Mastication of almonds: Effects of lipid bioaccessibility, appetite, and hormone response by ProQuest


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									          inform May 2009, Vol. 20 (5)                  321

       value varied from 6 in cranberry to 23 in       in appetitive and physiologic responses to       matrix design, and are as follows: extraction
       strawberry. Linolenic acid content ranged       masticating nuts and likely other foods and      pressure of 35 MPa, temperature of 45°C,
       from 17.53% in blackberry seed oil to           nutrients. This trial was registered at clini-   and dynamic extraction time of 90 min. The
       57.60% in kiwi seed oil. The oxidative sta- as NCT00768417.                    lipid yield based on PEE was 7.42 wt%
       bility of all oils was rather low (0.17 h for                                                    and the extracts of the desired analytes
       kiwi to 8.4 h for blackberry at 97.8°C).        Short-path distillation of palm                  based on SFE varied in the range of 3.23–
       Phytosterol contents ranged between 403                                                          5.58 wt% under different conditions. With
       and 692 mg/100 g for blackberry and cran-       olein and characterization of                    the optimized procedure, the lipid yield was
       berry, respectively. The content of tocols      products                                         6.09 wt%. The FFA in the lipids were sepa-
       (tocopherol + tocotrienol) varied from 34.4     Lin, S.W., and C.K. Yoo, Eur. J. Lipid Sci.      rated with a pre-column derivation method
       for kiwi to 2,133 mg/kg for red raspberry       Technol. 111:142–147, 2009.                      and 1-[2-(p-toluenesulfonate) ethyl]-2-phe-
       seed oils.                                            Short-path distillation (SPD) has          nylimidazole [4,5-f]9,10-phenanthrene as
                                                       been used to purify products containing          labeling regent, followed by high-pres-
       Mastication of almonds: Effects                 monoacylglycerols (MAG), diacylglycer-           sure liquid chromatography (HPLC) with
                                                                                                        fluorescence detection. HPLC analysis
       of lipid bioaccessibility,                      ols (DAG), etc. Palm oil and its fractions
                                                                                                        showed that the lipids contained abundant
                                                       contain high contents of DAG, typically
       appetite, and hormone                           5–8%, some of which have significant             unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) in high to
       response                                        effects on the crystallization behavior of the   low concentrations as follows: linolenic
                                                       fats. A possible way of reducing the DAG to      acid (18:3), oleic acid (18:1), linoleic acid
       Cassady, B.A., J.H. Hollis, A.D. Fulford,                                                        (18:2), nervonic acid (24:1), and lignoceric
       R.V. Considine, and R.D. Mattes, Am. J.         lower levels using SPD is evaluated. Distil-
                                                       lation of refined, bleached, and deodorized      acid (20:4). The UFA contents in the SFE
       Clin. Nutr. 89:794–800, 2009.                                                                    extracts were higher than those after PEE.
             Epidemiologic and clinical data indi-     palm olein was performed at different tem-
                                                       peratures (220–250°C) and flow rates (500        The results indicated that SFE under suit-
       cate that nuts can be incorporated into the                                                      able conditions is more selective than con-
       diet without compromising body weight.          and 1000 g/h). Feed oil, residue oil, and dis-
                                                       tillates were characterized in terms of com-     ventional PEE with regard to extraction of
       This has been attributed to strong satiety                                                       lipids and preservation of their quality.
       properties, increased resting energy expen-     position and melting and cooling behavior.
       diture, and limited lipid bioaccessibil-        The DAG content of the feed oil was 6.5%.
       ity. The role of mastication was explored       At high evaporating temperatures, the          
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