Peak Performance Eat to Compete

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					                        Peak Performance

            Eat to Compete
       Gale Welter, MS, RD, CSSD, CSCS
                 Coordinator of Nutrition Services
                     Campus Health Service
                      University of Arizona



This presentation was adapted from “The Winning Edge – Nutrition for Fitness and Sport”
   workshop, fall 2004, University of Arizona, College of Agriculture and Life Sciences,
                           Department of Nutritional Sciences.
•You are an elite athlete
•You want to win!
•You need every
 advantage you can get
 – You have to look for your edge
 – Your competition is looking for their edge,
   too.
         Fundamentals of Athletic
              Performance

•   Genetics
•   Rest/ Sleep
•   Coaching
•   Training, Conditioning, Practice
•   Nutrition and Hydration
         Advantages of Optimizing
            the Fundamentals
• More and longer lasting energy
• Greater and longer lasting concentration
• Stronger immune function
   – less time “on the bench”
• Reduced potential for injury
   – Less time “on the bench”
• Better recovery
   – Between workouts/practices; between events
• Better growth and repair
     Advantages of Optimizing
        the Fundamentals
Fundamentals =
• More productive conditioning
•  better practices
•  stronger competition
•  more “wins”
         Fundamentals of Athletic
              Performance

•   Genetics
•   Rest/ Sleep
•   Coaching
•   Training, Conditioning, Practice
•   Nutrition and Hydration
          Nutrition and Hydration
       Eat to Compete Fundamentals

• Four categories
  –1. Hydration – Fluids
  – 2. Quantity
  – 3. Timing
  – 4. Quality
1. Hydration

 Drink fluids
 throughout
   the day
Sweat = Dehydration = Fatigue




                  Physical fatigue
                 Drink as much as
                   Mental during
                  possible fatigue
              exercise with the goal
                      Cramping
              of trying to replace all
                    sweat loss.
                  Slower recovery
Even Low Levels of Dehydration
 Impairs Exercise Performance

Athletes at only 1.8% dehydration (not
enough to trigger thirst) reached fatigue
  3 minutes sooner than fully hydrated
athletes cycling at 90% VO2 max ~ Walsh et
             al. Intl J Sports Med 15, 1994
          Effects of Dehydration
Reduced skin blood flow
                          Reduction in stroke volume



Increased core body
temperature
                    General Fluid Guidelines
 Within 2 hrs                   Within 10-20 min
Before Exercise                 Before Exercise                     During Exercise




   14 - 22                               7 - 10                             6 - 12
   ounces                               ounces                             ounces
    cool                                 cool                               every
    fluid                                fluid                          15 - 20 min



  American College Sports Medicine, American Dietitian Association, Dietitians of Canada, 2000
              Current Fluid Replacement
                 General Guidelines
 After
Exercise


16 to 24                 Before: 145 lbs
ounces
   per                   After:           143 lbs
 pound
weight                     Loss = 2 lbs
  loss


 American College of Sports Medicine, American Dietitian Association, Dietitians of Canada, 2000
Know Your Sweat Rate
         and
  Get in front of it!
             Sweat Rate Calculation Example
                               Get in front of it!

Wt before exercise                    176#
Wt after exercise (subtract)        - 174#
Difference                              2# x 16 oz = 32 oz
Plus fluids consumed during exercise                     70oz
Total fluids used during activity                        102oz
Fluids used 102 oz / hours of activity 2 hr
                                             = Sweat Rate of 51oz/hr
                Sweat Rate
           How to get in front of it
Divide by the number of times you will get a drink per hour
during your activity into your Sweat Rate per Hour. So…
…at a sweat rate of 51 oz per hour…
If You Drink Every:                         You Need to Drink:
    10-12 min. (5x/hr)                       10 oz each time
    15 min. (4x/hr)                          13 oz each time
    20 min. (3x/hr)                          17 oz each time

