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					Sports Nutrition
Katie Armfield, Dietitian
Vanderbilt University Medical Center


               Copyright Vanderbilt Nutrition
                       Clinic 2005
What’s in it for me?

  Benefits of Optimal Fueling:
 - Improved strength, speed, and stamina
 - Delayed fatigue
 - Enhanced healing of injuries and/or
   illness
 - Improved Performance!!

               Copyright Vanderbilt Nutrition
                       Clinic 2005
What we will cover
today…
  Formula to estimate your calorie needs
  Macronutrients- carbohydrates, protein,
   fat, and water
  Micronutrients- vitamins, minerals
  Menu options
  Pre and post exercise meals
  The real scoop on supplements
                Copyright Vanderbilt Nutrition
                        Clinic 2005
How many calories do I
need?
  You need sufficient calories to fuel your
   body and perform at your best
  Most athletes underestimate their calorie
   needs
  Calorie Formula- Body weight (in
   pounds) x 23 calories
  The only nutrients that provide calories
   are carbohydrates, protein, and fat
                Copyright Vanderbilt Nutrition
                        Clinic 2005
Carbohydrates

  The primary fuel for most types of
   exercise and the most important nutrient
   for athletic performance
  Carbohydrates should be eaten at all
   meals and before and after exercise
  Low-carbohydrate diets are NOT
   appropriate for athletes!!

                Copyright Vanderbilt Nutrition
                        Clinic 2005
Carbohydrates

  Recommended level- 7-10 g/kg per day
  At meals, carbohydrates should take up
   2/3 of your plate
  Foods containing carbohydrates: bread,
   rice, pasta, cereals, crackers, fruits,
   juices, vegetables, dried beans/peas


                Copyright Vanderbilt Nutrition
                        Clinic 2005
Protein

  Used for building and repairing muscles,
   red blood cells, hair, and other tissues
  Used for energy when carbohydrates are
   not available
  Protein from food or a protein
   supplement acts the same in the body
  Food is the easiest, most effective, and
   least costly way to meet protein needs!
                Copyright Vanderbilt Nutrition
                        Clinic 2005
Protein

  Recommended level- 1.2- 1.8 g/kg per
   day
  Athletes get enough protein for muscle
   growth and repair in an average mixed
   diet
  Extra protein not needed by the body is
   burned for energy or stored as fat

                Copyright Vanderbilt Nutrition
                        Clinic 2005
Protein

  “Although athletes’ protein needs are
   slightly higher than non-athletes’,
   research shows that most athletes can
   eat enough protein without using
   additional supplements or following a
   high-protein diet.”
  Protein is found in meat, poultry, dairy
   products, eggs, nuts, tofu, and beans
                 Copyright Vanderbilt Nutrition
                         Clinic 2005
Fat

  Helps sustain prolonged exercise
  Source of stored energy, burned mostly
   during low-level activity and when other
   sources are not available
  Fat should comprise no more than 20-
   25% of our total calories
  Healthier fat choices: nuts, seeds, olive
   oil, canola oil, fish, avocados, and olives
                 Copyright Vanderbilt Nutrition
                         Clinic 2005
Vitamins and Minerals
  Needed to regulate processes in the body-
   used to utilize energy from carbohydrates,
   protein, and fat

  Calcium- builds bones, length, and strength
  Helps your muscles contract and nerves
   function
  Found in dairy products, calcium-fortified
   orange juice, dark green vegetables, dried
   legumes

                  Copyright Vanderbilt Nutrition
                          Clinic 2005
Vitamins and Minerals

  Iron- aids in energy metabolism
  Deficiency can lead to weakness and
   reduced resistance to infection
  Iron is found in lean meats, eggs,
   legumes, whole grains, green leafy
   vegetables
  Vitamin C increases the body’s ability to
   absorb iron
                Copyright Vanderbilt Nutrition
                        Clinic 2005
Hydration

  Athletes need to be hydrated before,
   during, and after practice and competition
   to achieve optimal performance
  Early fatigue is a sign of dehydration and
   thirst is not an adequate indicator of fluid
   needs
  Athletes need 11-14 cups of total fluid
   per day
                 Copyright Vanderbilt Nutrition
                         Clinic 2005
Hydration

  Before Exercise: Drink 12-24 oz of fluid 2
   hours prior to exercise and 15 minutes
   before activity drink another 8 oz of fluid
  During Exercise: Drink 8-10 oz of cold
   water every 15 minutes during exercise
   to delay fatigue
  After Exercise: Drink 2 cups of water for
   every 1 pound of sweat lost
                 Copyright Vanderbilt Nutrition
                         Clinic 2005
Benefits of Water

  Athletes lose concentration, coordination,
   and endurance capacity when they don’t
   replace water lost from sweat
  Water helps regulate body temperature
  Helps maintain proper muscle tone by
   giving muscles their natural ability to
   contract and by preventing dehydration
  Rids the body of excess salt and other
   wastes        Copyright Vanderbilt Nutrition
                         Clinic 2005
Up Your Fluid Intake

  Drink on a schedule, not just when you
   are thirsty
  Gulps are better than sips to increase
   your fluid intake
  Try to avoid caffeine, carbonation, and
   fruit juice just prior to exercise
  *Beverages that contain alcohol are
   diuretics and cause water loss
                Copyright Vanderbilt Nutrition
                        Clinic 2005
Alcohol
  Alcohol has a negative effect on all physical
   activity. This includes practice, lifting,
   conditioning sessions, and games.
  Alcohol depletes your vitamin and mineral
   stores
  Alcohol can cause stomach ulcer formation
  Alcohol destroys brain and liver cells
  There is NO upside to drinking alcohol for
   athletes!!

