Building Owners Save Money, Save the Earth Replace Your by xfo14057


									Building Owners
Save Money,
Save the Earth
Replace Your CFC
Air Conditioning Chiller
The Montreal Protocol and Industry Leadership
By the 1980s, scientists had concluded that chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) were
destroying the fragile ozone layer, and the United Nations Environment Programme
had begun diplomatic negotiations. Deciding that international action was needed
to protect the ozone layer, which shields the earth from the harmful effects of over-
exposure to ultraviolet radiation, negotiators from governments around the world
crafted a treaty in 1987 called The Montreal
Protocol on Substances that Deplete the
Ozone Layer. The Montreal Protocol provid-         Responsible Use
ed the first global controls on CFCs and
halon fire fighting chemicals. In the decade       Governments, industries, con-
that followed, the Montreal Protocol was           sumers, and environmental organ-
made more stringent by amendments and              izations worldwide are endorsing
adjustments as mounting scientific evidence        the concept of “Responsible Use”
and space observations proved that stratos-        of refrigerants. The Responsible
pheric ozone depletion and the Antarctic           Use principles for building air
ozone hole in particular, were caused by           conditioning are:
emissions of manufactured chemicals. It was            5 Select the refrigerant and air
also discovered that ozone depletion was                 conditioning chiller for each
occurring over Europe and North America.                 building application that pro-
Since 1987, more than 180 countries have                 vides the highest health and
ratified the Montreal Protocol.                          safety, environmental, techni-
Fortunately, industry leadership and innova-             cal, economic, and other
tion, combined with prudent environmental                unique societal benefits.
regulations, facilitated the development of           5 Minimize emissions to the
new refrigerants that perform as well or bet-           lowest practical level during
ter in new equipment than the ozone-deplet-             manufacture of the refriger-
ing chemicals they replaced. Industrialized             ant and equipment, and dur-
countries have used a combination of volun-             ing use and disposal of the
tary, regulatory, and economic measures to              equipment, using cost-effec-
encourage the development and use of new                tive technology.
technology, to encourage retrofitting to more
                                                      5 Design and operate chiller
environmentally acceptable refrigerants, and
                                                        plants to maximize Life-
to encourage improved containment and
                                                        Cycle Climate Performance
recovery practices for all refrigerants.
                                                        (LCCP), minimizing the com-
Hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) and hydro-
                                                        bined emissions of refrigerant
fluorocarbon (HFC) chillers are used for new
                                                        from the air conditioning
construction and for retrofit or replacement
                                                        chiller and greenhouse gases
of equipment with CFC-11 and CFC-12
                                                        from the production of power
refrigerants. Now is the time to evaluate and
                                                        for the chiller.
schedule a chiller replacement.
Imagine the satisfaction of earning a high financial return on your
investment while increasing building comfort and air quality and
protecting the environment…

                         ir conditioning cools air   chillers. In the United States,
Building Air             in homes, vehicles, and     the partnership is part of the
Conditioning             workplaces—keeping          ENERGY STAR® systems
                  occupants comfortable and          approach. In other countries,
Climate           more productive, also helping      industry and government
Protection        communities in hot and humid       authorities are spearheading
Partnership—      climates to grow and prosper.      programs promoting building
The Key to                                           energy efficiency.
                  Innovative building technolo-
Total Building    gies are now available. Modern     The partnership is also promot-
Performance       lighting uses less than half the   ing integrated chiller retrofits.
                  energy of older lighting. New      This approach incorporates
                  window designs let in light but    other investment into the
                  not heat and glare, and building   chiller replacement such as
                  control systems integrate com-     retrofitting lighting systems,
                  fort, safety, and security. New    window and insulation
                  building air conditioning sys-     upgrades, and replacing old
                  tems cut cooling costs by half     office machines. This reduces
                  or more and eliminate chloro-      the cooling load thereby allow-
                  fluorocarbon (CFC) chemicals,      ing the use of smaller, highly
                  which destroy the ozone layer.     efficient air conditioning sys-
                  Yet the potential of these effi-   tems without the use of CFCs.
                  cient technologies is not always   Integration of components and
                  realized in older buildings or     controls using systems analysis,
                  even in some new construction!     good equipment startup, and
                                                     continuous monitoring of ener-
                  To help achieve that energy
                                                     gy efficiency will help ensure
                  efficiency, a new industry-gov-
                                                     that your building makes a
                  ernment partnership is promot-
                                                     quantum leap in performance
                  ing the replacement of CFC
                                                     and value.
                  building air conditioning

