Biomass Energy and carbon emissions

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					                                                                             369




Biomass: Energy and carbon emissions

Carlos Américo Morato de Andrade
Instituto de Eletrotécnica e Energia da Universidade de São Paulo


Abstract
Biomass was the primary source of energy for humankind until developed countries
began the shift toward fossil fuels about 200 years ago. More recently, developing
countries have been following in their footsteps.Today, biomass energy accounts for
just 11% of total global energy. However, in recent years, developed countries have
started to explore biomass fuel options as a cleaner alternative to fossil fuels.
    This paper is an overview of a model that breaks biomass down into four compo-
nents and calculates biomass energy in 122 countries, which are responsible for 95%
of global energy consumption. The study shows that despite a significant shift to
fossil fuels over the past century, biomass has been and will remain an important
source of energy for decades to come. The study also examines carbon emissions
from energy biomass sources and from all forest activities, and finds that biomass is
responsible for a total global emissions of 300 to 400 million tons of carbon a year.
At the same time, however, the carbon sequestration capacity of all forest activities
is around 550 million tons per year, resulting in a net carbon sequestration effect,
even when balanced with energy biomass.
    This article is not a discussion of policy tools or technological advancements. It is
intended to serve as a methodological primer for non-scientists grappling with the
science that is at the core of the policy debates that surround the issue of climate
change.

Introduction
When used in its simplest form, the production of energy from biomass1 does not             1 Biomass is any plant matter
require sophisticated technology. Because of this, throughout the history of                or animal waste that is used for
                                                                                            fuel.
mankind biomass has played an important role as a basic source of energy. It was
not until the beginning of the 19th century that a shift began to occur toward fossil
fuels, eventually reducing the use of biomass energy to just 11% of the global total.
Importantly, it has become evident that the shift away from biomass to fossil fuels
generally occurs with economic growth. For the most part, developed countries
made the transition to fossil fuels some time ago and developing countries have
been following more recently.
   Biomass has developed a reputation as being inefficient, dirty, and unhealthy.
Burning wood that is collected from community forests, for example, is time con-
suming, produces a low energy value, and tends to generate particulates which are
                              370       
                                     then breathed in by household members, frequently causing severe respiratory ill-
                                     nesses. When biomass is used in its simplest form these characteristics are
                                     unavoidable. However, an interesting new trend has been developing in the past
                                     few years: Developed countries have begun exploring new uses for biomass energy.
                                     The research is concentrating on the development of low-emission technologies
                                     that use renewable and sustainable energy sources. The result of these new devel-
                                     opments is that in recent years, despite the continued shift toward fossil fuels, the
                                     percentage of biomass energy has not decreased as rapidly as expected. These
                                     developments are especially significant in light of the international goal of arrest-
                                     ing climate change.
2 Morato de Andrade, Flo-               This article is based primarily on studies conducted by the author.2 The dis-
restas, Madeira e suas Apli-
cações 2000, and Morato de
                                     cussion is intended to be a scientific foundation for non-scientists, as well as a
Andrade and Bodinaud Modela-         guide for science and policy professionals to the functioning of the modeling pro-
mento de Cana-de-açúcar              cedures used in this field. It is not intended to be a correlation of policy and sci-
Brasileira, 2000 (both in Por-
tuguese).
                                     ence, but rather an unadulterated look at the science and statistics of biomass
                                     energy production.3
3 For a discussion of energy
policy, see Nilsson and Bailey,      The model
this volume.
                                     Categorization of biomass
4 A quad is a unit of energy         Of the 421 quads4 of global energy consumed in 1998, 376 were derived from fossil
equal to a quadrillion (1015)
British thermal units (BTUs). It     fuels and 45 from biomass. Thus, the contribution of biomass energy is still sig-
is also equal to 293 billion (109)   nificant and will remain so throughout the first few decades of the 21st century,
kilowatt hours, or, for fuels of     especially for ‘less developed’ countries.
average heating values,
183,000,000 barrels of petro-           For the purposes of this study, the 45 quads of global biomass energy consump-
leum, 38,500,000 tons of coal,       tion were divided into four categories, which are then applied to three biomass
or 980,000,000,000 (1012)            energy-use scenarios in 122 countries. Despite the diverse energy biomass applica-
cubic feet of natural gas.
(Source: www.britannica.com.)        tions today, these four components embody all global biomass consumption:
                                     • Non-Forest Biomass (BNF): farm waste, animal waste, urban waste, and non-
                                       forest wood;
                                     • Biomass from Collected Wood (BFC): manually collected native forest wood for
                                       domestic purposes;
                                     • Commercial Biomass from Forest Exploitation Activities (BLC): commercially
                                       produced firewood and charcoal;
                                     • Technological Biomass (BT): use of liquid fuels (biofuels) and cogeneration
                                       technologies.

                                     Data
5 United States Census               Unfortunately, the actual data available for biomass energy is scarce. However, it
Bureau,‘World Population Pro-
file: 1998’, source:
                                     is possible to estimate energy consumption values with a certain degree of error
http://www.census.gov.               using a combination of social and economic parameters and natural resource
                                     data. The basic data that were used for this study were:
6 Food and Agriculture Organi-
zation of the United Nations,        • Population: based on information from the United States Census Bureau.5
‘State of the World’s Forests’,
1999.
                                     • Percentage of rural population: extracted from the Food and Agriculture Orga-
                                       nization () report, State of the World’s Forests.6
7 INFOENER, Instituto de             • Rural population biomass: based on averages of data and energy indices from
Eletrotécnica e Energia,
Universidade de São Paulo,
                                       a number of sources that support the Instituto de Electrotácnica e Energia of
Database published in                  the University of São Paolo (—the Institute of Electricity and
http://infoener.iee.usp.br.            Energy).7
                                                                         371


        1 quad   (
                 equivalent to
                                  2.1 firewood   )   108 inhab./year inhab./day

• Forest data by country: based on information culled from State of the World’s
  Forests, including:
   •   country area
   •   total forest area
   •   total forestation area
   •   annual deforestation area
   •   annual reforestation area                                                        8 Morato de Andrade, Carlos
                                                                                        Américo,‘Florestas, Madeira e
• Commercial deforestation area (Ac): derived from annual commercial wood               susa Aplicacoes,’ in-house pub-
  production information in the  publication, State of the World’s Forests.          lication IEE/USP, February 2000.
  The actual calculation was based on the average rate of 120 t/ha of firewood
  produced.8
• Non-commercial deforestation area (ADNC): based on the di›erence between
  the total annual deforestation and commercial deforestation.

Structuring the model
The foundation of the model is the premise that total biomass use is equal to the
sum of non-forest biomass, non-commercial biomass from native forests, com-
mercial biomass from forest exploitation, and technological biomass. Thus, the
basic equation used for this study is:
                              B = BT + BNF + BFC + BLC
   The model was used to determine the individual values of the four components
of biomass energy use in 122 countries, which are cumulatively responsible for
95% of global energy consumption. The values of the four components are
depicted for all 122 countries in Table 1 (page xx). These figures were determined
using the methodology described below.

Technological biomass (BT)
                                                                                        9 Cogeneration is a process by
Many developed countries and a few developing countries have well-established           which industrial waste is used
biomass energy production programs. A primary component of these programs               to produce heat or electricity.

is cogeneration of electricity.9 The category BT includes the entire output of liquid   10 Also known as ethanol. In
fuels (biofuels), including ethyl alcohol.10 Relatively accurate BT values can be       addition to being a fairly
obtained from the United States Department of Energy,11 from the International          common ingredient in indus-
                                                                                        trial chemicals and medicines,
Energy Agency12 databases, and from information supplied by individual coun-            ethyl alcohol may be used both
tries. Cumulatively, approximately seven quads of BT energy are currently being         as an additive to gasoline and
generated in eight countries:                                                           as a fuel by itself.

