Nutrition- Developing Diets for Special Needs

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					PERFORMANCE: THE ROLE
OF NUTRITION AND BODY
IMAGE

    Leslie Bonci, MPH,RD
 Director of Sports Nutrition
  University of Pittsburgh
       Medical Center
COMMON NUTRITION
MISTAKES
   Not drinking enough fluids
   Not choosing the most appropriate
    fluids
   Eating sporadic meals
   Being inconsistent with eating day to
    day
   Not eating enough calories
   Not getting a good balance of
    foods/nutrients ( carbohydrate, protein,
    and fat)
COMMON NUTRITION
MISTAKES
   Making food choices that hurt
    performance
   Waiting too long to refuel after
    exercise
   Making drastic changes in diet to
    alter body composition and body
    image
SPORTS NUTRITION
FACTS
   Athletes need to know:
       What to eat and drink
       When to eat and drink
       How much to eat and drink
       Reality check on body issues
       Straight answers on the use of
        supplements
GOALS OF SPORTS
NUTRITION

   Mental clarity
   Optimal performance
   Faster recovery
   Injury prevention
   Adequate hydration
NUTRITION FACTS
   We eat FOOD, NOT nutrients
   Athletes need carbohydrate, protein and
    fat-containing foods daily
   We can be selective about the types of
    foods we choose to eat:
          Fish instead of meat
          Kashi instead of Froot Loops
          Peanut butter instead of bacon
ISSUES
   Eating is NOT always a priority
   Information overload, most of it is
    negative!
   Busy lives translate to poor eating
    practices
   External messages ( from magazines,
    TV, movies, that portray the “ideal”
    body)
   Effect of eating/body issues on team
    dynamics
BODY IMAGE ISSUES
   Do NOT have one cause, so everyone
    who is involved with the athletes needs
    to be part of the treatment
   Destroys focus of the affected athlete,
    team, roommate, friends, coach and
    administrator
   DO need an action plan that is
    PROACTIVE, NOT REACTIVE
BODY REALITY CHECK
   What you CANNOT change
       Height
       Body Frame ( Bone density)
       Body shape ( where one tends to
        concentrate weight)
   What you CAN change
       Fluid content of the body
       Muscle Mass
       Body fat
BODY REALITY

   Body loses fat at about ½ pound
    per week
   Body gains muscle at a rate of
    about 1 pound per week
   Changes do NOT happen overnight
   Need to be consistent
A STARTING POINT
   Set your own nutrition goal
       Do it for you, NOT for someone else
       Realistic and achievable
       Lose body fat, gain mass, or maintain
        weight
       Increase energy
       Prevent muscle cramps, headache or
        upset stomach while exercising
ROLE OF FLUIDS
   Being dehydrated
        muscle strength
        speed
        stamina
        energy
        cognitive skills
        risk of injury
        perceived effort of exertion
ROLE OF FLUIDS
   Being over hydrated:
        headache
        gastrointestinal distress
        respiratory distress
        nausea and vomiting
        confusion
        lethargy
ISSUES
   Exercise may suppress thirst
    mechanism
   Thirst is NOT the best indicator of
    adequate hydration
   Supplements such as ephedra,
    synephrine, and herbs including saw
    palmetto, buchu, nettle and lovage may
    dehydrate the body
   High protein diets lead to excessive
    fluid loss which may be dehydrating
ISSUES
   Some athletes assume that the
    weight lost during exercise is fat
    loss BUT it is fluid loss and needs
    to be replaced!
   MORE is NOT always better when it
    comes to fluid as there is an upper
    limit that the body can tolerate!
FLUID CHOICES FOR
EXERCISE