                                       1                  Save Money, Save the Earth
Keep Cool,

                                comfortable work place          Financing for integrated chiller
Save Money                      can affect work habits          retrofits is available from a
                                and productivity in             number of sources, including
                         positive ways.                         regional or national energy
                                                                authorities, electric utilities,
                         Most large commercial, institu-
                                                                equipment suppliers, and com-
                         tional, and industrial buildings
                                                                mercial lenders (see pages 8-9).
                         are cooled by machines called
                                                                Building owners around the
                         “chillers.” The chiller is typical-
                                                                world have saved millions of
                         ly named after the type of com-
                                                                dollars in electricity bills by
                         pressor used—centrifugal,
                                                                upgrading air conditioning
                         screw, scroll, and reciprocating.
                                                                chiller installations and through
                         Building chiller systems are
                                                                concurrent investments to
                         designed to cool and control
                                                                reduce building cooling load.
                         humidity to create a comfort-
                                                                Today’s chillers use about one-
                         able and more productive envi-
                                                                third or less electricity com-
                         ronment for tenants.
                                                                pared to those produced just
                         A new energy-efficient chiller         two decades ago. Building own-
                         can easily pay for itself in elec-     ers can typically pay back the
                         tricity savings, improved relia-       investment cost of replacing an
                         bility, and lower maintenance          old CFC chiller in five years or
                         costs in as little as five years. In   less in virtually all locations
                         addition, building energy con-         that cool for more than three
                         sumption can be significantly          months a year. In fact, replace-
                         reduced at the time of chiller         ment chillers integrated with
                         replacement through cooling            building retrofits can pay for
                         system improvements (e.g., use         themselves in as little as two or
                         of variable speed drives on fans       three years, with a typical
  Chiller Efficiencies   and pumps, improved cooling            return on investment of 20% to
                         towers, evaporative coolers, and       35%. Generally, the added cost
                         improved controls) and cooling         of the highest efficiency chillers
                         load reductions (e.g., lighting        is paid back through energy sav-
                         system retrofits, better insula-       ings alone. Today’s state-of-the-
                         tion, and new windows).                art building automation systems
                         Reducing cooling load and              further reduce operating and
                         improving cooling system effi-         maintenance costs by monitor-
                         ciency will enable downsizing          ing and controlling everyday
                         of the new chiller, thereby cut-       building operations and by noti-
                         ting capital cost and increasing       fying managers of small prob-
                         overall operating efficiency.          lems before they become costly
                         Comprehensive projects along           problems.
                         these lines are known as “inte-
 Source: Industry data   grated chiller retrofits.”

