RENEWABLE ENERGY IN THE SOUTHERN MEDITERRANEAN COUNTRIES

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					1 st EMUNI Research Souk 2009 (EMUNI ReS 2009)
 The Euro-Mediterranean Student Research Multi-conference

Unity and Diversity of Euro-Mediterranean Identities
                     9 June 2009




 RENEWABLE ENERGY IN THE SOUTHERN
     MEDITERRANEAN COUNTRIES




        MESSAADI Hanene
        Vicolo di casalotti n°31
        0166-Roma
        Sensai_2007@yahoo.fr




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ABSTRACT


    Mediterranean countries especially southern side is growing very fast. Globally, the
evolution of economic and social indicators in the area is positive and significant progress
has been registered in the field of economic as well as human development.
    While, conventional energy resource endowments greatly differ between countries, they
all face increasing local and global environmental constraints.
    The Mediterranean region is endowed with a high level for renewable energy resources.
However, the full potential and advantages of renewable are currently hindered in the region
due to the existence of many barriers, amongst which the institutional barriers and the price
of fossil fuels that do not always reflect their full cost.
    For this update version, present development scheme in the southern Mediterranean
countries is thus not sustainable on the long term that’s why many policies should take a
place. Ways to follow are well known: rational use of energy and energy diversification,
notably by promoting renewable energies.
    In the following, my studies will focus on renewable energies development in the southern
countries. However, renewable energy☺ and energy efficiency are closely linked and cannot
be dissociated from any sustainable energy development strategy.


Keywords: Advantages of energy development, contribution for sustainable development.




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      INTRODUCTION
    Europe and the Mediterranean countries are bound by history, geography and culture. More
importantly, they are united by a common ambition: to build together a future of peace, democracy,
prosperity and human, social and cultural understanding.
    Many studies are focused on the southern Mediterranean countries☻ in terms of energy and
socio-economic development. As such, their preservation and valorisation are essential to the
sustainable development of the region which is the only pain on the world.
    In this context, renewable energy can play a significant role in fighting global warming,
diminishing air pollution, increasing security of supply, diminishing dependency on energy imports
and in the Southern Mediterranean Countries (SMCs), the provision of energy functions to areas
without energy services, thus contributing to improve life conditions and create economic
development.
    However, as a matter of fact, the rapid development of SMCs is based on a massive recourse to
fossil energies, which are unequally distributed in the region, more and more expensive, particularly
for improving countries such as Morocco and Tunisia, and more and more submitted to
environmental constraints and sustainable development requirement pursued by all countries of the
region.


    In the face of these enormous challenges, can SMCs afford the flexibility of sustainable
development technologies?




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             1      RENEWABLE            ENERGY         IN    THE       SOUTHERN           MEDITERRANEAN
                    COUNTRIES:

             1.1      Current energy situation:
                    High renewable energy resources:
             - The Southern countries benefit from substantial renewable energy resources, in particular
             where solar and wind energy are concerned
             - The sun shines between 2650 and 3400 hours per year, and the average exposure to radiation
             varies between 1300 kWh/m²/year in the coastal areas and 3200 kWh/m²/year in the South and
             the desert areas




                ☻-Southern Mediterranean countries are: Tunisia, Morocco, Libya, Egypt, and Algeria.
             - The speed of wind varies between 6 and 11 m/sec in this region of the World. The electric
             potential is therefore significant (20 000 MW in Egypt, 6 000 MW in Morocco).
             - However, this potential is poorly utilised in this area. The development of such sources of
             energy is still held back by institutional, regulatory, financial and other issues



toe                               Southern Countries : 284 Mtoe

                                            Hydro    RE                 Coal
                                              2%     4%                  15%


                        Gas
                        34%




       Oil
                                                                                  Oil
      42%
                                                                                 45%



      Source: OME

             1.2     Advantages of renewable (RE) energy development:
                     It can be summarised as follow:
             -     RE contributes to regional resource availability and security of supply.
             -   RE has a value above the energy they generate: energy saving, emission reduction, new
                 economic activities, employment, etc.

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-   RE offer new solutions to energy needs: various technologies, heat, electricity, etc.
-   RE has the lowest impacts on the environment e.g. RE impacts are less important than those
    generated by exploitation and use of fossil resources.
-   Renewable are a “win-win” and “no regret” solution to pressing problems, including energy
    security, economic development and performance and the environment.
-   RE contributes to sustainable energy in the region and elsewhere e.g. looked for by all the
    countries.




☺- Renewable energies are solar, wind, geothermal, ocean energy, hydroelectric, biomass and
   biofuels.




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2    RENEWABLE ENERGY FOR SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT:
    The Mediterranean strategy for sustainable development is a new framework favourable to
renewable energy development in the Mediterranean region. These are the actions proposed in
the following:
-   Promote energy efficiency policies and clean energy development to establish global, sector-
    based objectives and local strategies for sustainable development. A desirable objective
    would be to reduce energy intensity by 1 to 2% per year by 2015. Regarding renewable
    energy sources, the objective would be that they satisfy 7% of the total demand for energy
    by the same date.
-   Reinforce regional co-operation and stress the implementation of the United Nations
    framework convention on climate change (UNFCCC) and its Kyoto protocol, as well as the
    synergies with the Mediterranean Renewable Energy Program (MEDREP) and the Rome
    Euro-Mediterranean Energy Program (REMEP).
-   Promote access to electricity with the objective, by 2015, by halving the number of people
    without electricity compared with 1990.




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    3     CONCLUSION
         By 2030, renewable are projected to contribute 29% to power generation and 7% of
   transport fuels, for instance, the contribution of renewable could rise even further to almost 50%
   of electricity by 2050 if the ambitious goal a 50% global reduction in 2005 CO2 emissions over
   that time horizon is met. No doubt, renewable energy has a high potential of benefits but the
   exploitation of these advantages is facing of two types of constraints:
    1- Institutional and legal barriers: in most of the countries, there is no institutional
        and   regulatory framework specific to RE and this constitutes a major constraint.
   2- Competing resources: RE are competing with conventional energies relatively abundant,
        widely deployed and subsidised in several countries of the region. Nevertheless, it should
        be underlined that RE are most often already competitive in isolated rural areas.


it’s necessary that all countries have access to technologies that enable them to build the most
efficient new power plants and industrial facilities and install energy efficient equipment.




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REFERENCE LIST




roberto.vigotti@ome.org
ome@ome.org
http://europa.eu.int/comm/world/enp/pdf/country/Morocco 11_May_EN.pdf

				
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