The European Union's (EU) Landfill Directive included a Pay As You Throw (PAYT) study to evaluate the impact of unit-based pricing on municipal recycling rates. The study covered 157 local authorities in the Czech Republic with a total population of 2.6 million. Of the 157 authorities, 92 operated PAYT programs and 65 operated flat fee systems. As part of the study, EU researchers assessed recycling behavior in about 180 households in Prague. The EPA PAYT Bulletin also reported that the agency has developed SMART BET -- Save Money And Reduce Trash -- Benefit Evaluation Tool.