Save Money, Save the Earth                       2
Keep Cool,

                          ew chiller installations   important “transitional refriger-
Save the Earth            save money, improve        ants” to allow an accelerated
                          occupant comfort, and      CFC phaseout under the
                 protect the global environment.     Montreal Protocol. The
                 New energy-efficient chillers       Protocol authorizes HCFC pro-
                 are better for the environment      duction for use in developed
                 because they use far less elec-     countries in new chillers until
                 tricity from the power plants       2020 and for service until 2030
                 that supply buildings with          and HCFC production for use
                 energy, reducing emissions that     in developing countries in
                 contribute to air pollution and     either new equipment or serv-
                 global warming. New energy          icing until 2040. After produc-
                 efficient chillers are better for   tion phaseout, HCFCs can be
                 the stratospheric ozone layer       supplied from reclaimed and
                 because they do not use potent      recovered sources.
                 ozone-depleting CFC refriger-       Older refrigerants, including
                 ants—made obsolete by global        hydrocarbons and ammonia,
                 treaties and thus becoming          are making a comeback in some
                 increasingly scarce and expen-      applications where safety can
                 sive. Because CFC refrigerants      be assured. For example,
                 can not be legally produced or      hydrocarbons are increasingly
                 imported for sale in developed      used in small refrigeration and
                 countries, building owners          air conditioning appliances,
                 with obsolete equipment com-        and ammonia is gaining market
                 pete for dwindling supplies of      share in new industrial refriger-
                 reclaimed CFCs—paying high          ation applications, such as ice-
                 prices and risking refrigerant      making, cold storage, and dis-
                 shortage.                           trict cooling.
                 Most centrifugal chillers manu-     The most commonly used new
                 factured before 1995 used CFC-      refrigerants for large building
                 11, CFC-12, or HCFC-22 refrig-      air conditioning applications—
                 erants. Emissions of CFCs and       HFC-134a and HCFC-123—are
                 HCFCs damage stratospheric          allowed, approved, or endorsed
                 ozone. Countries that have rati-    for use by Environment
                 fied the Montreal Protocol will     Australia; Environment Canada;
                 halt production of CFCs and         the Japan Ministry of Economy,
                 other ozone-depleting sub-          Trade and Industry; the Japan
                 stances. In 1996, developed         Ministry of the Environment;
                 countries stopped producing         the U.S. Environmental
                 and importing CFC refrigerants.     Protection Agency; and most
                 HCFCs are less damaging to the      other environment ministries
                 ozone layer and are considered      worldwide. HFC-134a can

                                       3                  Save Money, Save the Earth
                       achieve high energy efficiency      effect of air conditioning sys-
                       and is ozone-safe, but refriger-    tems on climate change and do
                       ant emissions are relatively        not significantly affect the
                       potent greenhouse gases. HCFC-      ozone layer. By using less elec-
                       123 can achieve high energy         tricity, energy-efficient equip-
                       efficiency and is not a potent      ment helps protect the environ-
                       greenhouse gas, but does have       ment by reducing nitrous
                       an ozone-depleting potential,       oxides, sulfur dioxide, particu-
                       albeit low. Energy efficiency is    late matter, carbon dioxide, and
                       the main environmental consid-      mercury emissions from power
                       eration in the selection of a       plants supplying electricity to
                       chiller as long as the equipment    the buildings.
                       is carefully maintained and
                                                           Electric utilities sometimes use
                       refrigerant emissions are kept
                                                           their least efficient power
                       near zero.
                                                           plants for the peak periods of
                       Building owners can make a          electricity demand, which is
                       significant contribution to envi-   when chiller loads are usually
                       ronmental protection by replac-     highest. Therefore, reduced
                       ing old chillers. Properly moni-    electricity use has an even larg-
                       tored and maintained, high-effi-    er benefit for local air quality
                       ciency HCFC-123 and HFC-            and climate protection.
                       134a chillers minimize the

