Docstoc

EXERCISE AND FITNESS

Document Sample
EXERCISE AND FITNESS Powered By Docstoc
					        EXERCISE AND FITNESS Chapter 2

       Today we are more aware of the role that
       fitness plays in enhancing each
       dimension of our health. It could be
       considered both a miracle drug and a
       “Fountain of Youth”



10/25/2011             EXERCISE AND FITNESS       1
FITNESS:
Reduces risks of developing:
•   STROKE                        • HYPERTENSION-HBP
•   DIABETES                      • COLON CANCER
•   OSTEOPOROSIS                  • PREMATURE AGING
•   BREAST CANCER                 • HYPERLIPIDEMIA
•   ARTHRITIS                     • STRESS RELATED
•   OBESITY                         CONDITIONS
•   DEPRESSION AND                • DISEASES THAT CAUSE
    ANXIETY ATTACKS                 ILLNESS AND DEATH IN
                                    WOMEN
10/25/2011            EXERCISE AND FITNESS                 2
FITNESS PROMOTES:
• POSITIVE ATTITUDES             • INCREASED ENERGY

• CLEARER THINKING               • POSITIVE COPING
                                   MECHANISMS
• IMPROVED ALERTNESS
                                 • RELIEF FROM PMS
• SELF-CONFIDENCE
                                 • GENERAL WELL BEING
10/25/2011           EXERCISE AND FITNESS               3
    You have to ask yourselves
these questions:




     10/25/2011   EXERCISE AND FITNESS   4
Is stress a major part of your
lifestyle, with no end in sight?




      10/25/2011    EXERCISE AND FITNESS   5
Do you experience fatigue, minor
aches, lack of stamina on a
regular bases?



10/25/2011   EXERCISE AND FITNESS   6
Is there some recreational
activity you enjoy, such as
tennis, racquetball or
swimming?



10/25/2011   EXERCISE AND FITNESS   7
Is your fitness level were better
could you enjoy the activity
more?



     10/25/2011    EXERCISE AND FITNESS   8
Do you have enough energy to
take care of daily
responsibilities?


     10/25/2011   EXERCISE AND FITNESS   9
HEALTH-RELATED COMPONENTS OF
FITNESS
• Cardiovascular Fitness/Cardiorespiratory
  Endurance
• Muscular Strength and Endurance
• Flexibility
• Body Composition



10/25/2011       EXERCISE AND FITNESS        11
Contributing Components of
Fitness
•   Balance
•   Agility
•   Coordination
•   Power
•   Speed



10/25/2011         EXERCISE AND FITNESS   12
CARDIORESPIRATORY ENDURANCE
Cardiovascular Fitness
• Pumps blood through body efficiently
• Delivers O2 to cells
• Removes wastes from cells
• Derives energy from a process that
  requires O2 from blood
• Establishes training heart rate
• Rebounds from stress more efficiently
10/25/2011       EXERCISE AND FITNESS     13
FLEXIBILITY
• Moves joints through full range of motion ROM
• Varies from person to person and joint to joint
• It has a genetic base
• Genetics determine how elastic the muscles and
  connective tissues will be
• Differs from men due to skeletal difference and muscle
  mass-women more flexible
• Relieves or prevents pain from exercise
• Prevents potential injuries