      Note > Each green Gatorade cup holds 12 oz when completely full.
               Everyday Practical Application
• Start Hydrated
                                              Your
• Cool beverage (50° - 59°F)                  urine
                                              color
• Know signs of dehydration:
   – Thirst, irritability, fatigue, general
     discomfort
   – Headache, weakness, dizziness,
     cramps, chills, vomiting, head or
     neck heat sensations
• Heat acclimatization increases
  fluid needs, possibly sodium
  Casa et al., J Athletic Training 35, 2000
         Fluid Replacement Goals
• Prevent Dehydration!
  – Limiting factor in exercise performance
  – Everyone is different, know your needs based on
     • Sweat rate
     • Body size
     • Specific activity


• Drink BEFORE you are thirsty
  – American College of Sports Medicine experts “
    Thirst alone is not the best indicator of the body’s
    fluid status.”
    July 2003
         Add Carbohydrate to Fluids?
              Stop-&-Go Sports Study
• Research from U.K.
  using Shuttle Run
  test
• Action like that of
  baseball or football
• Sprinting ability:
  2 min longer with
  sport drink
  vs.
  water trial
                         Nicholas et al. J Sport Sci 13:283-90, 1995
       Adding Carbohydrate during Activity
            with Fluids and/or Food

• High-intensity sports (intermittent or continuous activity)
  lasting longer than 60 min:
   – Drink/Eat 30 - 60 g CHO (120-180 calories) every
     hour
       • 20 - 40 oz Sports Drink (6 - 8% CHO)
       • Or drink water and eat some high carb food
          – Ex: 1 Large banana or 3 - 6 Fig Newtons
          Nutrition and Hydration
       Eat to Compete Fundamentals

• Four categories
  – 1. Hydration – Fluids
  –2. Quantity
  – 3. Quality
  – 4. Timing
            Quantity
        Meeting Your
    CALORIE Needs




Carbohydrate, Protein & Fat Goals
             Estimating How Many Calories
                       You Need
          Multiply your weight by the activity
           factor for your current level of
               training and conditioning
               Men                                    Women
• Activity level                         • Activity level
   – Light (≤1 hr / day) - 18                 – Light (≤1 hr / day) - 15
   – Moderate(1-4 hrs/day) – 19*              – Moderate(1-4 hrs/day) – 16*
   – Very Active (4+ hrs/day) – 21+           – Very Active (4+ hrs/day) – 19+

             *Some smaller/leaner athletes in “skill” sports like gymnastics
                    and diving may not need this many calories
ATP Production
FATTY   AMINO
ACIDS   ACIDS    GLUCOSE
                                   Cell Membrane
                                     Inside Cell


                Anaerobic               Some
                (without oxygen)         ATP




                 Aerobic
                                      Lots of
                 (with oxygen)         ATP
High Intensity Activity         Low Intensity Activity




  Glucose
                          Fatty Acids

Amino Acids
Carbohydrates (CHO)




Carbohydrates  Glucose  Glycogen
Small and Limited Glycogen Stores
Glycogen & Endurance Exercise
Inadequate Carbohydrate Intake
Inadequate Carbohydrate Intake
              Carbohydrate Needs
• General rule of thumb:
   For general training needs:
   2.5-3.5 grams of carbohydrate x pounds of Body Wt
              (Up to 4.5 g / lb for endurance athletes)


       ex: 150 # x 3 g = 450 g carbs           (1800 calories)



   – Carbohydrate foods include grains, cereals, starches, fruits
     and vegetables
           Carbohydrate Intake Guidelines
         Bottom Line: Eat throughout the day

          Time                                           Carbohydrate
  (in relation to exercise)
1 to 4 hrs before                             0.5–1.8g per # body wt

Every hr during                               30 - 60g

Within 30 min. after                          0.7g per # body wt
                                              (150# x 0.7g = ~100g)
Within 2 hrs after                            0.7g per # body wt in a
                                              balanced meal
             Rosenbloom , Sports Nutrition: A guide for the professional working with Active People, 2000
PROTEIN
Major Roles of Protein

      Tissue Growth
      Tissue Repair and Maintenance

Minor Protein Role
      Fuel Stores - Small Amounts
         How Much Protein Do You Need?

