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									                                   ANA Artillery:
                                                                                         training the trainer

                                                                              techniques and procedures develops from           artillery. It is a simple, rugged, capable and
                                   By MAJ Daryl L. Fullerton, FA              one ANA artillery unit to another. These          accurate weapons system that sufficiently

                                                                              differences weaken the credibility of the         meets the ANA’s needs when the system
                                   or the past three years, the Afghan Na-    mentors and the Coalition as methods taught       is used properly. However, this weapon
                                   tional Army’s field artillery corps has    vary from team-to-team and year-to-year.          was designed for the Soviet Army during
                                   been languishing. It has not progressed        This article provides a primer for future     the Cold War under a vastly different
                              beyond simple direct fire despite millions      artillery mentors heading to Afghanistan          philosophy for fire support.
                              of dollars spent and hundreds of trainers       and also gives a “capability snapshot” for             In the Soviet doctrine, the battery
                              deployed. There are many reasons for this       Coalition Force commanders working closely        commander was both the observer and
                              stagnation, but number one among them           with the ANA artillery. Understanding the         the fire direction center. He personally
                              is the lack of training the U.S. embedded       unique challenges the ANA artillery faces         computed the firing data and sent it to the
                              training team artillery mentors receive         prevents Coalition commanders from                guns. In addition, the fires generally were
                              before deployment.                              expecting too much (which might lead to           delivered by massing multiple batteries
                                  The ANA uses Russian equipment              mission failure) or too little — which could      onto preplanned targets. This created a
Transformation: FA training

                              which is very different from U.S. artillery.    render the ANA artillery as insignificant and     rolling barrage ahead of the advancing
                              So, expecting a U.S. mentor to excel            continue to stifle its growth.                    Soviet troops. This method of supporting
                              without adequate preparation using
                              Russian artillery is unrealistic. In the
                              first months working with their ANA
                                                                               C    urrent status. To understand how
                                                                                    to train the ANA artillery, mentors
                                                                              need to know the ANA artillery’s current
                                                                                                                                combat operations with fires is incompatible
                                                                                                                                with fighting an insurgency because of
                                                                                                                                its indiscriminant nature.
                              counterpart, most mentors ask themselves,       training and capabilities.                             In contrast, NATO doctrine allows
                              “Who is teaching whom?”                             Institutional training. Currently, the        any unit in contact with the enemy the
                                  Artillery mentors experience little in      Kabul Military Training Center only trains        capability of adjusting limited and accurate
                              their careers that prepares them for this       the artillery skill of the artillery cannoneer.   artillery fire. Afghanistan is filled with small
                              difficult mission. The ANA artillery’s          There is no formal training for fire direction    villages where poor farmers live extensively
                              weapons, techniques and language are            specialists, forward observers, artillery         apart from the insurgency. Indiscriminate
                              unfamiliar to the mentors. To make it worse,    NCOs and officers. As a result, the crews         massed artillery fire from the Soviet
                              once in country, the mentors immediately        are capable at occupations and direct fire,       Army’s war in Afghanistan turned many
                              are dispersed among the 34 provinces and        but they must learn indirect fire techniques      of these otherwise neutral farmers toward
                              have little contact with one another for the    at forward deployed locations under the           supporting the Mujahedeen.
                              duration of their deployments, preventing       artillery mentors’ supervision.                        However, respect for the Afghan people
                              them from learning from their peers.                The weapons system. The Russian               requires the use of proportionate, accurate
                                  As each mentor team is forced to fend       122-millimeter, D30 towed howitzer is             and timely artillery fire to mitigate the risk
                              for itself, a wide di
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