High Speed Quantum Key Distribution Over Optical Fiber Network System1 by ProQuest


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									                                                     Volume 114, Number 3, May-June 2009
                 Journal of Research of the National Institute of Standards and Technology

                                             [J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 114,149-177 (2009)]

              High Speed Quantum Key Distribution
               Over Optical Fiber Network System1

Volume 114                                                         Number 3                                                    May-June 2009

Lijun Ma, Alan Mink, and                           The National Institute of Standards and              demonstrated. Our intention is to show the
Xiao Tang                                          Technology (NIST) has developed a                    feasibility and sophistication of QKD
                                                   number of complete fiber-based                       systems based on current technology.
Information Technology                             high-speed quantum key distribution
                                                   (QKD) systems that includes an 850 nm
Laboratory,                                        QKD system for a local area network
National Institute of Standards                    (LAN), a 1310 nm QKD system for a                    Key words: detection time bin shift;
and Technology,                                    metropolitan area network (MAN), and                 fiber network; frequency up-conversion
Gaithersburg, MD 20899                             a 3-node quantum network controlled                  detection; quantum key distribution;
                                                   by a network manager. This paper                     BB84; B92.
                                                   discusses the key techniques used to
lijun.ma@nist.gov                                  implement these systems, which include
alan.mink@nist.gov                                 polarization recovery, noise reduction,
xiao.tang@nist.gov                                 frequency up-conversion detection based
                                                   on a periodically polled lithium nitrate             Accepted: February 17, 2009
                                                   (PPLN) waveguide, custom high-speed
                                                   data handling boards and quantum
                                                   network management. Using our
                                                   quantum network, a QKD secured video
                                                   surveillance application has been                    Available online: http://www.nist.gov/jres

1.    Introduction                                                             three additional conventional processing/communica-
                                                                               tion stages, this initial (raw) key is transformed into a
   A quantum key distribution (QKD) system does not                            secure key. It is not possible to make a perfect copy
transmit secure messages, it creates a shared secret                           (clone) of an unknown quantum state [1], thus precise
between users over unsecured communication links.                              measurement by an eavesdropper is not achievable. The
The shared secrets are then used to create secure                              Heisenberg uncertainty principle states that pairs of
messages that can subsequently be transmitted via                              quantum properties cannot be precisely measured
conventional IP protocols and channels. QKD systems                            simultaneously; for example, position and momentum.
use quantum states, such as polarization, to encode                            Horizontal-vertical and diagonal polarization of
information on single photons. An initial random key is                        photons are two such pairs.
established by randomly encoding state information on                             The idea to use quantum states to securely encode
these photons, sending the photons and recovering that                         information originated with Stephen Wiesner in 1983
state information on the other end of the link. After                          [2], and the idea was taken forward by Charles Bennett
                                                                               and Gilles Brassard in 1984 [3] to develop 
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