United States        1.86 quads                                                         11 EIA, Department of Energy,
                                                                                        USA,‘Country Analysis Brief’,
Brazil               1.00 quads                                                         http:/www.eia.doc.gov/emeu/
Sweden               0.82 quads                                                         world/country.
Germany              0.72 quads
                                                                                        12 IEA, International Energy
Norway               0.70 quads                                                         Agency,‘Key World Energy Sta-
Japan                0.48 quads                                                         tistics, 1998’, Paris 1999.
Canada               0.46 quads
France               0.41 quads
                            372       
                                   Commercial biomass from forest exploitation activities (BLC)
                                   BLC includes all biomass derived from commercial wood (MLC) used for firewood
                                   and charcoal production. Values for BLC are relatively easy to determine, since
                                   there are accurate data on MLC values for each country.

                                   figure 1
                                   world biomass energy (quads) – minimum values (b=42.69)




                                   Non-forest biomass (BNF) and biomass from collected wood (BFC)
                                   Because of insufficient accurate data, BNF and BFC are more difficult to determine
                                   than the other two biomass categories. In order to establish a value with a safe
                                   margin of error for these biomass energy components, the model used additional
                                   data on population, forest, and economics for the various countries. The follow-
                                   ing data was established for each country:
                                      Rural Population Biomass (BR), measured in quads per year. The model used
                                      an estimated value for the basic needs of rural inhabitants, with the assump-
                                      tion that they had no access to electrical power. This factor varied with avail-
                                      ability of alternative fuel sources such as liquefied petroleum gas ().13
13 LPG is typically a mixture of      Energy Obtained from Burning Entire Non-Commercial Deforested Areas
propane and butane.
                                      (0.00157ADNC). Only countries with large forest areas and a high rate of
                                      deforestation have a free ADNC area from which to obtain fuel wood.
                                      The variables that were determined and applied using this data included: Bio-
                                   mass Lost in Burned Areas (BQ) and A Portion of the Commercial Biomass
                                   Energy, Firewood and Charcoal Produced (BCP).
                                      Two basic equations were proposed in the model:
                                      BFC + BQ = 0.00157ADNC: Collected wood biomass plus biomass lost in burned
                                   areas must be equal to biomass from non-commercial deforested areas.
                                      BR = BFC + BNF + BCP: Rural population biomass energy must be equal to col-
                                   lected wood biomass energy plus non-forest biomass energy plus part of the com-
                                   mercial biomass energy, firewood, and charcoal produced in the country.
                                      Firewood and charcoal biomass (BLC) are used in part for manufacturing and
                                   in part by rural populations. In most of the countries where there is no rural power
                                                                        373
supply, BLC biomass is the sole source of energy for the rural population (BCP =
BLC). For the purposes of this model, industrial use of BLC can be ignored.
   There are three basic scenarios that can occur in BNF and BFC-consuming
countries:

Scenario 1: BLC >BR
   In this case, there is enough commercially produced charcoal and firewood to
supply the rural population. The most probable situation will be: BNF = BFC = 0.
Excess BLC will be used by the urban population or by local manufacturing plants.

Scenario 2: BLC <BR and 0.00157ADNC <BR –BLC
   In this case, the rural population is supplied by BLC + BFC + BNF, the values for
which would be as follows:
   BFC = 0.00157ADNC
   BLC, determined for each country based on the  forest report
   BR – 0.00157ADNC > BNF > BR – BLC – 0.00157ADNC
   BNF is usually close to BR – BLC – 0.00157ADNC and only approaches the other
limit, BR – 0.000157ADNC, when there is a significant manufacturing activity that
uses firewood and/or charcoal.

Scenario 3: BLC <BR and 0.00157ADNC =BR –BLC
   In this case, non-commercial forest is enough to supply BR – BLC, and there is
no need for non-forest biomass BNF. Therefore:
   BNF = 0
   BR > BFC> BR – BLC
   In this case, BFC should approximate BR – BLC and will approximate BR only
when there is significant industrial activity that relies on firewood and/or char-
coal.
   These three scenarios provide the energy components in the various countries,
since BT and BLC have already been calculated.
   If biomass from collected wood is less than the energy obtained from burning
entire non-commercial deforested areas (BFC < 0.00157ADNC) there will be biomass
burning and the di›erence between these energy outputs will be the energy lost.
When BFC = 0.00157ADNC, there will be no burning biomass, meaning that this is a
better use of forest energy. Table 1 (see page xx) and Figures 1 and 2 show BT and
BBLC values for all countries, as well as possible variations of BFC and BNF. The
results obtained worldwide are the following:
                         BT      = 7.36     quads/year
14.55 <                  BNF     ≤ 18.82    quads/year
4.89 ≤                   BFC     ≤ 5.48     quads/year
                         BLC     = 15.89    quads/year
42.69 quads/year ≤       B       ≤ 47.55    quads/year

   The unexpected result for non-forest biomass, which averaged about 16 quads,
or 36% of the total, is closely related to activities in China and India, which
together boast 37% of the global population. China and India use 6.43 quads and
4.15 quads of non-forest biomass respectively. The high percentage of global non-
forest biomass is further explained by the cumulative total of China, India,
374      
      Bangladesh, Indonesia, and Pakistan. The BNF values for these last three are 0.83
      quads in Bangladesh, 0.40 quads in Indonesia, and 0.71 quads in Pakistan.
          The projected trend for the foreseeable future is a quick growth of technologi-
      cal biomass (BT) and a reduction of collected fuelwood (BFC) due to systematic
      worldwide campaigns to reduce deforestation of native forests. It should be
      expected that commercial biomass (BLC) will remain constant or decrease slightly
      , but activities of this nature are also expected to shift gradually from native forests
      to reforested plantations. Charcoal production has been shifting toward depen-
      dence on reforested plantations to such an extent that in a few years no charcoal
      will be created from native forest wood. Substitution of natural gas or  for
      cooking firewood should further reduce BLC. Many governments have intensified
      e›orts to reduce domestic use of firewood because of the health hazards associ-
      ated with it, which should result in faster substitution in some areas. However, for
      many rural populations, collected wood is still the only energy solution.
          Despite insufficient and inaccurate date, the model allows for a relative degree
      of certainty in the calculation of energy biomass and its four components for the
      122 countries selected. As new information on rural energy use becomes available
      for more developing countries, the accuracy of the model will obviously be
      improved.
          It will be extremely important to monitor the possible growth of BT and the
      reduction of BFC, which is expected to become negligible in approximately 20
      years.

      figure 2
      world biomass energy (quads) – maximum values (b=47.55)




      Carbon emissions
      The energy sector is the primary anthropogenic source of air pollution at the
      global level. It releases about 6.3 billion tons of carbon per year. These tons are gen-
      erated during the production of about 376 quads of energy. Carbon is generated
      at the rate of 16.8 x 106 tons of carbon per quad of energy.
          Energy biomass produces 31.5 x 106 tons of carbon per quad of energy. There-
      fore, in principle, this means that there will be 1.4 billion tons of carbon in the
                                                                               375
figure 3
carbon emissions from forest activity
(millions of tons per year), minimum values




atmosphere as a result of energy biomass use. It is important, however, to identify
the origins of the various biomass sources that might be emitting this consider-
able amount of carbon. Table 2 and Figures 4 and 5 show probable biomass carbon
emission values.
    The calculation of total carbon       table 2
emissions, including all biomass
energy applications, is now as fol- biomass energy                 carbon released source
                                        (quads/year)               (10 6 t/year)
lows:
    BT does not produce a net carbon BBT = 7.36                    CT = 232        Reforestation/Farming
                                         14.55 ≤ BNF ≤ 18.82       458 ≤ CNF ≤ 593 Farming and Cattle Raising
emission, because it depends on 4.89 ≤ BFC ≤ 5.48                  154 ≤ CFC ≤ 173 Native Forest
reforestation/farming;                   BLC = 15.89               CLC = 501       Native Forest (partial)
    BNF does not produce a net Burned Areas
carbon emission, since it is also 6.13 ≤ BQ ≤ 6.72                 193 ≤ CQ ≤ 212  Native Forest
                                         Reforestation (177x106ha) CS = -1.106(4)  Carbon sequestration by reforestation
derived from farms;
    BFC comes from native forests
and produces between 154 and 173 million tons of carbon per year
    BLC is comprised of BLCN and BLCR, which are derived from firewood and char-
coal,14 and typically produced with techniques that necessitate the destruction            14 Morato de Andrade, Carlos
and reforestation of native forest areas. In a previous study, the following set of        Américo, 2000.
                                                          15
values were established for these two components:                                          15 Morato de Andrade, Carlos
    5.84 < BLCN < 7.17 (quads)                                                             Américo, 2000.

