There are at least two possible adverse consequences: (i) these bacteria may become resistant to antibiotics, making them a major concern in health care; (ii) the antibiotics may enter the human food chain, since distillers' grain is a major source of low-cost livestock feed.
298 inform May 2009, Vol. 20 (5) ethanol in 2010. Their demonstration plant liters) of ethanol annually at 26 facilities. ETHANOL is under construction in Vonore, Tennes- see, USA. It also markets 300 million gallons (1.1 billion liters) for nine other plants that are D a n i s c o C h i e f E xe c u t ive To m outside its network. New techniques for Knutzen told Reuters news agency “It is not the world’s largest factory—it will only Costs, activities of identifying ethanol- produce 250,000 gallons (950,000 liters) annually—but it is large enough to prove Novozymes producing microbes that cellulosic ethanol can be produced commercially with the current subsidies, At the World Biofuels Markets meeting, Researchers with the US Department of and that you can make money on it.” held in Brussels, Belgium, March 16–18, Energy Joint Bioenergy Institute (JBEI; DuPont is supplying fermentation and Novozymes (Bagsværd, Denmark) global Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, pre-treatment technologies, and Danisco is marketing manager credited the company’s California) have developed new techniques providing enzymes technology. Their goal Cellic enzyme product family for “achiev- to identify and develop microbes that not is to sell complete cellulosic ethanol tech- ing the best cost/performance ratio seen so only can ferment complex sugars to ethanol nology packages. far,” as reported by Biofuels Digest. The but also can withstand high temperatures company expects enzyme costs for cellu- and other environmental stresses without becoming inhibited by the ethanol they are Ethanol pipeline losic ethanol to come down to the $0.50– $1.50 per gallon range by 2010, down from producing. “Our results show that the recently proposed $2.00–$4.75 per gallon in 2007. Expected growth in demand for discovered extremophile—the bacterium On March 16, Magellan Midstream Part- enzymes to be used in the production of Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius—which ners, L.P. (Tulsa, Oklahoma, USA) ethanol has already prompted Novozymes thrives in the high temperatures and pres- announced the signing of a joint develop- to double the investment it plans to make, sures of petroleum reservoirs, can ferment ment agreement with POET (Sioux Falls, to $160–$200 million, in its enzyme pro- the major C5 and C6 sugars (e.g., xylose South Dakota, USA) to continue assessing duction plant in Blair, Nebraska, USA, and glucose) in cellulosic biomass and can the feasibility of constructing a dedicated for which groundbreaking took place on tolerate high concentrations of ethanol,” pipeline to deliver ethanol safely and effi- March 24. said Jay Keasling, chief executive officer ciently from production facilities in Iowa, of JBEI and a world authority on syn- South Dakota, Minnesota, Illinoi
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