According to Camp, Gaes, Langan, and Saylor (2003); Finn (1998); and Inwald (1982), increased inmate violence, inmate crowding, inmate density, dangerous gang activity, physical setting, and lack of recognition of officer authority all intensify stress. [...] due to the traumatic experiences correctional officers face, substance abuse is often equated with posttraumatic stress disorder (Janik, 1995; Stock & Skultety, 1994).
Correctional Officer Stress: A Review of the Literature 1977-2007 William J Morgan Jr American Jails; May/Jun 2009; 2
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