    10.05 > BLCR > 8.72.
    Carbon emissions associated with these biomass components will be as follows:
    184 < CLCN < 226 (106t/year)
    CLCR = 0 (reforestation)
    BQ: burned areas cause emissions of 193 to 212 x 106 t of carbon.
    The conclusion of this study is that the total carbon released by forest activity
is actually made up of just three components derived from BFC, BQ, and BLCN.
376      
      figure 4
      carbon emissions from forest activity
      (millions of tons per year), maximum values




      According to this model, the total carbon released varies from 550 to 592 million
      tons per year.
         Given the limitations previously mentioned, energy activity is responsible for
      only BFC and BLCN, which adds up to between 338 and 399 x 106 tons of carbon. This
      value is much lower than the total 1.4 billion tons that might be attributable to the
      energy sector if all of the 45 quads of energy biomass were emitting carbon. As
      shown, only 25% of energy biomass energy production generates net carbon emis-
      sions. Further, world reforestation, which is happening at a rate of 17 million
      hectares per year and spreads over 177 million hectares, also has the capacity to
      sequester some 1.106 million tons of carbon per year. Based on this information,
      an equation that accounts for all forest activities, including manufacturing, burn-
      ing biomass, forest burning, and reforestation, ultimately reveals a net sequestra-
      tion of 550 million tons of carbon per year. Thus, it should be concluded that the
      tactic for combating carbon emissions should concentrate on diminishing fossil
      fuel use, rather than decreasing forest activities.

      Latin America
      Table 3 depicts the biomass energy balance in Latin America. Latin America con-
      tains several large tracts of forest, including the Amazon, which is the largest
      humid tropical forest in the world. Of the 45 quads of global biomass energy, Latin
      America is responsible for the following amounts shown on Table 3.

      What conclusions can we draw from this data?
      The primary implication of these figures is that the most significant technological
      biomass energy activity in the region is the Brazilian sugar cane and ethanol pro-
      gram, which is responsible for 14% of technological biomass (BT) worldwide.16 As
      defined previously, BT includes biomass and biofuel activities. Another trend that
      is demonstrated by Table 3 is that, unlike Asian countries, which tend to use their
      agricultural residues to the fullest extent possible, use of non-forest biomass, BNF,
      for energy production is virtually unheard of in Latin America.
                                                                          377

 table 3   biomass in south america

                              bt        b nf          b fc          b lc   q
Argentina            0.06     0         0–0           0.01 – 0.01   0.05   0-0
Belize               0.01     0         0–0           0 - 0.01      0      0 - 0.01
Bolivia              0.04     0         0–0           0.02 – 0.03   0.01   0.86 - 0.87
Brazil               1.93     1         0–0           0.14 – 0.14   0.79   0.16 - 0.16
Chile                0.11     0         0–0           0–0           0.11   0-0
Colombia             0.18     0         0–0           0–0           0.18   0.21 - 0.21
Costa Rica           0.03     0         0–0           0–0           0.03   0.02 - 0.02
Cuba                 0.05     0.02      0–0           0 - 0.01      0.02   0 - 0.01
Dominican Republic   0.04     0         0–0           0.02 – 0.03   0.01   0 - 0.01
Ecuador              0.06     0         0–0           0–0           0.06   0.19 - 0.19
El Salvador          0.03     0         0.02 - 0.02   0.01 – 0.01   0      0-0
Guatemala            0.13     0         0–0           0–0           0.13   0-0
Honduras             0.06     0         0–0           0–0           0.06   0.09 - 0.09
Mexico               0.31     0         0–0           0.11 – 0.20   0.15   0.38 - 0.47
Nicaragua            0.03     0         0–0           0.02 – 0.04   0      0.20 - 0.22
Panama               0.02     0         0–0           0.01 – 0.03   0      0.07 - 0.09
Paraguay             0.06     0         0–0           0–0           0.06   0.41 - 0.41
Peru                 0.08     0         0–0           0.01 – 0.03   0.06   0.24 - 0.26
Uruguay              0.03     0         0–0           0–0           0.03   0-0
Venezuela            0.04     0         0–0           0.02 – 0.03   0.01   0.74 - 0.75

Total                3.3      1.02      0.02 - 0.02   0.37 – 0.57   1.76   3.57 - 3.77



    It is also important to note that Latin America is experiencing substantial prob-
lems with urban migration, resulting in massive depletion of rural populations in
almost every country. This has limited the region’s biomass energy requirements
almost entirely to commercial or manually collected firewood without any other
type of energy generation.
    The figures for commercial firewood (BLC) indicate that 11% of the total global
activity in this area is concentrated in Latin America, which is home to 8% of the
global population. Considering the size of the forest in the region, and its tropical
forest resources, one might expect far more intense forestry activities. The primary
reason for this low activity level is most likely insufficient economic and financial
resources.While the current extraction methods being used in the Amazon forest are
far from sustainable, with the implementation of sustainable forestry management,
countries like Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela, Peru, and Bolivia could produce several
times current BLC amounts in the long run. Some Central American countries, such
as Costa Rica, Guatemala, and Honduras have already shown begun significant com-
mercial timber harvesting. Unfortunately this production is not always sustainable,
and which will require international financial support and ecological education.
    The amount of energy produced with non-commercially collected wood from
native forests (BFC) is approximately 0.37 to 0.57 quads per year, which is approx-
imately 10% of the international total. It is estimated that of the 481 million people
living in Latin America, between 40 and 60 million still use manually collected
firewood as a primary source of energy. This means that this relatively inefficient,
generally environmentally detrimental activity is still strong in the region, espe-
cially in Brazil and Mexico, the two most populous countries in the region.
Together, the rural populations of these two countries are responsible for over half
of the burning of manually collected firewood. Considering that BFC is undeniably
non-sustainable, and that the amount of collected wood in Latin America is com-
paratively high, this activity must decrease significantly in the next decade.
                              378      
                                            With regard to energy biomass and forestry activities, the primary issue that
                                        must be addressed is extensive burned areas that stem, primarily, from the expan-
17 For a more detailed discus-
                                        sion of farming and cattle-raising areas. Approximately 60% of the burned areas
sion, see Morato de Andrade,
'Florestas, Madeira e suas Apli-        all over the world are located on the Latin American continent, mirroring the
cações,' 2000 (in Portuguese).          urgent need for measures to reduce deforestation.17
                                                                                      Due to its economic strength, the size of
   table 4
                                                                                  its population, and the fact that it is home
  Total Average Biomass      3.30 quads                7% of the total worldwide  to the largest tracts of forest in the region,
  BT                         1.02 quads               14% of the total worldwide  Brazil’s activities will be critical in address-
  BNF                        practically zero
  BFC                        0.37 - 0.57 quads        10% of the total worldwide
                                                                                  ing current energy and forestry problems.
  BLC                        1.76 quads               11% of the total worldwide  For this reason, the following section
  Q                          approximately 3.7 quads  60 % of the total worldwide focuses specifically on Brazil.

