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Simulation Techniques to Bridge the Gap Between Novice and Competent Healthcare Professionals

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									American Nurses Association - Simulation Techniques to Bridge the Gap Between Novic... Page 1 of 10




            Simulation Techniques to Bridge the Gap Between Novice and
            Competent Healthcare Professionals
                                       Susan Galloway, Commander, NC, USN, MSN, RN


            Abstract

                   Simulation techniques are being used today in a variety of programs designed to
                   enhance the skills of healthcare providers. The aim of this article is to describe
                   simulation techniques currently being used in healthcare education and identify future
                   directions for the use of simulation in healthcare. The author will describe various types
                   of simulators and simulated experiences, including role playing, standardized patients,
                   partial task trainers, complex task trainers, integrated simulators, and full mission
                   simulation. Next, the use of simulation in undergraduate nursing programs, continuing
                   education programs, interdisciplinary team training, and competency assessment will be
                   presented. Resources for simulation faculty and costs associated with simulation will be
                   discussed. The author will conclude by noting that next steps in using simulation to
                   strengthen the provision of healthcare include providing healthcare educators with the
                   motivation and competencies needed to create and use meaningful simulation learning
                   experiences and initiating more research regarding the benefits of simulation in
                   healthcare education.

            Citation: Galloway, S. J., (May 31, 2009) "Simulation Techniques to Bridge the Gap Between Novice
            and Competent Healthcare Professionals" OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing,Vol. 14, No. 2,
            Manuscript 3. Available:
            www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/TableofContents//Vol1
            -Techniques.aspx

            Key words: competency, continuing education, human patient simulator, health professions
            education, interdisciplinary education, simulation

            Modern simulation was developed to meet the training and risk-management needs of complex and
            high-risk industries and organizations such as aviation, nuclear power production, and the military.
            Despite their associated hazards, these industries have experienced remarkably low failure rates
            (Gaba, 2004). Recognizing simulation’s applicability to healthcare, health professions education (HPE)
            has, in piecemeal fashion, adopted elements of simulation for procedural skill enhancement over the
            last several decades.

            For clarity and consistency, a few terms related to simulation require definition. Gaba (2004) has
            defined simulation as a “ ...technique, not a technology, to replace or amplify real experiences with
            guided experiences, often immersive in nature, that evoke or replicate substantial aspects of the real
            world in a fully interactive fashion” (p. i2). He further describes a simulator as a “device” that mimics
            a real patient or a part of the human body, and that is capable of interaction with the learner. Cooper
            and Taqueti (2004), too, have noted that any device that replicates a part of a system or process may
            appropriately be defined as a simulator.

                                                    The use of simulation in educating health professionals
                                                    enables learners to practice necessary skills in an environment
                                                    that allows for errors and professional growth without risking




http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJ... 7/10/2009
American Nurses Association - Simulation Techniques to Bridge the Gap Between Novic... Page 2 of 10



                                                       patient safety. The appropriate use of simulation in a
                                                       professional education program allows students to hone their
                                                       clinical skills without danger of harming the patient during the
                   The use of simulation in
                                                       learning process (Ziv, Wolpe, Small, & Glick, 2003). Although
                   educating health
                                                       proponents of simulation assert that the use of simulation in
           
								
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