Alcohol Use Among Pregnant and Nonpregnant Women of Childbearing Age - United States, 1991-2005 by ProQuest


Denny et al detail the 1991-1995 data from Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System surveys analyzed by CDC to examine the prevalence of any alcohol use and binge drinking among pregnant women and nonpregnant women of childbearing age in the US and to characterize the women with these alcohol use behaviors. The findings indicated that the prevalence of any alcohol use and binge drinking among pregnant and nonpregnant women of childbearing age did not change substantially from 1991 to 2005. During 2001-2005, the highest percentages of pregnant women reporting any alcohol use were aged 35-44 years (17.7%), college graduates (14.4%), employed (13.7%), and unmarried (13.4%). A CDC editorial note is presented.

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									Vol. 58 / No. 19                                                                 MMWR                                                                            529

FIGURE. Percentage of countries that require health warnings                        References
on tobacco packaging, by extent of warning required and                             1. World Health Organization. WHO report on the global tobacco
country income level* — World Health Organization, 2008                                epidemic, 2008–the MPOWER package. Geneva, Switzerland: World
             100                                                                       Health Organization; 2008. Available at
                                                    Data not reported                  mpower/mpower_report_full_2008.pdf.
                                                    Warning that covers             2. World Health Organization. WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco
                                                    >50% of the pack† and              Control. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2005.
                                                    includes all seven                 Available at
                                                    pack warning criteria§             english.pdf.
                                                    and a ban on deceitful
                                                                                    3. World Health Organization Framework Convention on Tobacco

             60                                     terms
                                                                                       Control. Guidelines for implementation of Article 11 (packaging and
                                                    Warning that covers                labelling of tobacco products) of the WHO Framework Convention
                                                    >30% of the pack and
                                                    includes one to seven
                                                                                       on Tobacco Control. Available at
                                                    pack warning criteria              article_11/en/index.html.
                                                    (not considering deceitful      4. Environics Research Group. The health effects of tobacco and health
                                                    terms)                             warnings messages on cigarette packages—survey of adults and adult
             20                                     Warning that covers                smokers: wave 9 surveys. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: Environics Research
                                                    <30% of the pack                   Group; 2005. Available at
                                                    No warning
                     Low        Middle       High                                   5. Borland R, Hill D. Initial impact of the new Australian tobacco health
                   income      income      income                                      warnings on knowledge and beliefs. Tob Control 1997;6:317–25.
                                                                                    6. Les Etudes de Marche Createc. Final report: qualitative testing of health
                            Income level                                               warnings messages. Montreal, Quebec, Canada: Les Etudes de Marche
* Countries are classified according to their 2007 gross national income               Createc; 2006.
  per capita, calculated using the World Bank Atlas method, as low income           7. Hammond D, Fong GT, Borland R, Cummings KM, McNeill A,
  (<$935), middle income ($936–$11,455) and high income (>$11,456).                    Driezen P. Text and graphic warnings on cigarette packages: findings
  Additional information is available at under Data           from the international tobacco control four country study. Am J Prev
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  full_2008.pdf.                                                                    8. O’Hegarty M, Pederson LL, Nelson DE, Mowery P, Gable JM, Wortley P.
  Data specific to health warnings were collected for seven criteria: 1)               Reactions of young adult smokers to warning labels on cigarette packages.
  mandate of specific tobacco use health warnings; 2) inclusion of health              Am J Prev Med 2006;30:467–73.
  warnings on tobacco packs and outside packaging; 3) use of large, clear,          9. Shanahan P, Elliott D. Evaluation of the effectiveness of the graphic
  and visible health warnings; 4) rotation of health warnings; 5) use of the           health warnings of tobacco product packaging 2008—executive sum-
  principal languages of the country; 6) inclusion of pictorial warnings; and          mary. Canberra, Australia: Australian Government Department of Health
  7) descriptions of specific harmful effects of tobacco use in health.                and Ageing; 2009.

combined with text warnings can increase the effectiveness of
health messages.§ Pictorial warnings also convey health messages
to persons who might not be able to read or understand the
written information. To help increase the use of pictorial health                     Alcohol Use Among Pregnant
warnings, the Tobacco Free Initiative will host a repository of                       and Nonpregnant Women of
pictorial health warnings and provide training in their use.
   Health warnings on tobacco products should not be an
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