                                    Brazil
                                    As the largest, most populous nation in Latin America, Brazil will play an impor-
                                    tant role in addressing the current energy and forestry problems. With approxi-
                                    mately 5.5 million km2 of forest area, Brazil has the largest tract of tropical forests
18 Official Brazilian Statistical   in the region. The population of Brazil is 166 million,18 33 million of whom live in
Institute (IBGE).                   rural areas. The country consumes approximately 10 quads19 of energy per year, of
19 Official Energy Balance for      which 20% is produced with biomass. The two quads of biomass energy being
Brazil, BEM 1998, Ministry of       consumed annually in Brazil are divided more or less evenly between forest and
Mines and Energy.                   sugar cane activities. This latter is especially significant because the Pro-Alcool
20 Bagasse is the crushed fiber     Program, established almost 30 years ago, is the biggest biomass transportation
that is left over after the juice   fuel experiment ever conducted. Approximately 4 million hectares in Brazil cur-
has been extracted from sugar       rently produce about 300 million tons of sugar cane per year. According to 1997
cane.
                                    data, 9.7 billion liters of hydrated alcohol, 5.6 billion liters of anhydrous alcohol,
21 The complete production          87 million tons of wet bagasse,20 and 14.8 million tons of sugar are obtained from
model and the Brazilian use of      sugar cane.21
sugar cane are described in
Morato de Andrade, and Bodin-           Over the past 30 years, due to agricultural advances, the sucrose content of
aud,‘Modelamento de Cana-de-        Brazilian sugar cane went from 8% to 15%. This practically doubled the ethyl alco-
açúcar Brasileira,’ 2000 (in Por-   hol and sugar production. The amount of revenue-producing sugar cane products
tuguese). The same publication
also contains comprehensive         increased from 40 liters to 80 liters of alcohol/ton of sugar cane and from 80kg to
technical indexes regarding         140kg sugar/ton of sugar cane between 1970 and 1999. This is attributable to sig-
sugar cane processing in Brazil.    nificant improvements in sugar cane production and byproduct processing.
                                        Brazilian sugar cane generates approximately 0.3 quads of energy in the form
                                    of alcohol (equal to 7.5 million tons of oil), and approximately 0.7 quads of energy
                                    as sugar cane bagasse, which is partially used in alcohol and sugar production.
                                    There is enormous potential for electricity cogeneration, which is beginning to
                                    make some headway at the national level. Estimates indicate that the available
                                    bagasse could produce more than 2 of energy using cogeneration.

                                    Deforestation
                                    The portion of Brazil that is forested is approximately 549x106ha. The area of
                                    reforestation is 4.9x106ha. Deforestation has varied significantly from year to year,
                                    but is currently about 1.5x106ha per year. According to State of the World’s Forests
                                    ( 1999), Brazilian firewood and charcoal production uses 85x106m3 and indus-
                                    trial wood uses 135x106m3, resulting in a deforestation rate of 1.31x106ha. Added to
                                    that is approximately 0.19x106ha in which non-commercial activities like slash and
                                    burn agriculture and hand collection of firewood are conducted, resulting in a
                                                                                 379
total average deforestation rate of about            table 5
1.5x106 ha.
                                                    Reforestation industrial timber       up to 150x103ha
                                                    Native forest industrial timber       between 653 x103ha and 803x103ha
Reforestation
                                                    Native forest firewood and charcoal   between 356 x103ha and 506x103ha
Table 5 shows an annual 0.25% decrease of           Reforestation firewood and charcoal   up to 150x103ha
Brazilian forest area, due mainly to deforesta-     Hand collected firewood               89x103ha
                                                    Burned areas                          102x103ha
tion in the Amazon region. Reforestation in
Brazil is still very limited, and a good portion Deforestation Total                      1.500x103ha

of the commercial timber activities are still
carried out in native forests. Commercial activities clear about 150x103 reforested
hectares per year, compared to 1,150x103ha in native forests. Non-commercial
activities in Brazil are conducted on 191x103ha per year. The total area where fire-
wood is manually collected is 89 x103ha/year, and slash-and-burn agriculture
destroys about 102x103ha/year. These last two activities are conducted only in
native forests.
   There has been some progress, however. An important pulp and paper indus-
try sector, and a steel mill industrial area that produces approximately 50 million
tons of iron and steel per year, have both begun stimulating reforestation and
charcoal production almost exclusively from
                                                    table 6 balance of carbon emissions and sequestration in brazil
reforestation firewood. It is also predicted
that the consumption of firewood will origin                                                       annual carbon balance
decrease in the future.                            506 x 103ha for native forest firewood
                                                    and charcoal production                      Emission of 25 x 106t
Carbon emissions from forest activities         191 x 103ha for hand collected firewood and
                                                burned areas                                     Emission of 9.4 x 106t
Despite poor management of forestry activi- 4.9 x 103ha total reforestation area                 Capture of 30.6 x 106t
ties in the Amazon, forestry and associated 4 x 103ha sugar cane                                 Capture of 8 x 106t
energy activities in Brazil are fairly balanced Global Result                                    Capture of 4.2 x 106t
with regard to carbon emissions. Table 6
depicts a rough estimation of the current balance between carbon emissions and
sequestration in Brazil.22                                                                      22 For further information, see
                                                                                                Morato de Andrade, Florestas,
                                                                                                ‘Madeira e suas Aplicações,’
Brazil and the Clean Development Mechanism                                                      2000, and Morato de Andrade
Fundamentally, the Clean Development Mechanism () is a component of the                      and Bodinaud ‘Modelamento
                                                                                                de Cana-de-açúcar Brasileira,’
Kyoto Protocol that allows industrialized countries to meet their emissions reduc-              2000 (both in Portuguese).
tion commitments by investing in projects in developing countries. The goal of the
 is to reduce CO2 emissions while engendering sustainable economic growth
in the host country. Brazil is especially qualified for such ventures, due to its size,
its unique forest environment, and the stability of its agricultural sector. Several
proposals that will fulfill the emissions abatement and development requirements
of the  clause have already been put forth regarding the Amazon forest, the
plains, and the Atlantic forest in Brazil.
    The ethanol program will also probably be a candidate  project, since there
is considerable room for further development and expansion of this initiative.
This program is very compatible with climate change mitigation goals, as it has
already replaced the equivalent of 200,000 barrels fossil fuel per day with ethanol.
No CO2 is emitted during the complete cycle of production and use of ethanol for
transportation. It is even possible to demonstrate that sugarcane production and
its transformation into alcohol may have sequestration benefits.
380      
      Conclusion
      With the development of advanced biomass technologies, this previously
      frowned-upon form of energy has the potential to be a key component of climate
      change mitigation. However, there is a dearth of precise information on current
      biomass uses, which could easily impede its advancement as an integral part of
      emissions abatement strategies. The model discussed in this paper was specifically
      designed to determine the values for the four di›erent types of biomass energy by
      extrapolating information from various related, but often non-specific, sources.
      The values that were determined using this procedure are compatible with the
      overall energy consumption patterns and the social and economic status of the 122
      countries examined in the study.
          Even considering the uncertainties of the available data, the model established
      value ranges for the non-commercial uses of biomass. It also demonstrated that
      between 43 and 48 quads of biomass energy are consumed globally each year. Of
      this, 7.4 quads per year are attributable to technological biomass (BT) and 15.9
      quads per year are composed of biomass from commercial forest exploitation
      activities (BLC). The model also targeted ranges for two important components of
      biomass, which have been very difficult to determine accurately due to insufficient
      data: non-forest biomass (BNF), which produces 15 to 19 quads of energy per year,
      and collected wood (BFC), which generates between 4.9 and 5.5 quads per year.
          Overall, the model indicates that non-commercial biomass constitutes around
      50% of the global biomass total. This category includes non-forest biomass, which
      is responsible for about 37% of the global total, and collected wood, which
      accounts for about 13% of the global total.
          The implication of the discussion and figures presented in the Latin America
      case is that most biomass activities in the region are not sustainable. At this point,
      this is primarily attributable to insufficient funding for environmentally positive
      projects or initiatives such as reforestation and improved natural resources man-
      agement.
          Due to its geopolitical, ecological, and agricultural attributes, Brazil is likely to
      play an important role in the areas of both forest and non-forest biomass activi-
      ties. Several reforestation projects are already being conducted and the ethanol
      program has been an extraordinary success, with excellent potential as a vehicle
      for the .
          It can be expected that  activities will help the region expand sustainable
      energy availability, while improving natural resource management. Brazil has the
      potential to be a trailblazer on this front, and the projects that have already been
      developed for and within Brazil may even be considered pilots for other technol-
      ogy development projects in the region and around the world.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       table 1




