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Staying Hydratedand Energized

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					   Staying Hydrated and Energized!

Sports Nutrition PIE
      November 6-8, 2001

By Susan Mills-Gray, Nutrition Specialist
What’s the Big Deal about Water?

   Distribution of water in the body:
   – 65% intracellular       Important to
   – 35% extracellular       keep balanced

   70-75% of muscle mass is made of water
   Water essential to digestion and delivery of
   energy
   Water as sweat acts as a coolant to prevent
   body temperature overheating
 The Road to Dehyrdration

The most common cause of fatigue
Occurs from sweat loss:
– Contributes to fatigue
– Increases risk of developing heat illness
Body temperature rises as byproduct of
working muscles
         The Road to Dehydration

Large losses thru sweat impair performance
– Blood usually used to transfer oxygen to muscle
  diverted to skin to reduce heat
– Competition for blood between muscle & skin puts
  greater demand on cardiovascular system
– Blood volume reduced due to sweat loss
Sweat first comes from extracelluar, then intra :
– Mostly from muscle and skin –protects brain/organs
    The Road to Dehydration

Body is programmed to protect cardiovascular
function at expense of body temperature
regulation
– Skin blood flow + sweat rate reduces body fluid =
   • Raised body temp = dehydration
As little as 2% body weight loss may impair
performance
           Effect of Dehydration On
                 Performance
10%
9%
8%
7%
6%
5%
4%
3%
2%
      2%       3%       4-6%     >6%
    Fluid Replacement Guidelines
3
– 3 hours before 2-3
  cups
2
– 2 hours before 2 cups
1
– 1 hour before 1-2
  cups
Time Out!
– Time out for fluids
    • ½ cup every 15
      minutes
2 cups of fluid for
every pound lost
Fluid Replacement Guidelines

              Weigh before/after
              Match fluid intake to fluid
              output
              Do not rely on thirst as
              indicator
              Check urine color
Fluid Replacement Beverages

             Rapidly absorbed
             Tastes good
             No gastro problems
             Water – less than 60
             minutes
             Sports drink – longer
             than 60 minutes
        Fluid Replacement Tips

Sports drinks:
– Contain carbs and sodium
    • Glucose + sodium increases fluid & carb uptake in gut
– Need to be 6 to 8% carbs
– Higher than 8% carbs (sodas, fruit juices, some sports drinks)
    •   Takes longer to be absorbed
    •   Abdominal cramps
    •   Nausea
    •   Bloating
    •   Diarrhea
– Allows athlete to retain water without inhibiting thirst
   Alcohol and Caffeine

Both impair performance
Both are diuretic
Alcohol:
– Increases urine = water loss
– Depresses CNS:
    • Affects balance and coordination
    • Early fatigue due to reduced glucose output
– Doesn’t contribute to glycogen
Caffeine:
– Carbonation takes up space
– Increases blood pressure and heart rate
                            Electrolytes

Sodium, chloride,                 Water loss concentrates
potassium                         electrolytes
– Responsible for:                Need extra when:
    • Body fluid levels           – Ultra endurance in extreme
                                    heat
    • Muscle contractions
                                  – Using plain water in ultra
    • Nerve impluse                 endurance
      transmission
                                  Variety in diet ensures
Sweat costs electrolytes          adequate electrolytes
– Especially sodium               Don’t need sodium tablets
                   Sources

The Ultimate Sports Nutrition Handbook,
Coleman and Steen
Gatorade Sports Nutrition Conference, 1999
Sports Nutrition Guidebook, Clark
Invest In Yourself, Florida NET
Sports Nutrition, Missouri NET
Coaches Corner, Gatorade Sports Science
Institute

				
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posted:3/27/2008
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