• Depends on the type and intensity of your
  activity:
  – Endurance: 0.6 – 0.7grams / # body wt/day
  – Strength/power: 0.7 – 0.8 grams / # body wt/day
     (general population: 0.4 grams / # body wt/day)


  – Ex: 230# lineman ~ 160-185 g/d (0.7-0.8 g/# BW/d)
  – Ex: 125# distance runner ~ 70-85 g/d (0.6 – 0.7 g/#BW/d)
              What does 180g Protein look like ?
           2 C cereal, 1½ C milk                           18
           2 large bananas                                 2
           Sports bar (40-30-30 type)                      10+
           2 Sandwiches, each with 2oz turkey,1oz cheese   56
           1 C baby carrots                                 2
           2 C milk                                        16
           8 oz yogurt                                      8
           ½ C nuts                                        12
           6 oz chicken breast                             42
           2 C brown rice                                  12
           2 C cooked veggies                               4
           2 slices of bread                                4
           Total grams Protein (calories)                  186
Source: exchange system estimates
             What does 100g Protein look like ?
          1C cereal, 1C milk                   11
          ½ C blueberries                       0
          Sports bar (40-30-30 type)           10+
          Sandwich, 2oz turkey                 20
          ½ C baby carrots                       1
          1 C milk                               8
          8 oz yogurt                            8
          4 oz chicken breast                  28
          1 C brown rice                         6
          1 C cooked veggies                     2
          1 C salad with 2T low fat dressing     0

          Total grams Protein (calories)       94

Source: exchange system estimates
          How Much Protein Do You
       Need When Adding Muscle Mass?

• Use the upper part of the range (0.6 – 0.9 g per # body weight)
  when you are working on adding muscle mass (first 3
  to 6 months)

• After muscle mass gains have been reached, lower
  levels of protein will maintain the mass due to the
  training effect of increased protein metabolism

• The source of protein doesn‟t seem to markedly effect
  higher muscle mass, but more research is warranted
   Protein Before or After Workouts?

• Current research favors eating/drinking a
  protein/carb combination AFTER workouts,
  (especially weight workouts)
  – Ex:
     • Meal replacement shakes (typically 20-40 g protein)
     • Turkey sandwich (~ 20-30 g protein)
        Protein Take-Home Points
• Most active people and athletes eat adequate
  protein for muscle growth
• Attention should be focused on adequate
  caloric intake (CHO mainly) to spare protein
  for muscle growth and repair
• Timing and quality of protein may be more
  important than quantity
• Nutrition is important, but does not replace a
  proper exercise training program for muscle
  growth
            Fat
 20 – 35% Calories

 Concentrated Calorie Source


 Efficiently Metabolized
                Healthy Fats and Oils
• Have some every day
• 20 – 35% of calories
   – 25% of 1400 calories ~ 40 g/d
   – 25% of 2200 calories ~ 60 g/d
   – 25% of 3500 calories ~ 100 g/d


• Use this Label Reading rule of thumb to determine
  whether there is a moderate amount of fat in a food
   – 3 g fat per 100 calories (~ 27% of calories)
 Very Low Fat
     Diets
  Not Recommended
Too little dietary fat affects:
     mental function
    immune function
    hormone function
absorption of some vitamins
       energy levels
          Healthy Fats and Oils
• Eat more
   – Monounsaturated fats: Nuts, seeds, nut butters,
     olives, olive oil, and avocados
   – Polyunsaturated fats:
      • Vegetable oils: canola, safflower, sunflower, corn, soybean, etc
      • Omega-3 fatty acids: fish (ex. tuna, salmon), fish oil, walnuts,
        flaxseed
• Eat less
   – Saturated fats: visible fat in animal products (meat,
     poultry skin), whole dairy products (cheese), palm /
     coconut oils
   – Hydrogenated oils: in packaged foods (cookies,
     crackers, mac „n cheese mixes)
          Nutrition and Hydration
       Eat to Compete Fundamentals

• Four categories
  – 1. Hydration – Fluids
  – 2. Quantity
  – 3. Timing
  – 4. Quality
          Timing is                    to success
               This could be your “Edge”

• Spread food & drink intake throughout the day
• Eat every 3-4 hours during the day, begin with
  breakfast
• Get your “edge” by planning your food more
  specifically to your conditioning, practices and
  games/competitions
       2 - 4 Hours BEFORE Exercise

