –   I/O port
    –   Hexadecimal numbering
    –   IDE
    –   IDE controller
    –   SCSI
    –   USB
The Complete Guide to Linux System Administration    7
         Understanding Computer
          Hardware (continued)




The Complete Guide to Linux System Administration   8
        Supported Linux Hardware

• Linux works with thousands of different hardware
  devices
• Not all devices work with Linux
    – Newer hardware devices less likely to be
      supported
• Check on Web site of Linux vendor to see if
  hardware is supported



The Complete Guide to Linux System Administration   9
        Supported Linux Hardware
               (continued)
• http//hardware.RedHat.com
    – Comprehensive site for exploring Linux hardware
      compatibility
    – Applies to all Linux distributions




The Complete Guide to Linux System Administration   10
        Understanding Networking

• Networking protocols
    – Used by computer systems to communicate
• Protocol
    – Organized pattern of signals or words
• IP networking
    – Each computer must have unique IP address
    – All IP addresses on single network related



The Complete Guide to Linux System Administration   11
        Understanding Networking
               (continued)
• Special IP addresses associated with setting up
  Linux networking
    –   Network mask
    –   Network address that identifies local network
    –   Broadcast address
    –   Gateway address
• Domain name
    – Assigned to organization
    – Used to identify collection of computers

The Complete Guide to Linux System Administration       12
Understanding Networking (continued)




The Complete Guide to Linux System Administration   13
        Understanding Networking
               (continued)
• Top-level domain name
    – Last word of domain name
• Domain name system (DNS)
    – Network service
    – Maps domain names and host names to IP
      addresses




The Complete Guide to Linux System Administration   14
        Creating a Shared System

• Dual-boot system
    – System with more than one operating system
• Live CD version of Linux
    – Boots from CD-ROM
    – Uses system memory (RAM) as storage
    – Never writes information to hard disk
• Boot manager
    – Select operating system each time computer
      booted

The Complete Guide to Linux System Administration   15
        Creating a Shared System
               (continued)
• Basic options
    – Store each operating system on separate hard
      disk
    – Store multiple operating systems on single hard
      disk




The Complete Guide to Linux System Administration       16
                Graphical Systems

• Current installation programs
    – Automatically detect what video card is installed
    – Configure it without any input from user
• Good idea to understand some video card
  concepts for those times when installation
  doesn’t go as smoothly as planned
• Very few standards exist



The Complete Guide to Linux System Administration         17
      Creating a System Inventory

• Sources of information
    – Manuals
    – BIOS settings
    – Microsoft windows operating system
        • Take advantage of device information Windows has
          discovered
• Find networking information
    – IP address gateway other information


The Complete Guide to Linux System Administration       18
           Configuring Disk Space

• Must install Linux in dedicated partition on hard
  disk
• Each hard disk can have only four partitions
    – Called primary partitions
    – Numbered 1 through 4
• Logical partitions
    – Exist within physical partition
    – Numbered beginning with 5


The Complete Guide to Linux System Administration     19
           Configuring Disk Space
                 (continued)
• Logical partitions
    – Some Linux distributions use logical partitions by
      default
• Active partition
    – Bootable partition
    – BIOS passes control to operating system stored
      on partition




The Complete Guide to Linux System Administration          20
               Booting the System

• Master boot record (MBR)
    – Contains small program that decides how to start
      operating system
• Boot record
    – Small area that contains boot manager program to
      start operating system on partition
• Linux boot manager can be stored on either
    – MBR
    – Boot record of active partition

The Complete Guide to Linux System Administration    21
              Hard Disk Geometry

• Hard disk composed of multiple flat platters that
  hold magnetic data
• Track
    – Concentric circle on platter
• Sector
    – Unit of data storage on hard disk
    – Contains 512 bytes
• Block
    – 1024 bytes or two sectors
The Complete Guide to Linux System Administration     22
  Hard Disk Geometry (continued)




The Complete Guide to Linux System Administration   23
                   Swap Partitions

• Should create separate partition used as swap
  partition
    – For more efficient operation
    – Normally from 64 MB to 1 GB in size
        • Should be twice the size of RAM




The Complete Guide to Linux System Administration   24
     Preparing a Shared Hard Disk

• Disk partitioning utility
    – Needed to create dual-boot system
    – Products
        •   FIPS
        •   Parted partition editor
        •   PartitionMagic
        •   QtParted
• Defragmenting
    – Necessary before installing Linux

The Complete Guide to Linux System Administration   25
                   Installing Linux