10/25/2011            EXERCISE AND FITNESS                 14
AEROBIC TRAINING/ Conditioning
• Increases bodies ability to use O2
• Improves endurance
• Lowers blood cholesterol, BP,
• Enables lungs and heart to supply muscles with
  O2
• Achieved after 15-20 minutes of continuous
  aerobic exercise
• Uses large muscles of the legs and body for
  repetitive movements over a sustained period of
  time
10/25/2011         EXERCISE AND FITNESS         15
AEROBIC TRAINING ACTIVITIES
• CYCLING                     • JOGGING
• SWIMMING                    • RUNNING
• JUMPING-ROPE                • AEROBIC DANCING
• CROSS COUNTRY               • DANCING
  SKIING                      • ROLLER-
• SKIING                        BLADING/SKATING
• WALKING                     • KICK BOXING
                              • STEP Aerobics
10/25/2011        EXERCISE AND FITNESS            16
  MUSCULAR STRENGTH
• Total force muscle groups produce in one
  effort( ( to lift, jump, heave, etc)
• Ability to generate force against some type
  of resistance
• Weights prove to be best form of resistance
  exercise to increase muscular strength
• Is attained by using more weights and less
  repetitions
• Women need muscle strength
  10/25/2011        EXERCISE AND FITNESS        17
STRENGTH TRAINING
• Enhances size of            • Burns more calories
  muscle
• Builds muscles and          • Use it or lose it
  bones
• Promotes good               • Boosts BMR
  posture
• Prevents injury
                              • Prevents the
                                problems of aging
10/25/2011        EXERCISE AND FITNESS                18
BENEFITS OF Progressive
Resistance Training:
•   Enables woman to lift items of everyday life
•   Builds stamina and self- confidence
•   Increases bone density
•   Delays and minimizes osteoporosis
•   Produces less vulnerability to fractures



10/25/2011          EXERCISE AND FITNESS       19
Progressive Resistance Training
• Most effective way to          • Working Slowly and
  build muscle                     smoothly through ROM
• Gradually adds weight          • Overload Principle
  as muscle becomes              • Circuit Training
  stronger                       • Injury and soreness
• Eight to 10 repetitions          diminished
  per set                        • Body fat melts
• Rests between sets

10/25/2011           EXERCISE AND FITNESS            20
 MUSCULAR ENDURANCE
• Enables woman to perform repeated muscular
  contractions in quick succession
• Repeats muscle contractions at moderate levels
• Is attained by using less weight and more
  repetitions
• Builds up to specified goals on weight machines
  and free weights
• Enhances muscles capacity to use O2-Training
  Effect
 10/25/2011          EXERCISE AND FITNESS           21
WEIGHT BEARING EXERCISE
•   Exercises that utilize complete body weight
•   Walking
•   Jogging
•   Running
•   Skating/Roller blading
•   Dancing
•   Full body sports
10/25/2011          EXERCISE AND FITNESS      22
BALANCE
•    Problems with balance are responsible for
•    Falls and accidents among the elderly
•    Exercises such as:
•    Dancing
•    Skipping rope
•    Calisthenics
•    Yoga
•    All require balance
10/25/2011          EXERCISE AND FITNESS     23
Muscular Endurance Exercises
• Weight bearing                • Isometrics
  exercises                     • Isotonics
• Free weights                  • Isokenitics
• Weight machines
• Calisthenics




10/25/2011          EXERCISE AND FITNESS        24
Isotonic
• Weight training that uses force with
  movement
• The use of free weights, barbells etc.
• Both muscle and the weight move
• Better develops and utilizes strength in
  varied activities


10/25/2011        EXERCISE AND FITNESS       25
Isometric
• Weight training that applies force without
  movement
• Applying force in the muscle and holding
  the force
• Tightening the gluteals while sitting at your
  desk or in your car
• KEGALS

10/25/2011        EXERCISE AND FITNESS       26
Isokenetic
• An exertion of force at a constant speed
  against an equal force
• This exertion is found in weight training
  machines
• Circuit training equipment
• Develops strength and endurance


10/25/2011        EXERCISE AND FITNESS        27
PRINCIPLES OF CONDITIONING
• Intensity
• Duration
• Frequency




10/25/2011    EXERCISE AND FITNESS   28
.   STRETCHING
• Stretching is an important component of
  your workout
• Stretching exercises before and after
  fitness activities can definitely improve
  one’s flexibility
• Static stretching
• Ballistic stretching

10/25/2011        EXERCISE AND FITNESS        32
An exercise program needs to
benefit all muscle groups.
• Neck
• Shoulders
• Arms
• Back
• Abdomen
• Gluteals
• Thighs
• Calves
10/25/2011    EXERCISE AND FITNESS   33
ALL WORKOUTS MUST INCLUDE:
• WARM-UP    Prepares body for exercise
             full body warm-ups are
             essential before stretching
             or working with weights
• COOL -DOWN Slowing down gradually and
             never coming to a sudden,
             complete halt