                         (millions)
                        Population
                                           population
                                      Percentage rural
                                                                          BR
                                                         biomass (Quads/yr)
                                                            rural population
                                                                                     (Quads/yr) (E)
                                                                                  without biomass
                                                                               Energy consumption
                                                                                                      B=(Bmin+Bmax)/2
                                                                                                      Biomass energy
                                                                                                                          (Quads/yr)
                                                                                                                         Total energy
                                                                                                                                        (Quads/yr)
                                                                                                                                               BT
                                                                                                                                                                      BR
                                                                                                                                                     biomass (Quads/yr)
                                                                                                                                                        rural population
                                                                                                                                                                                   (Quads/yr)
                                                                                                                                                                            energy (BNF) (min)
                                                                                                                                                                           Non-forest biomass
                                                                                                                                                                                                         (Quads/yr)
                                                                                                                                                                                                  energy (BNF) (max)
                                                                                                                                                                                                 Non-forest biomass
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          (min) (Quads/yr)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         mass energy (BFC)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Collected wood bio-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               (max) (Quads/yr)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               mass energy (BFC)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Collected wood bio-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   (BLC) (min) (Quads/yr)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    and charcoal energy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Commercial firewood
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (Quads/yr)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            energy (min) BQmin
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Burning biomass
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         (Quads/yr)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 energy (min) BQmax
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Burning biomass
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          (Quads/yr)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             B (max)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Biomass energy
WORLD               6,014.00           0.53                   32.54              376.00               45.12             421.12          7.360           14.55                18.82                    4.89                  5.48                 15.89                   6.13                    6.72               42.69               47.55

AFGHANISTAN           25.80            0.79                     0.20                  0.02             0.24               0.26          0.000            0.02                  0.09                  0.11                  0.11                   0.07                  0.00                     0.00                 0.20               0.27
ALBANIA                 3.33           0.62                     0.02                  0.04             0.03               0.07          0.000            0.01                  0.02                  0.00                  0.00                   0.01                  0.00                     0.00                 0.02               0.03
ALGERIA                31.10           0.43                     0.13                  1.36             0.14               1.50          0.000            0.10                  0.12                  0.01                  0.01                   0.02                  0.00                     0.00                 0.13               0.15
ANGOLA                10.60            0.68                     0.07                  0.09             0.10               0.19          0.000            0.00                  0.00                  0.01                  0.07                   0.06                  0.24                     0.30                 0.07               0.13
ARGENTINA             36.70            0.11                     0.04                  2.60             0.06               2.66          0.000            0.00                  0.00                  0.01                  0.01                   0.05                  0.00                     0.00                 0.06               0.06
ARMENIA                 3.47           0.31                     0.01                  0.10             0.01               0.11          0.000            0.01                  0.01                  0.00                  0.00                   0.00                  0.00                     0.00                 0.01               0.01
AUSTRALIA             18.40            0.15                     0.03                  4.50             0.25               4.75          0.220            0.00                  0.00                  0.00                  0.00                   0.03                  0.00                     0.00                 0.25               0.25
AUSTRIA                 8.05           0.35                     0.03                  1.29             0.27               1.56          0.230            0.00                  0.00                  0.00                  0.00                   0.04                  0.00                     0.00                 0.27               0.27
AZERBAIJAN              7.74           0.44                     0.03                  0.71             0.02               0.73          0.000            0.01                  0.03                  0.00                  0.00                   0.00                  0.00                     0.00                 0.01               0.03
BAHRAIN                 0.62           0.09                     0.00                  0.31             0.00               0.31          0.000            0.00                  0.00                  0.00                  0.00                   0.00                  0.00                     0.00                 0.00               0.00
BANGLADESH           128.00            0.81                     1.04                  0.37             1.19               1.56          0.000            0.68                  0.98                  0.06                  0.06                   0.30                  0.00                     0.00                 1.04               1.34
BELARUS               10.41            0.28                     0.03                  1.03             0.01               1.04          0.000            0.00                  0.00                  0.00                  0.00                   0.01                  0.00                     0.00                 0.01               0.01
BELGIUM               10.20            0.03                     0.00                  2.58             0.10               2.68          0.100            0.00                  0.00                  0.00                  0.00                   0.00                  0.00                     0.00                 0.10               0.10
BELIZE                  0.23           0.54                     0.00                  0.01             0.01               0.02          0.000            0.00                  0.00                  0.00                  0.01                   0.00                  0.00                     0.01                 0.00               0.01
BOLIVIA                 7.83           0.38                     0.03                  0.13             0.04               0.17          0.000            0.00                  0.00                  0.02                  0.03                   0.01                  0.86                     0.87                 0.03               0.04
BRAZIL               164.30            0.20                     0.33                  7.44             1.93               9.37          1.000            0.00                  0.00                  0.14                  0.14                   0.79                  0.16                     0.16                 1.93               1.93
BRUNEI                  0.32           0.30                     0.00                  0.06             0.00               0.06          0.000            0.00                  0.00                  0.00                  0.00                   0.00                  0.00                     0.00                 0.00               0.00
BULGARIA                8.24           0.31                     0.03                  1.22             0.03               1.25          0.000            0.01                  0.02                  0.00                  0.00                   0.01                  0.00                     0.00                 0.02               0.03
CAMEROON               15.00           0.54                     0.08                  0.08             0.13               0.21          0.000            0.00                  0.00                  0.00                  0.00                   0.13                  0.04                     0.04                 0.13               0.13
CANADA                30.70            0.23                     0.07                 12.20             0.55              12.75          0.460            0.00                  0.00                  0.00                  0.00                   0.09                  0.00                     0.00                 0.55               0.55
CHAD                    7.20           0.77                     0.06                  0.05             0.07               0.12          0.000            0.00                  0.00                  0.05                  0.06                   0.01                  0.04                     0.05                 0.06               0.07
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        biomass energy (world, countries afghanistan–germany)




CHILE                 14.80            0.16                     0.02                  0.89             0.11               1.00          0.000            0.00                  0.00                  0.00                  0.00                   0.11                  0.00                     0.00                 0.11               0.11
CHINA              1,247.00            0.68                     8.48                 37.00             9.93             46.93           0.000            6.00                  6.85                  1.63                  1.63                   1.87                  0.00                     0.00                 9.50              10.35
COLOMBIA              39.30            0.26                     0.10                  1.30             0.18               1.48          0.000            0.00                  0.00                  0.00                  0.00                   0.18                  0.21                     0.21                 0.18               0.18
CONGO DEM. REP.       50.50            0.71                     0.36                  0.12             0.47               0.59          0.000            0.00                  0.00                  0.00                  0.00                   0.47                  0.65                     0.65                 0.47               0.47
CONGO REP.              2.58           0.40                     0.01                  0.02             0.02               0.04          0.000            0.00                  0.00                  0.00                  0.00                   0.02                  0.03                     0.03                 0.02               0.02
COSTA RICA              3.60           0.50                     0.02                  0.09             0.03               0.12          0.000            0.00                  0.00                  0.00                  0.00                   0.03                  0.02                     0.02                 0.03               0.03
CROATIA                 4.67           0.43                     0.02                  0.40             0.01               0.41          0.000            0.00                  0.00                  0.00                  0.00                   0.01                  0.00                     0.00                 0.01               0.01
CUBA                   11.04           0.23                     0.03                  0.63             0.05               0.68          0.020            0.00                  0.00                  0.00                  0.01                   0.02                  0.00                     0.01                 0.04               0.05
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  