Save Money, Save the Earth                   4
Which Chiller

                       everal refrigerants are envi-      Medium- and Large-Scale
Should I               ronmentally acceptable.            Ammonia Chillers
Purchase?              However, if you want the           Building owners will want to con-
                highest environmental perform-            sider ammonia chillers using screw
                ance, follow the “Responsible Use”        compressors where they can safely
                criteria, focusing on the Life-Cycle      achieve higher energy efficiency.
                Climate Performance (LCCP), not           Emissions of ammonia refrigerants
                the refrigerant. LCCP takes into          are ozone- and climate-safe, but
                account the emissions during the          because ammonia is toxic and
                manufacturing of the refrigerant,         moderately flammable, safety pre-
                the transportation to the site, during    cautions are necessary. Ammonia
                charging of the chiller, lifetime leak-   is particularly attractive if higher
                age, and finally during recovery          efficiencies can be achieved for
                and disposal. And, very important-        new installations involving ice-
                ly, this calculation must include         making, commercial refrigeration,
                emissions from the generation of          cold storage warehouses, and in
                electricity to power the chillers and     district cooling applications.
                account for any additional energy
                that may be necessary to assure safe      Large-Scale HCFC-123 and HFC-
                operation. Insist that financial cal-     134a Centrifugal Chillers
                                                          For centrifugal chillers, choose
                culations consider both partial and
                                                          either HCFC or HFC chillers with
                full-load operation, that the per-
                                                          the highest cost-effective energy
                formance of equipment based on
                                                          efficiency, and focus on maintain-
                alternate refrigerants is compared,
                                                          ing the equipment’s peak perform-
                and that available energy efficiency
                                                          ance and minimal refrigerant
                options are considered, including
                                                          emissions. Any refrigerant is
                variable speed motor drives, heat
                                                          environmentally safe as long as
                recovery, and free-cooling. Select
                                                          it is never emitted, and all refriger-
                the investment with the best LCCP
                                                          ants require careful handling
                with emissions minimized.
                                                          to avoid worker exposure. By
                Small-Scale Screw Chillers                retrofitting or replacing chillers,
                New screw chiller technologies            emissions can be substantially
                with high full- and part-load energy      reduced or eliminated. The goal
                efficiency are replacing existing CFC     of near-zero refrigerant emissions
                centrifugal chillers primarily in the     is possible with new equipment,
                smaller tonnage ranges. These             modern refrigerant monitoring
                chillers are ideal for buildings with     technology, and a proper mainte-
                highly variable daily cooling loads.      nance program. Computerized
                These screw chillers use a wide           controls and building automation
                range of refrigerants including           systems can cost-effectively sus-
                HCFC-22, HFC-134a, and the HFC            tain and document the perform-
                blends R-407C and R-410A.                 ance of the chiller plant.

                                          5                    Save Money, Save the Earth
Will Ammonia,                           he use of ammonia as a                   by recycling and stockpiling.
HCFC, and HFC                           refrigerant is not restrict-             HCFC-22 is a high-pressure gas
Refrigerants                            ed by international                      with a Montreal Protocol ozone
                                treaties, although it may be sub-                depletion potential (ODP) of
Be Available                    ject to national or local codes                  0.055 and a global warming
For the Life                    for building safety. Ammonia is                  potential (GWP) of 1700. HCFC-
of the Air                      among the oldest industrial                      123 is a low-pressure gas with a
Conditioning                    chemicals, and with continuous                   Montreal Protocol ODP of 0.02
                                improvements in chiller design                   and a GWP of 120.
                                and maintenance, there is                        HFC emissions have lower GWPs
                                little likelihood of additional                  and less impact on climate
                                environmental controls.                          change than the CFCs they
                                HCFCs are controlled by the                      replace but are included in the
                                Montreal Protocol. Developed                     basket of greenhouse gases.
                                countries are allowed to pro-                    Some countries, including the
                                duce HCFCs for new equipment                     United States, will use voluntary
                                until 2020 and for service until                 measures to encourage energy
                                2030. Some developed coun-                       efficiency and to minimize HFC
                                tries plan to stop HCFC-22 pro-                  emissions. Other countries plan
                                duction for new air condition-                   to more directly restrict HFC use
                                ing equipment by 2010 and pro-                   and emissions. HFC blends,
                                duction for service by 2020.                     including R-407C and R-410A,
                                Adequate quantities of HCFC                      are often selected to optimize the
                                refrigerants can be supplied for                 energy performance of specific
                                the economic life of equipment                   air conditioning systems and par-
            Refrigerant Ozone Depletion Potential (ODP)
                                                                                 ticular sizes. HFC blends have
                and Global Warming Potential (GWP)                               zero ODP and a GWP that
                                                                                 depends on the exact composi-
 REFRIGERANT        Montreal                   WMO Model           100-Year      tion.
                    Protocol ODP               ODP                 GWP
 CFC-11             1.0 (index)                0.82                4600
                                                                                 The most uncertain choice is to
                                                                                 continue the use of energy-
 CFC-12             1.0                        0.90                10,600
                                                                                 intensive equipment using CFC
 HCFC-22            0.055                      0.034               1700
                                                                                 refrigerants. One year of refriger-
 HCFC-123           0.02                       0.012               120
                                                                                 ant and power plant emissions
 HFC-134a           0.0                        <0.000015           1300
                                                                                 from old CFC equipment with
 R-407C (HFC blend) 0.0                        <0.0004             1700
                                                                                 high leak rates results in greater
 R-410A (HFC blend) 0.0                        <0.00003            2000          direct harm to the ozone layer
Source: Montreal Protocol Science Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 1998, 2002      and climate than 30 years’ oper-
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Third Assessment Report and the        ation of new equipment using
Handbook for the International Treaties for the Protection of the Ozone Layer,
2000 edition. Note that the Montreal Protocol ODPs were officially established
                                                                                 HFC-134a or HCFC-123. The
in 1992 and may be reviewed and revised periodically. The 2002 Scientific        most energy-efficient new
Assessment presents the WMO (1999) Model results as above (the ODPs for          chillers will reduce electric gen-
HFCs are upper limits).