   BEST: sports drink, water, milk,
    soup, fruits, vegetables
   NOT AS GREAT: carbonated
    beverages, high carb energy
    drinks, alcohol, juices
   NEUTRAL: caffeinated beverages
HOW MUCH?
   2 cups (sports bottle size) 1-2 hrs
    BEFORE practices/games
   8 oz 15 minutes BEFORE
    practices/games
   20-40 ounces ( 1-2 sports bottles) per
    hour of exercise
   3 cups (1-1/2 sports bottles) for every
    pound lost AFTER practices/games
IMPLEMENTATION
   Drink on a schedule
   Bring a water/sports bottle to
    practice/workouts
   Weigh in and out to determine your own
    fluid loss during exercise
   GULPS over SIPS for more effective
    rehydration
   First urine of the morning should be
    light in color and plentiful- this is an
    indicator of being well hydrated
SALT LOSERS
   IF:
       Your sweat stings your eyes
       Your skin/uniform are coated with a
        white residue after practices/games
   THEN:
       Use more salt on foods
       Eat salty foods
       Don’t overdo with water
WHAT TO EAT?
   Peace sign eating:
       2/3 of the plate as carbohydrate
        foods:
           Bread,bagels, cereal, rice, pasta, sweets,
            fruit, vegetables, crackers, pretzels,
            beverages
       1/3 protein:
           Meat, poultry, fish, dairy foods, nuts,
            seeds, soy foods, dried beans, eggs
ISSUES
   Belief that certain foods are BAD
   Bodies cannot perform well on
    fumes
   FACT: Carbohydrate and fat are the
    primary fuel substrate for exercise
    (these two nutrients are essential
    for endurance and sprint type
    exercise)
ISSUES
   Protein is important for muscle growth
    and repair but is an inefficient fuel
    source for exercise
   The maximum protein intake should be
    1 gram per pound body weight
   The minimum protein intake should be
    0.5 grams per pound body weight
TIMING
   Breakfast is a must!
   Something to eat/drink every 3-4 hours
   Meal 3-4 hours BEFORE games
   Snack 1 hour BEFORE games
   Carbohydrate food/fluid DURING
    practices/games
   Carbohydrate food/fluid within 15
    minutes AFTER practices/games
POST EXERCISE
CARBOHYDRATE FOOD
CHOICES
   32 oz sports drink
   2 granola bars
   2 cereal bars
   A handful of dry cereal
   An 8 oz yogurt
   A handful of pretzels and a banana
IMPLEMENTATION

   Eating needs to be scheduled and
    prioritized
   There is NO such thing as PERFECT
    eating
   Make it available by bringing food/fluid
    to practices/games so that you can fuel
    before, during and after practices and
    games
ACHIEVING WEIGHT
GOALS
   To lose weight effectively
       Know what you eat by writing down for 3-4
        days what, how much, when, where and
        why you eat
       Do eat on a regular basis, every 3-4 hours
       Do try to watch what you eat most days of
        the week
       Try to decrease calories from beverages,
        including juice, alcohol, carbonated
        beverages
TO LOSE WEIGHT
   Watch your portions- try to eat a
    little less at every meal or snack
   Sit down when you eat
   Include items that are more filling
    such as meats, soups, vegetables
   Stay away from fad diets- the
    weight loss is mostly water, and
    you’ll be too tired to exercise
TO INCREASE MUSCLE
MASS
   Do eat on a regular basis- every 3-
    4 hours
   Do try to eat a little more every
    time you eat
   Do try to eat more every day, not
    just a few days a week
   Do increase calories from
    beverages as well as foods
TO INCREASE MUSCLE
MASS

   Do increase the calories in foods:
       Nuts instead of pretzels
       Granola instead of corn flakes
       Bagel instead of bread
SPORTS SUPPLEMENTS
   Need to know what you are putting in
    your body
   NOT ONE SIZE FITS ALL
   There are hyper and nonresponders to
    supplements, in otherwords, some
    athletes will benefit from taking a
    supplement in terms of strength, speed
    and stamina, whereas other athletes
    may not notice a difference in
    performance
SPORTS SUPPLEMENTS
   Natural and safe are NOT the same
   Supplements can interfere with
    medications
   More is NOT BETTER
   Tell someone what you take, or are
    planning to take
   Be informed, and be cautious with
    supplements, as what you don’t know
    may hurt you!
BOTTOM LINE
   Food, fluid, and rest are essential
    for peak mind and body
    performance
   Food choices, timing, and amounts
    matter
   Focus on what your body ALLOWS
    you to do
   POSITIVE environments
FOR A GREAT RESOURCE
   Visit the NCAA Nutrition and
    Performance website:
    www.ncaa.org/nutritionandperformanc
    e.html
   Contents include:
       Tips and resources for athletes, coaches,
        athletic trainers, parents and administrators
        to promote healthy food choices and eating
        habits, positive body image, and peak
        performance

				
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posted:3/27/2008
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