                   Copyright Vanderbilt Nutrition
                           Clinic 2005
Nutrition Break Down

  Rich in carbohydrate (60%)
  Moderate in protein (15-20%)
  Low in fat (20-25%)


    How does this information
      translate to your plate?
               Copyright Vanderbilt Nutrition
                       Clinic 2005
Breakfast

 - Whole grain waffles            - Oatmeal
   with maple syrup               - Canadian bacon
 - Handful of walnuts             - Fruit cup
 - Granola cereal with            - Whole grain english
   skim milk                        muffin with peanut
                                    butter
 - Whole-wheat toast
                                  - Fruit smoothie
   with fruit spread
                                  - Graham crackers
 - Orange Juice
                                  - Fresh fruit
 - Sandwich
                  Copyright Vanderbilt Nutrition
                          Clinic 2005
Lunch

 - Bean burrito, baked            - Turkey sub on
   chips and salsa, and             whole-grain bread,
   100% fruit juice                 baked chips, apple,
 - Grilled chicken                  water
   sandwich, baked                - Rice with vegetables
   potato with veggies,             and black beans,
   iced tea, fruit cup              garden veggie salad,
                                    fruit cup, skim milk


                  Copyright Vanderbilt Nutrition
                          Clinic 2005
Dinner

 - Spaghetti with                 - Chili with beans and
   tomato sauce and                 rice, mixed berries,
   sliced veggies,                  whole wheat
   spinach salad, milk              crackers, 100% fruit
 - Vegetarian pizza,                juice
   water, tossed salad,           - Grilled fish fillet,
   whole-grain roll,                large green salad
   apple crisp                      with vinaigrette,
                                    steamed veggies,
                                    iced tea
                  Copyright Vanderbilt Nutrition
                          Clinic 2005
Snacks
 -   Whole grain bagel with peanut butter
 -   Grapes or other fresh fruits
 -   Pretzels
 -   Sliced turkey on whole grain crackers
 -   Light Popcorn
 -   Peanuts
 -   Cottage cheese
 -   Trail Mix
 -   Breakfast bars, sports bar
 -   String cheese
                    Copyright Vanderbilt Nutrition
                            Clinic 2005
Pre-exercise Meals
  High carbohydrate meal/snack that is low in fat
   and well tolerated
  2-3 hours prior to exercise (to allow for
   stomach emptying)
  Decrease carbohydrate and calorie content of
   the meal/snack, the closer to exercise it is
   consumed
  Include some lean protein to enhance satiety
   and alleviate hunger

                  Copyright Vanderbilt Nutrition
                          Clinic 2005
Pre-exercise Meals

  Examples:
 - 3 hours before: bagel with turkey and
   veggies, banana, 1 cup low-fat yogurt,
   pretzels, Rice Krispie treat, 2 cups skim
   milk
 - 1 hour before: banana, 1 cup Mini
   Wheats or small turkey sandwich, 16 oz.
   sports drink
                Copyright Vanderbilt Nutrition
                        Clinic 2005
Post-exercise Meals

  “Recent research shows carbohydrate
   and protein eaten within 30 minutes of a
   workout is an effective time to restore
   amino acids and carbohydrates in the
   muscles, preparing athletes for the next
   workout.”
  Restores muscle and liver glycogen to
   minimize fatigue
                Copyright Vanderbilt Nutrition
                        Clinic 2005
Post-exercise Meals

  Goal- carbohydrate intake within 30
   minutes of exercise and another high
   carbohydrate meal/snack 2 hours later
  Intake of ~0.5 grams of carbohydrate per
   pound body weight
  Include some protein in post-exercise
   meals

                Copyright Vanderbilt Nutrition
                        Clinic 2005
Post-exercise Meals

    Examples:
 -   16 oz sports drink, 1 Powerbar
 -   32 oz sports drink, 1 banana
 -   2 cups skim milk, 4 graham crackers
 -   Bagel with 2 Tbsp peanut butter
 -   Baked potato with refried beans and
     salsa
                  Copyright Vanderbilt Nutrition
                          Clinic 2005
Supplements

  Questions to ask:
 - What claims have been made about the
   supplement?
 - Is there any scientific basis to these
   claims?
 - What is the supplement made of? Is it
   pure?
 - Does it work? Is it allowed?
               Copyright Vanderbilt Nutrition
                       Clinic 2005
Ergogenic Aids

  Ergogenic- the potential to increase work
   output
  Can be dangerous to your health- now
   and later
  No scientific evidence for many of the
   claims
  May have unknown, serious side effects
  Placebo effect
                Copyright Vanderbilt Nutrition
                        Clinic 2005
Supplements

          BOTTOM LINE:
  If you are consuming a balanced
     diet, there is no added value in
  any type of nutritional supplement

 Remember: If it sounds too good to be
       true, then it probably is.
             Copyright Vanderbilt Nutrition
                     Clinic 2005
Questions
   or
Comments


  Copyright Vanderbilt Nutrition
          Clinic 2005
Resources

  www.gssiweb.com
  www.eatright.org
  www.sportfuel.com




               Copyright Vanderbilt Nutrition
                       Clinic 2005

				
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