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Onset capture requires attention by ProQuest

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The present experiments cannot distinguish between the two possibilities, but both possibilities involve voluntary mechanisms. [...] our results, along with Ghorashi et al.'s (2007), actually indicate that involuntary orienting driven by onsets is disrupted by the AB, whereas a combined effect of both involuntary and voluntary orienting provides a much stronger resistance to disruption.

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									Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
2009, 16 (3), 537-541
doi:10.3758/PBR.16.3.537




                                 Onset capture requires attention
                                                  Feng Du anD RichaRD a. abRams
                                                Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri

                We studied exogenous cuing caused by an uninformative abrupt onset during a time when subjects were under
             the influence of the attentional blink. In two experiments, we found a reduced impact of exogenous cuing during
             the blink time of the attentional blink. The results indicate that involuntary orienting caused by abrupt onsets is
             sensitive to manipulation of available attentional resources. Thus, onset capture requires attention.



   Reflexive orienting, also known as exogenous orient-                 orienting elicited by onsets is effortless, demanding only
ing, has been distinguished from voluntary orienting for                a negligible amount of attentional resource.
decades (e.g., Jonides, 1981; Posner, 1980). It is believed                However, there is still debate regarding the extent to
that voluntary orienting is under a person’s volitional                 which attentional capture caused by onsets is truly auto-
control and is attention demanding, whereas reflexive                   matic. A few recent studies have challenged the traditional
orienting is effortless and involuntary. This distinction               opinion by showing that attentional capture by abrupt on-
can be seen when an event such as an abrupt onset sum-                  sets can be interrupted by a concurrent monitoring task.
mons a person’s attention in the absence of voluntary                   For example, Boot, Brockmole, and Simons (2005) found
control (Christ & Abrams, 2006; Jonides, 1981; Yantis                   that abrupt onsets failed to capture attention in visual
& Jonides, 1984). In addition, a very rapid search rate                 search when subjects had to perform a concurrent auditory
for onset targets relative to nononset targets is consistent            one-back task. Another recent study (Santangelo, Olivetti
with the idea that onset capture is highly automatic or                 Belardinelli, & Spence, 2007) showed that both reflexive
load insensitive (Yantis & Jonides, 1984; Yantis & Hill-                visual and auditory orienting were disrupted when subjects
strom, 1994).                                                           were instructed to attend to an RSVP or RSAP stream.
   The insensitivity of onset capture to a concurrent per-                 There is clearly a discrepancy between the results of
ceptual or attentional load was corroborated by a recent                Ghorashi et al. (2007) on one hand and Boot et al. (2005)
study on the attentional blink (AB). The attentional blink              and Santangelo et al. (2007) on the other. How can we
refers to an impairment in the detection or identification              reconcile the discrepancy? One possibility is that a con-
of a second target that follows within about 500 msec of                current dual task differs from an AB task. In particular,
an earlier target in the same location (Raymond, Shapiro,               the dual task requires continuous engagement of attention
& Arnell, 1992). The impairment, or blink, lasts for a few              to the primary task, whereas AB depletes attention only
hundred milliseconds. If onset capture is truly not atten-              for a brief period of time. This difference could account
tion demanding, abrupt onsets in the periphery should                   for the intact cuing effect observed at longer target–probe
capture attention even if they occur during the blink time              lags in the Ghorashi et al. study. However, it is still neces-
of the AB. Consistent with this prediction, Ghorashi,                   sary to explain the unimpaired cuing effect at lags of 1
Di Lollo, and Klein (2007) reported an intact cuing effect              and 3, presumably during the time at which the AB was
elicited by abrupt onsets during the AB (see Joseph, Chun,              the strongest.
& Nakayama, 1997, for an experiment with a similar ap-                     There is also another explanation for the apparently
proach). In Ghorashi et al.’s study, after the appearance of            discrepant results across studies: This alternative expla-
the first target in a central RSVP stream, a solid square               nation originates from previous studies that focused on
was presented as a peripheral cue shortly before the ap-                top-down control of onset capture. Although some stud-
pearance of a ring of 12 letters. Subjects were required to             ies (Jonides, 1981; Schreij, Owens, & Theeuwes, 2008)
report the identity of the first target and the orientation of          showed that onset capture often shows resistance to sub-
the lone T in the ring. At all target–probe lags (of 90, 270,           jects’ intention, many recent studies have confirmed that
or 630 msec), subjects consistently showed higher accu-                 onset capture is subject to top-down control. For example,
racy in orientation discrimination when the T appeared                  Folk, Remington, and Johnston (1992) found that onsets
at cued locations (where the square had been presented)                 of uninformative cues captured attention only if subjects
than when it appeared at uncued locations. The finding                  were required to detect an onset target but not when sub-
that the cuing effect induced by onsets survived the AB                 jects were looking for a target in a designated color (see
is consistent with the traditional idea that the involuntary            also Gibson & Kelsey, 1998). Similarly, abrupt onsets of


                                                        F. Du, fdu@artsci.wustl.edu


                                                                    537                      © 2009 The Psychonomic Society, Inc.
538      Du anD abrams

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