• Eat a high carbohydrate, low fat, moderate
  protein meal
  – Ex. 125 g CHO, low fat, moderate protein
     • Turkey sandwich with 1 slice cheese, 2 slices turkey, 1 tsp.
       mayonnaise, lettuce and tomato. 1 cup pasta with vegetables and
       fat free Italian dressing. 1 banana

• Choose familiar foods
• Drink at least 16 fl.oz of fluids
        30 - 60 Minutes BEFORE Exercise

• Eat about 10 - 25g CHO/ lb body weight
  – Example: 1 small banana or 16 oz sports beverage
• Choose familiar foods
• Choose foods low in fiber
• Drink 1-2 cups fluid 15 minutes before
  exercise
          DURING Exercise Lasting
            Longer Than 1 hour
• Drink 0.5 - 1.0 cups of fluid every 15 minutes
• Eat/Drink 30 - 60 grams (120-240 calories) CHO per
  hour:
   – Snack every 10 to 30 minutes (as allowed by sport)

      • Goal: Consistent feeding schedule for steady flow of
        glucose into bloodstream

      • Especially important for day-long competitions like
        tennis, swimming, golf
           Recovery AFTER Exercise
• Eat carbs within 30 minutes of exercise
     Take advantage of a “window of opportunity” while
  yourmetabolism is revved up to optimize glycogen reloading.
   – Examples:
      •   Sports drinks
      •   Plain Bagel with jam
      •   Fresh Fruit
      •   Cheerios


• Replace fluid losses
   – Drink at least 2-3 cups fluid per lb of body weight lost
           Recovery AFTER Exercise
• Maximum glycogen replacement rate occurs
  within 2 hours after exercise
   – Eat a high carbohydrate, low fat, moderate protein
     meal
      • Have lean protein, vegetables, fruit,
        grains/starch, low fat dairy, some salad dressing
      • Limit fried foods, cheese, sauces and gravies,
        soda/lemonade/punch, packaged foods, meal
        replacement products
• It takes 24- 48 hours to fully recover used glycogen
          The Importance of
       Recovery Food and Fluids
• Reload glycogen stores –
   – For energy, concentration, and to spare protein for its
     primary functions
• Replenish fluids
   – Solute of optimal metabolism, regulate core
     temperature, delay fatigue
• Insure adequate protein for growth, repair and
  maintenance functions
   – Increase/maintain muscle mass, maintain immune
     function,
                  Timing of Food and Fluid Intake
                             Summary
         Time            Carb and Protein(g)/ # BW            Fluids
1 to 4 hours             0.5g (1 hr) – 1.8g (4 hrs)   2 hr before – 14-22 oz
before exercise                                       10-20 min before-7-10 oz
  During each hour of exercise after 60 minutes:              6-12 oz
   Eat or drink 30 to 60 grams of carbohydrate         every 15 to 20 minutes
Within 30 minutes        0.7g carbohydrate with
after exercise           protein (as part of daily    Replenish losses, 3C
                         goal, usually 10-40 g        fluid for every pound of
                         depending on overall         Body Weight lost during
                         needs)                       exercise.
Within 2 hrs             0.5 – 0.7 g carbohydrate     Continue rehydrating for
after exercise           and protein (usually 30+     clear, pale urine
                         g as part of a meal)
         Bottom Line: Eat and drink throughout the day
            Nutrition and Hydration
                Eat to Compete
             Practical Applications

• Four categories
  – 1. Hydration – Fluids
  – 2. Quantity
  – 3. Timing
  –4. Quality
              Example CHO Snacks
               to Carry (30-60 g)
•   20-40 oz Sports Drink
•   1-2 Large bananas
•   Most energy bars
•   9 graham cracker squares
•   ¼ to ½ c raisins
•   1 large bagel w/ jam
•   20 saltines
•   2½ cups Cheerios
•   3-6 Fig Cookies
               High Carbohydrate, Low-Fat Foods