CZECH REPUBLIC        10.32            0.34                     0.04                  1.90             0.05               1.95          0.040            0.00                  0.00                  0.00                  0.00                   0.01                  0.00                     0.00                 0.05               0.05
DENMARK                 5.33           0.15                     0.01                  0.97             0.11               1.08          0.110            0.00                  0.00                  0.00                  0.00                   0.00                  0.00                     0.00                 0.11               0.11
DOMINICAN REPUBLIC      8.00           0.37                     0.03                  0.20             0.04               0.24          0.000            0.00                  0.00                  0.02                  0.03                   0.01                  0.00                     0.01                 0.03               0.04
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 381




ECUADOR                12.30           0.40                     0.05                  0.37             0.06               0.43          0.000            0.00                  0.00                  0.00                  0.00                   0.06                  0.19                     0.19                 0.06               0.06
EGYPT                 67.20            0.55                     0.37                  1.64             0.28               1.92          0.000            0.20                  0.30                  0.00                  0.00                   0.03                  0.00                     0.00                 0.23               0.33
EL SALVADOR             5.84           0.54                     0.03                  0.09             0.03               0.12          0.000            0.02                  0.02                  0.01                  0.01                   0.00                  0.00                     0.00                 0.03               0.03
EQUATORIAL GUINEA       0.48           0.56                     0.00                  0.04             0.01               0.05          0.000            0.00                  0.00                  0.01                  0.01                   0.00                  0.00                     0.00                 0.01               0.01
ETHIOPIA              59.70            0.84                     0.50                  0.05             0.53               0.58          0.000            0.05                  0.10                  0.00                  0.00                   0.45                  0.00                     0.00                 0.50               0.55
 FINLAND                5.11           0.36                     0.02                  1.19             0.36               1.55          0.310            0.00                  0.00                  0.00                  0.00                   0.05                  0.00                     0.00                 0.36               0.36
FRANCE                59.00            0.25                     0.15                  9.73             0.50             10.23           0.410            0.00                  0.00                  0.00                  0.00                   0.09                  0.00                     0.00                 0.50               0.50
GABON                   1.40           0.48                     0.01                  0.05             0.02               0.07          0.000            0.00                  0.00                  0.00                  0.00                   0.02                  0.10                     0.10                 0.02               0.02
GEORGIA                 5.17           0.41                     0.02                  0.11             0.01               0.12          0.000            0.01                  0.01                  0.00                  0.00                   0.00                  0.00                     0.00                 0.01               0.01
GERMANY               82.00            0.13                     0.11                 14.18             0.75             14.93           0.720            0.00                  0.00                  0.00                  0.00                   0.03                  0.00                     0.00                 0.75               0.75
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     table 1




                        (millions)
                       Population
                                          population
                                     Percentage rural
                                                                         BR
                                                        biomass (Quads/yr)
                                                           rural population
                                                                                    (Quads/yr) (E)
                                                                                 without biomass
                                                                              Energy consumption
                                                                                                     B=(Bmin+Bmax)/2
                                                                                                     Biomass energy
                                                                                                                        (Quads/yr)
                                                                                                                       Total energy
                                                                                                                                      (Quads/yr)
                                                                                                                                             BT
                                                                                                                                                                    BR
                                                                                                                                                   biomass (Quads/yr)
                                                                                                                                                      rural population
                                                                                                                                                                                 (Quads/yr)
                                                                                                                                                                          energy (BNF) (min)
                                                                                                                                                                         Non-forest biomass
                                                                                                                                                                                                       (Quads/yr)
                                                                                                                                                                                                energy (BNF) (max)
                                                                                                                                                                                               Non-forest biomass
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (min) (Quads/yr)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                       mass energy (BFC)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Collected wood bio-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             (max) (Quads/yr)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             mass energy (BFC)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Collected wood bio-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 (BLC) (min) (Quads/yr)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  and charcoal energy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Commercial firewood
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (Quads/yr)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          energy (min) BQmin
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Burning biomass
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       (Quads/yr)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               energy (min) BQmax
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Burning biomass
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (Quads/yr)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           B (max)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Biomass energy
GHANA                  18.50          0.63                     0.12                   0.06            0.15              0.21          0.000             0.00                 0.00                   0.12                  0.18                  0.00                   0.06                    0.06                  0.12               0.18
GREECE                 10.58          0.40                     0.04                   1.18            0.03               1.21         0.000             0.01                 0.03                   0.00                  0.00                  0.01                   0.00                    0.00                  0.02               0.04
GUATEMALA               12.00         0.60                     0.07                   0.10            0.13              0.23          0.000             0.00                 0.00                   0.00                  0.00                  0.13                   0.00                    0.00                  0.13               0.13
HONDURAS                 5.92         0.55                     0.03                   0.12            0.06              0.18          0.000             0.00                 0.00                   0.00                  0.00                  0.06                   0.09                    0.09                  0.06               0.06
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    382




HONG KONG                6.70         0.05                     0.00                   0.61            0.01              0.62          0.010             0.00                 0.00                   0.00                  0.00                  0.00                   0.00                    0.00                  0.01               0.01
HUNGARY                10.20          0.35                     0.04                   1.14            0.03               1.17         0.000             0.01                 0.03                   0.00                  0.00                  0.01                   0.00                    0.00                  0.02               0.04
ICELAND                  0.27         0.08                     0.00                   0.05            0.00              0.05          0.000             0.00                 0.00                   0.00                  0.00                  0.00                   0.00                    0.00                  0.00               0.00
INDIA              1,001.00           0.73                     7.31                  12.00            8.15             20.15          0.000             3.80                 4.50                   1.38                  1.38                  2.62                   0.00                    0.00                  7.80               8.50
INDONESIA             216.10          0.63                     1.36                   3.50            2.15               5.65         0.000             0.30                 0.50                   0.26                  0.26                  1.49                   0.00                    0.00                  2.05               2.25
IRAN                   65.20          0.40                     0.26                   4.03            0.22               4.25         0.000             0.17                 0.20                   0.00                  0.00                  0.03                   0.00                    0.00                  0.20               0.23
IRAQ                   22.40          0.25                     0.06                   1.19            0.05               1.24         0.000             0.04                 0.05                   0.00                  0.00                  0.00                   0.00                    0.00                  0.04               0.05
IRELAND                  3.56         0.42                     0.01                   0.48            0.01              0.49          0.000             0.00                 0.01                   0.00                  0.00                  0.00                   0.00                    0.00                  0.00               0.01
ISRAEL                   5.64         0.09                     0.01                   0.69            0.00              0.69          0.000             0.00                 0.00                   0.00                  0.00                  0.00                   0.00                    0.00                  0.00               0.00
ITALY                  56.80          0.33                     0.19                   7.65            0.19               7.84         0.150             0.02                 0.05                   0.00                  0.00                  0.00                   0.00                    0.00                  0.17               0.20
IVORY COAST             15.40         0.55                     0.08                   0.16            0.10              0.26          0.000             0.00                 0.00                   0.00                  0.00                  0.10                   0.00                    0.00                  0.10               0.10
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      biomass energy (countries ghana–paraguay)