10/25/2011      EXERCISE AND FITNESS   34
BODY COMPOSITION
•   Lean body mass or Lean body Weight -LBW
•   Muscles
•   Organs
•   Bones
•   Teeth
•   Fat Tissue* added to LBW

10/25/2011        EXERCISE AND FITNESS        35
BODY FAT PERCENTAGES
• Essential body fat is @ 12-22%
• Needed for healthy functioning of the body
• Non essential fat is 23% and up
• This is stored as adipose tissue or excess
  girth around organs
• Energy for future needs
• Measurement of one’s body fat provides a
  better analysis of one’s body weight
10/25/2011       EXERCISE AND FITNESS      36
Body Composition Affected by:

•   Exercise
•   BMR
•   After Burn
•   Endurance Sports
•   Muscle Density



10/25/2011        EXERCISE AND FITNESS   37
SIX STEP TO STAYING INVOLVED
• By: Dr. Jon Robinson
• Develop a personal contract to reach an obtainable
  weekly or monthly fitness goal
• Keep track of your progress by knowing your starting
  physical level’s and charting your progress
• Exercise with other’s who have similar fitness interests
  and goals
• Go for the exercise you enjoy most
• Be prepared and avoid excuses for not participating
• See yourself as an active woman

10/25/2011              EXERCISE AND FITNESS                 38
         AVOIDING INJURIES
• Exercise Abuse
• Over use syndrome- body part or entire
  body exercised beyond it’s biological limit
  to point of injury
• Faulty exercise techniques



10/25/2011        EXERCISE AND FITNESS          39
     COMMON INJURIES
• Engaging in exercise too frequently or too
  intensely can often result in preventable
  injuries
• Anterior Cruciate Ligament - rear of knee
• Ptellofemoral Knee pain - caused by repetitive
  jumping, improper stretching, joint deterioration
• Shin Splints- caused by hard surfaces
• Lower back pain- weak back or abdominal muscles
• Shoulder Impingement - Caused by continual
  forceful overhead motion of shoulder
 10/25/2011             EXERCISE AND FITNESS          40
RICE-Temporary Care
• This formula is used in First
  Aid to give immediate first responder care
  until more advanced medical care is
  available.




10/25/2011        EXERCISE AND FITNESS         42
RICE
•   R        REST
•   I        ICE
•   C        COMPRESSION
•   E        ELEVATION




10/25/2011             EXERCISE AND FITNESS   43
BODY MASS INDEX
• If you weigh 140              • 66÷39.4 = 1.7 (b)
• Divide by 2.2                 • This converts your
• 140÷2.2 = 63.7(a)               height to meters
• This converts your            • Square the answer
  weight to kilograms           • 1.7 X 1.7 = 2.89 (b2)
• If your height is 66          • Divide weight in
  inches                          kilograms by height in
• Divide by 39.4                  meters squared
                                • 63.7÷2.89 = 22.04
10/25/2011          EXERCISE AND FITNESS               44
EXERCISE and the MENSTRUAL CYCLE

•   The cycle is a normal biological event
•   Is usually not a problem for athletic women
•   Varying degrees of pain and cramping
•   Pain in lower back or legs
•   Can curtail one’s ability and desire to be
    physically active during menstrual cycle

10/25/2011          EXERCISE AND FITNESS      45
PRE MENSTRUAL SYSDROME
•    Affects many women
•    Characterized by feelings of irritability
•    Depression
•    Bloating
•    Headaches
•    Tender breasts
•    Possible weight gain
•    Engaging in exercise has been shown to reduce
     symptoms of PMS and produce feelings of well
     being
10/25/2011             EXERCISE AND FITNESS        46
AMENORRHEA
• Cessation of the menstrual period
• It is related to over exercising
• Endurance activities such as long distance
  running, cycling, gymnastics or swimming
• When body fat % goes lower than 12%
• Highly fit female athletes usually
  experience irregular or absent menstrual
  periods
10/25/2011        EXERCISE AND FITNESS         47
Negative Physiological
Responses (cont.)
• Loss of lean body mass, fat cells, and
  energy which can lead to malnutrition
• Reduction of bone density or never
  reaching peak bone mass as a young
  woman
• Increase number of injuries due to overuse
  of the body