Bread, Cereal Rice,   Vegetables        Fruit          Milk & Milk
    & Pasta                                             Products
• Bagel               • Carrots        • Apple         • Milk
• Kidney Beans        • Corn           • Apricot       • Pudding
• Cereals             • Peas (sweet)   • Banana        • Yogurt, Frozen
• Bran Muffin         • Potatoes       • Fig           • Fruit Yogurt
• Popcorn             • Sweet Potato   • Fruit Juice   • Plain Yogurt
• Rice, brown         • Tomato         • Peach
• Tortilla            • Tomato Juice   • Raisin
• Pretzels                             • Pear
• Crackers, Graham                     • Grapes
• Angel Food Cake
• Pancakes
• Pasta
                Common Protein Foods
           (and grams of protein per serving)
•   1 egg or 2 egg whites-6g                      •   Almonds 1 oz (~24 nuts) – 6g
•   Cheese 1 oz - 8g                              •   Peanut butter 1T – 4g
•   Milk 8 oz - 8g                                •   Kidney beans ½ c – 6g
•   Yogurt 8 oz - 8g                              •   Hummus ½ c – 6g
•   Cottage cheese ½ c – 14g                      •   Refried beans ½ c – 7g
•   Tuna 61/2oz can – 31g                         •   Lentil soup Progresso 10.5oz – 11g
•   Chicken breast 3oz – 26g                      •   Tofu, extra firm 4oz – 12g
•   Hamburger 4oz – 30g                           •   Baked beans ½ c – 7g
•   Pork loin 4 oz – 35g                          •   Luna bar 1 – 10g
•   Fish 4 oz – 27g                               •   Other 40-30-30 sports bars – 12+g


    Source: Clark, N. Nancy Clark‟s Sports Nutrition Guidebook, 2nd Ed, 1997, p132
              Power Foods for Dorms
•   Fresh/Canned fruit            •   Canned beans
•   Fresh/Canned vegetables       •   Refried bean dip
•   High fiber cereals            •   Hummus
•   Whole grain crackers          •   Peanut butter
                                  •   Nuts
•   Whole grain bread
                                  •   Jerky
•   Corn tortillas
                                  •   Yogurt
•   Fig Newtons                   •   Cottage cheese
•   Ginger snaps, „nilla wafers   •   String cheese
•   Dark chocolate                •   Canned tuna, chicken
             Power Food Choices
          Eating Out Around Campus
• Fruit                        • Lean protein
   – Fresh, around S.U.s          – Chicken breast, grilled
   – Cut fruit in containers      – Betty‟s buffet meats and fish
   – “Fruit bar”                  – Deli meats
• Vegetables                      – Salad bar eggs, beans, seeds,
   – Cooked in S.U.s                tuna, ham, turkey
   – Salads and salad bars        – Bean, chicken burritos and
                                    wraps
   – Raw in containers
                               • Low fat dairy
• Whole grains
                                  – Non-fat and 1% milk
   – ODD breads, tortillas
                                  – Yogurt
   – Cereals, boxes
                                  – Cottage cheese
MODERATION
                          Use Moderation
       with the following foods that provide poor fuel for
          performance and may add unwanted weight

• Packaged / processed foods            • Fried Foods
   – don‟t live on protein or energy
     shakes and bars, limit to 1or 2    • Sugary cereals
     per day
   – Reduce dependence on
     crackers, chips, gold fish, etc.   • Candy, cookies, other
                                          sweets (banana, zucchini,
• Soda, lemonade, punch,                  etc breads)
  frapaccinos, other sugary
  drinks, (fruit juice)                 • ALCOHOL and the foods
                                          that usually go with it
              Supplements
• Take a multiple vitamin/mineral daily
• Take 1000 mg of a Calcium supplements in
  2 doses of 500mg each if you do not eat 3
  “servings” (8oz milk and yogurt, 1 oz
  cheese, ½ C cottage) a day.
• Consider taking 2000 mg of Fish Oil (in 2
  doses of 1000mg each) or 1 T of ground
  Flaxseed, or 1 tsp of Flaxseed Oil) daily if
  you do not eat fish 2x/wk, nor eat walnuts
  frequently.
                   Supplements
• Other supplements
  – Consider carefully and get professional advice
  – Know the banned substances and the potential
    for contamination of seemingly safe
    supplements!
  – NCAA Banned substances list, go to:
     http://www1.ncaa.org/membership/ed_outreach/health-
     safety/drug_testing/banned_drug_classes.pdf
  Be the best you can be


Drink and Eat to
    Compete

        Have a GREAT year…
           …Go Wildcats!

				
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