JAPAN                 125.72          0.22                     0.28                  21.30            0.50              21.80         0.480             0.00                 0.00                   0.00                  0.00                  0.02                   0.00                    0.00                  0.50               0.50
JORDAN                   4.43         0.27                     0.01                   0.20            0.00              0.20          0.000             0.00                 0.00                   0.00                  0.00                  0.00                   0.00                    0.00                  0.00               0.00
KAZAKSTAN              16.90          0.40                     0.07                   2.07            0.06               2.13         0.000             0.05                 0.07                   0.00                  0.00                  0.00                   0.00                    0.00                  0.05               0.07
KENYA                  28.80          0.70                     0.20                   0.51            0.37              0.88          0.000             0.00                 0.00                   0.00                  0.00                  0.37                   0.00                    0.00                  0.37               0.37
KUWAIT                   1.91         0.03                     0.00                   0.70            0.00              0.70          0.000             0.00                 0.00                   0.00                  0.00                  0.00                   0.00                    0.00                  0.00               0.00
KYRGYZSTAN               4.53         0.61                     0.03                   0.20            0.03              0.23          0.000             0.02                 0.03                   0.00                  0.00                  0.00                   0.00                    0.00                  0.02               0.03
LATVIA                   2.50         0.27                     0.01                   0.03            0.01              0.04          0.000             0.00                 0.01                   0.00                  0.00                  0.00                   0.00                    0.00                  0.00               0.01
LIBYA                    5.65         0.14                     0.01                   0.57            0.01              0.58          0.000             0.00                 0.00                   0.00                  0.00                  0.01                   0.00                    0.00                  0.01               0.01
LITHUANIA                3.60         0.27                     0.01                   0.34            0.01              0.35          0.000             0.00                 0.00                   0.00                  0.00                  0.01                   0.00                    0.00                  0.01               0.01
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     




LUXEMBOURG               0.42         0.03                     0.00                   0.18            0.00              0.18          0.000             0.00                 0.00                   0.00                  0.00                  0.00                   0.00                    0.00                  0.00               0.00
MALAYSIA                21.40         0.45                     0.10                   1.69            0.15               1.84         0.000             0.00                 0.00                   0.01                  0.10                  0.09                   0.11                    0.20                  0.10               0.19
MEXICO               100.00           0.26                     0.26                   5.80            0.31              6.11          0.000             0.00                 0.00                   0.11                  0.20                  0.15                   0.38                    0.47                  0.26               0.35
MOROCCO                29.70          0.47                     0.14                   0.36            0.13              0.49          0.000             0.11                 0.12                   0.00                  0.00                  0.01                   0.00                    0.00                  0.12               0.13
MYANMAR                48.00          0.73                     0.35                   0.11            0.40              0.51          0.000             0.00                 0.06                   0.16                  0.20                  0.19                   0.19                    0.23                  0.35               0.45
NEPAL                  24.30          0.89                     0.22                   0.03            0.27              0.30          0.000             0.03                 0.13                   0.00                  0.00                  0.19                   0.00                    0.00                  0.22               0.32
NETHERLANDS             15.65         0.11                     0.02                   3.88            0.00               3.88         0.000             0.00                 0.00                   0.00                  0.00                  0.00                   0.00                    0.00                  0.00               0.00
NEW ZEALAND              3.59         0.14                     0.01                   0.88            0.07              0.95          0.070             0.00                 0.00                   0.00                  0.00                  0.00                   0.00                    0.00                  0.07               0.07
NICARAGUA                4.72         0.37                     0.02                   0.06            0.03              0.09          0.000             0.00                 0.00                   0.02                  0.04                  0.00                   0.20                    0.22                  0.02               0.04
NIGERIA               114.00          0.59                     0.67                   0.86            1.03               1.89         0.000             0.00                 0.00                   0.00                  0.00                  1.03                   0.00                    0.00                  1.03               1.03
NORTH KOREA             21.20         0.38                     0.08                   2.15            0.09               2.24         0.000             0.04                 0.06                   0.00                  0.00                  0.04                   0.00                    0.00                  0.08               0.10
NORWAY                   4.40         0.26                     0.01                   1.74            0.07               1.81         0.070             0.00                 0.00                   0.00                  0.00                  0.00                   0.00                    0.00                  0.07               0.07
OMAN                     2.26         0.21                     0.00                   0.23            0.00              0.23          0.000             0.00                 0.00                   0.00                  0.00                  0.00                   0.00                    0.00                  0.00               0.00
PAKISTAN              138.00          0.65                     0.90                   1.74            1.04               2.78         0.000             0.57                 0.84                   0.06                  0.06                  0.27                   0.00                    0.00                  0.90               1.17
PANAMA                   2.78         0.43                     0.01                   0.14            0.02              0.16          0.000             0.00                 0.00                   0.01                  0.03                  0.00                   0.07                    0.09                  0.01               0.03
PAPUA NEW GUINEA         4.60         0.83                     0.04                   0.04            0.05              0.09          0.070             0.00                 0.00                   0.00                  0.00                  0.05                   0.12                    0.12                  0.05               0.05
PARAGUAY                 5.29         0.46                     0.02                   0.10            0.06              0.16          0.000             0.00                 0.00                   0.00                  0.00                  0.06                   0.41                    0.41                  0.06               0.06
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          table 1




                             (millions)
                            Population
                                               population
                                          Percentage rural
                                                                              BR
                                                             biomass (Quads/yr)
                                                                rural population
                                                                                         (Quads/yr) (E)
                                                                                      without biomass
                                                                                   Energy consumption
                                                                                                          B=(Bmin+Bmax)/2
                                                                                                          Biomass energy
                                                                                                                             (Quads/yr)
                                                                                                                            Total energy
                                                                                                                                           (Quads/yr)
                                                                                                                                                  BT
                                                                                                                                                                         BR
                                                                                                                                                        biomass (Quads/yr)
                                                                                                                                                           rural population
                                                                                                                                                                                      (Quads/yr)
                                                                                                                                                                               energy (BNF) (min)
                                                                                                                                                                              Non-forest biomass
                                                                                                                                                                                                            (Quads/yr)
                                                                                                                                                                                                     energy (BNF) (max)
                                                                                                                                                                                                    Non-forest biomass
                                                                                                                                                                                                                             (min) (Quads/yr)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            mass energy (BFC)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Collected wood bio-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (max) (Quads/yr)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  mass energy (BFC)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Collected wood bio-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      (BLC) (min) (Quads/yr)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       and charcoal energy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Commercial firewood
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       (Quads/yr)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               energy (min) BQmin
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Burning biomass
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            (Quads/yr)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    energy (min) BQmax
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Burning biomass
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             (Quads/yr)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                B (max)
PERU               26.60                    0.28                     0.07                 0.50              0.08             0.58          0.000             0.00                  0.00                  0.01                   0.03                  0.06                   0.24                    0.26                 0.07           Biomass energy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             0.09
PHILIPPINES        79.00                    0.44                     0.35                 0.98              0.57             1.55          0.000             0.08                  0.26                  0.05                   0.05                  0.35                   0.00                    0.00                 0.48               0.66
POLAND             38.70                    0.36                     0.14                 4.20              0.07             4.27          0.000             0.04                  0.07                  0.00                   0.00                  0.01                   0.00                    0.00                 0.05               0.08
PORTUGAL            9.87                    0.63                     0.06                 0.91              0.02             0.93          0.000             0.00                  0.02                  0.00                   0.00                  0.01                   0.00                    0.00                 0.01               0.03
PUERTO RICO          3.86                   0.26                     0.01                 0.31              0.00             0.31          0.000             0.00                  0.00                  0.00                   0.00                  0.00                   0.00                    0.00                 0.00               0.00
QATAR               0.70                    0.08                     0.00                 0.58              0.00             0.58          0.000             0.00                  0.00                  0.00                   0.00                  0.00                   0.00                    0.00                 0.00               0.00
ROMANIA            22.40                    0.43                     0.10                 1.90              0.09             1.99          0.000             0.03                  0.06                  0.00                   0.00                  0.04                   0.00                    0.00                 0.07               0.10
RUSSIAN F,        147.00                    0.23                     0.34                26.80              0.41            27.21          0.000             0.06                  0.20                  0.00                   0.00                  0.28                   0.00                    0.00                 0.34               0.48
SAUDI ARABIA        21.50                   0.16                     0.03                 4.03              0.00             4.03          0.000             0.00                  0.00                  0.00                   0.00                  0.00                   0.00                    0.00                 0.00               0.00
SERBIA/MONTENEGRO   11.20                   0.42                     0.05                 0.73              0.02             0.75          0.000             0.01                  0.02                  0.00                   0.00                  0.00                   0.00                    0.00                 0.01               0.02
SINGAPORE            3.46                   0.00                     0.00                 1.21              0.00             1.21          0.000             0.00                  0.00                  0.00                   0.00                  0.00                   0.00                    0.00                 0.00               0.00
SLOVAKIA             5.39                   0.40                     0.02                 0.76              0.03             0.79          0.020             0.00                  0.01                  0.00                   0.00                  0.00                   0.00                    0.00                 0.02               0.03
SLOVENIA             1.97                   0.48                     0.01                 0.23              0.01             0.24          0.000             0.00                  0.00                  0.00                   0.00                  0.01                   0.00                    0.00                 0.01               0.01
SOUTH AFRICA       43.40                    0.50                     0.22                 4.30              0.21             4.51          0.000             0.10                  0.17                  0.00                   0.00                  0.07                   0.00                    0.00                 0.17               0.24
SOUTH KOREA        46.90                    0.17                     0.08                 7.16              0.05             7.21          0.000             0.03                  0.06                  0.00                   0.01                  0.00                   0.00                    0.00                 0.03               0.07
SPAIN              39.24                    0.23                     0.09                 4.48              0.05             4.53          0.010             0.00                  0.00                  0.00                   0.00                  0.04                   0.00                    0.00                 0.05               0.05
SRI LANKA          19.10                    0.77                     0.15                 0.24              0.16             0.40          0.000             0.00                  0.02                  0.06                   0.06                  0.09                   0.00                    0.00                 0.15               0.17
SUDAN              34.50                    0.67                     0.23                 0.06              0.24             0.30          0.000             0.00                  0.00                  0.10                   0.12                  0.13                   0.28                    0.30                 0.23               0.25
SWEDEN               8.95                   0.17                     0.02                 2.16              0.87             3.03          0.820             0.00                  0.00                  0.00                   0.00                  0.05                   0.00                    0.00                 0.87               0.87
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           biomass energy (countries peru–yemen, totals)