10/25/2011       EXERCISE AND FITNESS      48
PELVIC FLOOR FITNESS
• Muscles that support a woman’s pelvic
    cavity
• They act like a sling that serve as a base or
    support
• Muscles are slanted at different angles and
    can be held with varying degrees of
    firmness
• Muscles have special receptors-relay
    sexual sensations AND FITNESS
10/25/2011          EXERCISE                   49
Pelvic Floor Muscles: support
and encircle the:
•   Uterus
•   Bladder
•   Urethra
•   Vagina
•   Rectum



10/25/2011    EXERCISE AND FITNESS   50
STRESS URINARY INCONTINENCE
• Involuntary leaking of small amounts of
  urine
• During sudden exertion:
• Coughing
• Sneezing
• Jumping
• Laughing
10/25/2011       EXERCISE AND FITNESS       51
KEGELS
• Developed by Dr. A. Kegel
• Strengthen muscles of the pelvic floor
• Rehabilitate muscles damaged during
  birthing
• Provide natural healing that replaces
  surgery
• Prescribed for prolapsed organs
10/25/2011        EXERCISE AND FITNESS     52
KEGELS may help to:
•   Reduce potential tearing of perineum
•   Increase elasticity of birth canal
•   Promotes recovery after childbirth
•   Support weight of fetus




10/25/2011         EXERCISE AND FITNESS    53
EXERCISING and PREGNANCY
• A woman can exercise during pregnancy as long
  as she has been active prior to pregnancy
• A woman’s fitness level will dictate the frequency,
  duration and intensity of her exercise program
• Pregnancy requires a woman to:
• Prepare her muscles
• Increase her stamina
• Boost her immune system

10/25/2011          EXERCISE AND FITNESS           54
Pregnant women who exercise-
•   Reduce possibility of C-section
•   Gain less weight and body fat
•   Spend less time in labor
•   Reduce hemorrhoids and low back pain
•   Fatigue less frequently
•   Develop little or no varicose veins

10/25/2011        EXERCISE AND FITNESS     55
Women As Athletes
• Women have the same response to training
  as men
• Men have a greater quantity of muscle
  mass-individual fibers same
• Women have more natural body fat
• Women 1/2 as strong upper body and 2/3as
  strong lower body than men
• Title IX gives equal public such. funds
10/25/2011      EXERCISE AND FITNESS     56
Anabolic Steroids
•   PHYSIOLOGICAL                   • PSYCHOLOGICAL
•   Enlarged clitoris               • Increased aggression
•   Beard growth
•   Baldness
•   Breasts reduced




10/25/2011              EXERCISE AND FITNESS             57
COMPULSIVE EXERCISE
• Distorted view of selves
• Sets extremely damaging goals
• Compelled emotionally to excessive
  exercise
• Addicted behavioral drives
• Stressed and depressed

10/25/2011       EXERCISE AND FITNESS   58
Negative Physiological
Responses To Comp. Exercise:
• Increase of reproductive hormone
  production-serious effect on the body
• Diminished ovulation and menstruation or
  potential cessation
• Suppressed Immune System
• Depressed moods and ability to
  concentrate

10/25/2011       EXERCISE AND FITNESS        59
                                 2
    KEY VOCABULARY CHAPTER resistance
                   • progressive
•   Cardiovascular fitness
                                          training
•   muscular strength
                                      •   target heart rate
•   muscular endurance
                                      •   intensity
•   flexibility
                                      •   duration
•   coordination
                                      •   frequency
•   balance
                                      •   warm-up
•   agility
                                      •   cool-down
•   aerobic training
                                      •   overuse syndrome
•   strength training
                                      •   athletic amenorrhea
•   overload principle
                                      •   anabolic steroids
•   kegals
                                      •   afterburn
                                      •   sedentary
10/25/2011               EXERCISE AND FITNESS                   60

				
DOCUMENT INFO
Shared By:
Categories:
Stats:
views:622
posted:3/27/2008
language:English
pages:55