• Install Red Hat Software’s Fedora Linux
    – Procedure applicable to virtually all versions of
      Linux




The Complete Guide to Linux System Administration         26
               Linux Distributions

• Linux distributions very similar to each other
  technically
• Fedora Linux
    – Based on Red Hat Linux
    – Stable long-term participant in Linux market




The Complete Guide to Linux System Administration    27
 An Overview of Linux Installation

• Operating system initializes itself sufficiently to
  install itself on computer
• General procedure
    – User starts installation program
    – Installation program runs copy of Linux within the
      computer’s RAM
    – Installation program determines where files for
      installation are located



The Complete Guide to Linux System Administration       28
 An Overview of Linux Installation
           (continued)
• General procedure
    – Installation program determines where Linux
      operating system should be installed
    – User answers questions
    – Program copies Linux software packages from
      installation source to target partition
    – Installation program configures system
    – User starts newly installed Linux operating system



The Complete Guide to Linux System Administration     29
       Installation Source Options

• CD-ROM
• Hard disk
• Network installation




The Complete Guide to Linux System Administration   30
           Options for Starting the
                 Installation
• Pass control directly to Linux installation program
  located on:
    – Floppy disk
    – CD-ROM
• Boot disk
    – Removable disk that can start up computer and
      initialize installation program
• Bootable CD-ROM drive
    – Drive that can start operating system

The Complete Guide to Linux System Administration     31
           Options for Starting the
           Installation (continued)
• Disk image
    –   Single file
    –   Contains exact copy of floppy disk
    –   Create boot disk if CD boot does not work
    –   Usually for older computers




The Complete Guide to Linux System Administration   32
          The Installation Process

• Initial questions
    – How you will interact with installation program
• Preparing hard disk partitions
    – Edit partition table
• Deciding on mount points
    – Subdirectory through which set of data is
      accessed
    – Must specify mount point for new Linux file system
    – Create regular user account for non system
      administration work

The Complete Guide to Linux System Administration       33
          The Installation Process
                (continued)
• Choosing what to install
    – Decide which of many components to install
    – Installation type determines which Linux software
      is installed
    – Software package―single file that contains all
      files needed to install and use application
    – RPM―most popular data storage format for
      creating software packages
    – Packages grouped into functional categories
    – Fedora Linux provides three installation types plus
      custom installation option
The Complete Guide to Linux System Administration      34
          The Installation Process
                (continued)
• User accounts
    – Specify password for root account
    – Create regular user account for non system
      administration work
• Configuring boot manager
    – Possible locations
        • Master boot record
        • Boot sector of partition on which Linux is being
          installed
        • Floppy disk
The Complete Guide to Linux System Administration            35
          The Installation Process
                (continued)




The Complete Guide to Linux System Administration   36
             Kickstart Installations

• Kickstart
    – Method of automating installation selections
    – Used to reinstall system or install multiple identical
      systems
    – Relies on configuration file
        • Contains all settings to complete installation




The Complete Guide to Linux System Administration          37
           Reviewing the Kickstart
             Configuration File
• File /root/anaconda-ks.cfg
    – Created during installation
    – Open with editor




The Complete Guide to Linux System Administration   38
Using the Graphical Configuration
              Tool
• Create file
    – From scratch in text editor
    – Using graphical Kickstart configurator tool
• Helpful to be logged in as root
• Kickstart configurator
    – Tool to create Kickstart configuration file
    – Do not need to define every option in Kickstart
      configuration


The Complete Guide to Linux System Administration       39
Using the Graphical Configuration
        Tool (continued)




The Complete Guide to Linux System Administration   40
                         Summary

• Devices communicate with CPU using:
    – Interrupts
    – Direct memory access
    – Port-mapped I/O
• Linux supports thousands of hardware
  components (devices)
• Protocols define how devices and parts of
  operating system communicate with each other


The Complete Guide to Linux System Administration   41
             Summary (continued)

• Compile detailed system inventory
• Dual-boot system
    – Use Linux on same computer as another
      operating system
• Linux installations are started by:
    –   Boot disk
    –   Bootable CD-ROM
    –   Bootable DVD
    –   Bootable USB device

The Complete Guide to Linux System Administration   42
             Summary (continued)

• Attractive graphical installation programs
  standard in commercial versions of Linux
• Various components of Linux sometimes
  arranged on different hard disk partitions
• Kickstart method uses configuration file to hold
  all installation selections




The Complete Guide to Linux System Administration    43

								
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