SWITZERLAND          7.25                   0.38                     0.03                 1.22              0.01             1.23          0.000             0.00                  0.00                  0.00                   0.00                  0.01                   0.00                    0.00                 0.01               0.01
SYRIA              16.70                    0.47                     0.08                 0.66              0.05             0.71          0.000             0.03                  0.05                  0.01                   0.01                  0.00                   0.00                    0.00                 0.04               0.06
TAIWAN             22.10                    0.50                     0.11                 3.11              0.06             3.17          0.000             0.05                  0.07                  0.00                   0.00                  0.00                   0.00                    0.00                 0.05               0.07
TAJIKISTAN          6.01                    0.67                     0.04                 0.09              0.03             0.12          0.000             0.02                  0.04                  0.00                   0.00                  0.00                   0.00                    0.00                 0.02               0.04
TANZANIA            31.30                   0.74                     0.23                 0.50              0.35             0.85          0.000             0.00                  0.00                  0.00                   0.00                  0.35                   0.13                    0.13                 0.35               0.35
THAILAND          60.00                     0.79                     0.47                 2.33              0.62             2.95          0.000             0.05                  0.20                  0.14                   0.14                  0.35                   0.00                    0.00                 0.54               0.69
TRINIDAD & TOBAGO    1.12                   0.27                     0.00                 0.28              0.00             0.28          0.000             0.00                  0.00                  0.00                   0.00                  0.00                   0.00                    0.00                 0.00               0.00
TUNISIA             9.40                    0.37                     0.03                 0.18              0.03             0.21          0.000             0.00                  0.00                  0.00                   0.00                  0.03                   0.00                    0.00                 0.03               0.03
TURKEY             65.60                    0.28                     0.18                 2.80              0.21             3.01          0.000             0.10                  0.15                  0.00                   0.00                  0.08                   0.00                    0.00                 0.18               0.23
TURKMENISTAN         4.30                   0.55                     0.02                 0.26              0.02             0.28          0.000             0.01                  0.02                  0.00                   0.00                  0.00                   0.00                    0.00                 0.01               0.02
UGANDA             22.80                    0.87                     0.20                 0.03              0.22             0.25          0.000             0.06                  0.10                  0.00                   0.00                  0.14                   0.00                    0.00                 0.20               0.24
UK                 59.10                    0.11                     0.07                10.08              0.25            10.33          0.250             0.00                  0.00                  0.00                   0.00                  0.00                   0.00                    0.00                 0.25               0.25
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             




UKRAINE            49.80                    0.29                     0.14                 6.60              0.08             6.68          0.000             0.04                  0.08                  0.00                   0.00                  0.02                   0.00                    0.00                 0.06               0.10
U. ARAB EMIRATES     2.26                   0.15                     0.00                 1.79              0.00             1.79          0.000             0.00                  0.00                  0.00                   0.00                  0.00                   0.00                    0.00                 0.00               0.00
URUGUAY              3.20                   0.09                     0.00                 0.14              0.03             0.17          0.000             0.00                  0.00                  0.00                   0.00                  0.03                   0.00                    0.00                 0.03               0.03
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            383




USA               272.60                    0.23                     0.63                91.70              2.70            94.40          1.860             0.00                  0.00                  0.00                   0.00                  0.84                   0.00                    0.00                 2.70               2.70
UZBEKISTAN         24.10                    0.58                     0.14                 1.86              0.10             1.96          0.000             0.08                  0.11                  0.00                   0.00                  0.00                   0.00                    0.00                 0.08               0.11
VENEZUELA          23.20                    0.14                     0.03                 2.68              0.04             2.72          0.000             0.00                  0.00                  0.02                   0.03                  0.01                   0.74                    0.75                 0.03               0.04
VIETNAN            77.00                    0.80                     0.62                 0.49              0.77             1.26          0.000             0.29                  0.58                  0.04                   0.04                  0.29                   0.00                    0.00                 0.62               0.91
YEMEN              16.40                    0.65                     0.11                 0.15              0.08             0.23          0.000             0.06                  0.09                  0.00                   0.00                  0.00                   0.00                    0.00                 0.06               0.09

TOTAL (122 Countries)   5,746.18            0.53                  30.74                374.52             43.09             417.61         7.360            13.43                 17.62                  4.64                   5.13                 15.32                   5.50                    5.99              40.75               45.43
Other Countries           267.82            0.67                   1.80                  1.48              2.03               3.51         0.00              1.12                  1.20                  0.25                   0.35                  0.57                   0.63                    0.73               1.94                2.12
384      
      References
      Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (). “State of the
         World’s Forests,” 1999, Words and Publications, Oxford, .
      Instituto de Eletrotécnica e Energia (), . Database published in
         http://infoener.iee.usp.br.
      International Energy Agency (). “Key World Energy Statistics, 1998,” Paris,
         1999.
      Morato de Andrade, Carlos Américo. “Florestas, Madeira e suas Aplicações,” in-
         house publication /, February 2000.
      Morato de Andrade, Carlos Américo, and Jean Albert Bodinaud. “Modelamento
         de Cana-de-açúcar Brasileira,” in-house publication /, February 2000.
      U.S. Department of Energy, (). “Country Analysis Briefs,”
         http://www.eia.doc.gov/emeu/world/country.
      U.S. Census Bureau. “World Population Profile: 1998,” statistical data presented in
         http://www.census.gov.


      Carlos Américo Morato de Andrade has been a Professor at the University of São
      Paulo, Brazil since 1967. He has been the Director of the Research and Teaching Divi-
      sion of the Institute of Electrotechniques and Energy of the University of São Paulo,
      since 1998. Also since 1998, he has taught the graduate-level Interunit Course in
      Energy. He was the Director of the University’s Institute of Electricity and Energy
      from 1990 to 1998. He also held the position of General Coordinator of the Univer-
      sity of São Paulo Microelectronics Laboratory from 1968 to 1990.

      http://infoener.iee.usp.br