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American Nurses Association - Simulation Techniques to Bridge the Gap Between Novic... Page 1 of 10 Simulation Techniques to Bridge the Gap Between Novice and Competent Healthcare Professionals Susan Galloway, Commander, NC, USN, MSN, RN Abstract Simulation techniques are being used today in a variety of programs designed to enhance the skills of healthcare providers. The aim of this article is to describe simulation techniques currently being used in healthcare education and identify future directions for the use of simulation in healthcare. The author will describe various types of simulators and simulated experiences, including role playing, standardized patients, partial task trainers, complex task trainers, integrated simulators, and full mission simulation. Next, the use of simulation in undergraduate nursing programs, continuing education programs, interdisciplinary team training, and competency assessment will be presented. Resources for simulation faculty and costs associated with simulation will be discussed. The author will conclude by noting that next steps in using simulation to strengthen the provision of healthcare include providing healthcare educators with the motivation and competencies needed to create and use meaningful simulation learning experiences and initiating more research regarding the benefits of simulation in healthcare education. Citation: Galloway, S. J., (May 31, 2009) "Simulation Techniques to Bridge the Gap Between Novice and Competent Healthcare Professionals" OJIN: The Online Journal of Issues in Nursing,Vol. 14, No. 2, Manuscript 3. Available: www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJIN/TableofContents//Vol1 -Techniques.aspx Key words: competency, continuing education, human patient simulator, health professions education, interdisciplinary education, simulation Modern simulation was developed to meet the training and risk-management needs of complex and high-risk industries and organizations such as aviation, nuclear power production, and the military. Despite their associated hazards, these industries have experienced remarkably low failure rates (Gaba, 2004). Recognizing simulation’s applicability to healthcare, health professions education (HPE) has, in piecemeal fashion, adopted elements of simulation for procedural skill enhancement over the last several decades. For clarity and consistency, a few terms related to simulation require definition. Gaba (2004) has defined simulation as a “ ...technique, not a technology, to replace or amplify real experiences with guided experiences, often immersive in nature, that evoke or replicate substantial aspects of the real world in a fully interactive fashion” (p. i2). He further describes a simulator as a “device” that mimics a real patient or a part of the human body, and that is capable of interaction with the learner. Cooper and Taqueti (2004), too, have noted that any device that replicates a part of a system or process may appropriately be defined as a simulator. The use of simulation in educating health professionals enables learners to practice necessary skills in an environment that allows for errors and professional growth without risking http://www.nursingworld.org/MainMenuCategories/ANAMarketplace/ANAPeriodicals/OJ... 7/10/2009 American Nurses Association - Simulation Techniques to Bridge the Gap Between Novic... Page 2 of 10 patient safety. The appropriate use of simulation in a professional education program allows students to hone their clinical skills without danger of harming the patient during the The use of simulation in learning process (Ziv, Wolpe, Small, & Glick, 2003). Although educating health proponents of simulation assert that the use of simulation in
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