Save Money, Save the Earth                                     6
                                                   eration and associated green-                                   5 Savings from electricity
                                                   house gas emissions by up to                                      costs alone pay back the
                                                   50% or more compared to the                                       investment at high rates
                                                   CFC chillers they replace.                                        of return—even with low
                                                   Leaking CFC equipment fre-                                        energy prices.
                                                   quently operates undercharged,
                                                                                                                   5 A new, efficient chiller
                                                   requiring additional energy to
                                                                                                                     installation—with better
                                                   achieve the same cooling. Now
                                                                                                                     building controls, high-effi-
                                                   is the time to retrofit or replace.
                                                                                                                     ciency auxiliary equipment,

Market                                                    elying on obsolete CFC                                     efficient lights, and other
                                                          chillers might end up                                      building and office equip-
Incentives                                                costing building owners                                    ment upgrades—protects
for Chiller                                        and tenants more than they                                        owners from electricity
Replacement                                        bargained for. Replacing an old                                   price fluctuations and short-
                                                   chiller can be an owner’s best                                    ages. Lower cooling costs
                                                   investment. Here’s why:                                           increase the resale and
                                                                                                                     rental value of the building.
                                                       5 Building owners and man-
                                                           agers who use obsolete                                  5 Companies that use newer
                                                           CFC equipment will have                                   and more efficient tech-
                                                           to compete for dwindling                                  nologies demonstrate
                                                           supplies of reclaimed                                     environmental leadership
                                                           refrigerants and parts—                                   in their communities,
                                                           paying high prices and                                    enhance company reputa-
                                                           risking refrigerant shortage.                             tion, and have even earned
                                                                                                                     accolades from public and
                                         Rate of Return vs. Risk
                                                                                                                     private authorities.
                              for New Chillers and Building Energy Upgrades

                        40%                                                                                                 Price of CFC-12
                                Chiller Replacement and
                                Building Energy Upgrade
Average Annual Return

                                                                                  Small                              $100                        $94
                                                                                              Price per Kilogram


                        20%                                  Common
                                                                                                                      $60                 $55
                                               Corporate                                                              $40
                        10%                    Bonds
                                U.S. T-Bills                                                                          $20          $18

                              0%         10%           20%            30%               40%                                 1990   1993   1998   2000
                                           Risk Index (Year-to-Year Volatility)

                                                                                    7                                Save Money, Save the Earth
Tools and

                             quipment suppliers, gov-      5 UNEP DTIE’s OzonAction
Information                  ernments, utilities, and       Programme.
                             others are cooperating and
                       with building owners and ten-
                       ants to help save money while        In partnership with the Air-
                       protecting the environment.          Conditioning and Refrig-
                       Available resources include:         eration Institute (ARI),
                                                            OzonAction conducted
                             5 EPA ENERGY STAR®
                                                            training sessions on refrig-
                                                            erant management in the
                                                            chiller sector in three major
                              ENERGY STAR® leads you to
                                                            cities in developing coun-
                              a results-oriented energy
                                                            tries—Bangkok, Bahrain,
                              management approach
                                                            and Jakarta—and offers
                              that produces twice the
                                                            jointly developed manuals
                              savings for your bottom
                                                            to assist building owners.
                              line and the environment
                              than the typical strategy.   5 BOMA—The Building
                              EPA offers tools that rate    Owners and Managers
                              whole building energy         Association International
                              performance. Technical
                              guidance focuses on prop-     Representing more than
                              er equipment sizing,          8.5 billion square feet of
                              design, and mechanical        office space in North
                              system integration that       America alone, BOMA
                              match your building’s load    offers research, perform-
                              requirements. ENERGY          ance data, publications,
                              STAR® offers public recog-    and services.
                              nition for buildings that
                              achieve the best results.

Save Money, Save the Earth                    8
5 ARI—Air-Conditioning         5 ASHRAE—American
 and Refrigeration               Society of Heating,
 Institute                       Refrigerating and Air-                     Conditioning Engineers
 Software from equipment
 suppliers and others helps      With over 50,000 members
 designers maximize ener-        worldwide, ASHRAE
 gy and cost savings. Ask        advances air conditioning
 your chiller supplier to        and related sciences
 recommend cost-cutting          through research, standards
 upgrades.                       writing, continuing educa-
                                 tion, and publications.
5 Chiller Suppliers
 Contact suppliers through
 ARI or at individual web-
 • API Ketena –          More Opportunities to
 • Carrier –                  Save Money
                              When replacing a CFC
 • Daikin –
                              chiller, building owners and
                              tenants can take additional
 • Dunham-Bush –
                              steps to save money and
                              help protect the environ-
                              ment. Design engineers can
 • Edwards Engineering –
                              identify more ways to save
                              energy by conducting an
 • Lennox (Europe) –
                              overall energy performance
                              review. The entire air condi-
 • McQuay –
                              tioning system can be
                              improved by using more
 • Mitsubishi Heavy
                              efficient fans, pumps, cool-
   Industries –
                              ing towers, and system con-
                              trols, and by reducing cool-
 • RAE Corporation –
                              ing loads with more effi-
                              cient lighting and better
 • Trane –
                              insulation. With integrated
 • York –
                              new systems, owners can
                              downsize equipment, cut-
                              ting both capital and operat-
                              ing costs and increasing the
                              return on their investment.

                 9                Save Money, Save the Earth
Supporting                 5 United Nations and World Bank
Organizations               • United Nations Development Programme
                            • United Nations Environment Programme
                            • The World Bank
                           5 National Governments and Regional Authorities
                            • Australian Greenhouse Office
                            • Environment Canada
                            • Industry Canada
                            • Japan Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry
                            • Japan Ministry of the Environment
                            • Singapore Ministry of the Environment
                            • Thailand, Department of Industrial Works, Ministry of Industry
                            • U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
                            • Vietnam National Office for Climate Change and Ozone Protection
                           5 Air Conditioning Equipment Manufacturers
                            •   Carrier
                            •   Daikin
                            •   Lennox (Europe)
                            •   McQuay
                            •   Mitsubishi Heavy Industries
                            •   Toshiba-Carrier
                            •   Trane
                            •   Turbocor
                            •   York
                           5 Energy and Supply Companies
                            • Cryo-Line Supplies
                            • Exelon Services
                            • McKenney’s Mechanical Contractors and Engineers
                            • Pacific Gas and Electric Company
                           5 Industry and Environmental Non-Governmental Organizations
                            • Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute
                            • Alliance for Responsible Atmospheric Policy
                            • Alliance to Save Energy
                            • Americans for an Energy Efficient Economy
                            • Australian Fluorocarbon Council
EPA-430-F-02-026            • China Building Research Institute
December 2002               • Ecole des Mines de Paris Center for Energy Studies
                            • Friends of the Earth
Global Programs Division
                            • Heating/Piping/Air Conditioning Engineering Magazine
(6205J) and Climate
Protection Partnerships     • Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Institute of Canada
Division (6202J)            • Industrial Technology Research Institute
                            • International Climate Change Partnership
                            • Japan Industrial Conference for Ozone Layer Protection         • Japan Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Industry Association
                            • Natural Resources Defense Council

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