Grey Water Treatment Unit - PDF by dgz16482

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									                     Advanced Life Support Workshop
                        Session 2 Water recycling


                    Grey water recycling at
                  Concordia Antarctic Station:
                   feedback from three-year
                          operation

June 02nd, 2009
                         Julien Troquet, General manager
                           Purposes

GWTU
Purposes
Concordia                  Need to recycle:
Chronology
GWTU
Membranes
Characteristics
Grey Water
Treatment Unit
On-site follow-up
Functioning parameters       A lot of consumables are needed for a long
Analytical follow-up
Analytical results           duration manned mission:
TOC analysis
Microbiological analysis
                              • A mission to Mars needs about 30t of consumables
Membranes cleanings           • Today, the most powerful launcher can place 9t on
Membranes replacement
Maintenance
                                the Moon
Production flow and
recovery rate
Waste volumes and
characterization
                             Space vehicles are very crowded areas
Conclusion
                           Purposes

GWTU
Purposes
                           ESA aim consists in developing
Concordia                  regenerating    life   support
Chronology                 technologies which need to
GWTU
Membranes                  be tested on the ground in
Characteristics            the most realistic conditions
Grey Water
Treatment Unit
                           before use in space
On-site follow-up
Functioning parameters
Analytical follow-up
Analytical results                                                          ESA breadboard
TOC analysis
Microbiological analysis   Why Concordia is a perfect analog for Mars mission?
Membranes cleanings
Membranes replacement         •   Isolated and confined site
Maintenance
Production flow and
                              •   Limited resources available
recovery rate                 •   Real life conditions
Waste volumes and
characterization              •   To treat wastes produced on site (Antarctic Agreement)
Conclusion
                           Concordia
                           Altitude: 3233 m
GWTU
Purposes                   Thickness ice layer: 3300 m
Concordia
Chronology
                           Distance from sea: > 1000 km
GWTU                       Summer T°: - 30°C
Membranes
Characteristics            Winter T°: - 60°C
Grey Water
Treatment Unit
                           Minimum T°: - 80°C
On-site follow-up          Atmospheric pressure: 645 hPa
Functioning parameters
Analytical follow-up
Analytical results
TOC analysis
Microbiological analysis
Membranes cleanings
Membranes replacement
Maintenance
Production flow and
recovery rate
Waste volumes and
characterization
Conclusion                        Dome C Concordia station
                           Chronology
                            2000: ESA breadboard validation test
                             •    Duration: 6 months
GWTU                         •    Shower water and humidity condensate
Purposes                     •    With performance of microbial accidents
Concordia                            Capability to recover 95% of water
Chronology                           Production of hygiene quality water to ESA standards
GWTU
Membranes                   spring 2002: Characterisation of Concordia grey water
                                                                                                   ESA breadboard
                                    (dish washer, shower waters, washing machine, hand’s
Characteristics                     washing, manual dish washing, cooking waters, floor
Grey Water                          cleaning)
Treatment Unit                          Test of several membranes
On-site follow-up
Functioning parameters      summer 2002: 100 h test with Concordia analog grey water on
                            ESA breadboard
Analytical follow-up
Analytical results          spring 2003: development, assembly, integration and tests of
TOC analysis                GWTU
                                                                                            GWTU at «La Canourgue»
Microbiological analysis
Membranes cleanings         spring 2004: Long-duration Test at «lycée de La Canourgue »
Membranes replacement               •     Duration: 3 months
Maintenance                         •     Kitchen and residential school water
                                      The results meet the IPEV-PNRA specifications
Production flow and
recovery rate
Waste volumes and
characterization            since 2005: Grey water treatment at Concordia
Conclusion                                                                                       GWTU at Concordia
                           Grey Water Treatment Unit
                           (GWTU)
GWTU
                                                         Back-flush
Purposes                             Grey Water
Concordia
                                                                           Recycling of Permeate
Chronology
GWTU
Membranes                    Feed
Characteristics              Tank
                                                           NF                OI 1                   OI 2
Grey Water                                   UF

Treatment Unit
                                                                                 Recycling of Retentate    Produced
On-site follow-up
                                                                                                            Water
Functioning parameters
Analytical follow-up                     Black Water
Analytical results                      Treatment Unit
                                                                      Concentrate purge
TOC analysis                                                                                                Storage
                                                                                                             Tank
Microbiological analysis                                                                           Use
Membranes cleanings
Membranes replacement
Maintenance
Production flow and        GWTU is a multi-step filtration process that uses a combination
recovery rate              of Ultrafiltration, Nanofiltration and two Reverse Osmosis steps
Waste volumes and
characterization
Conclusion
                           Membranes characteristics
                                                       UF              NF            RO 1         RO 2
GWTU
                           Membrane                 UF50 M2         P 19-40       SW30HR-380   SW30HR-380
Purposes
Concordia                  Supplier                 Polymem          Exékia        Filmtec      Filmtec
Chronology
GWTU                       Type                    Hollow fiber   Multi channel     Spiral       Spiral
Membranes
Characteristics
                           Cut off                   100 kD           1 kD            -            -
Grey Water                 Area (m²)                   15             8.9            210           70
Treatment Unit
On-site follow-up          Retention of            Suspended      50% bivalent       Ions         Ions
Functioning parameters                               matter           ions           TOC*         TOC*
Analytical follow-up                                50% TOC*
Analytical results
TOC analysis
Microbiological analysis
Membranes cleanings
Membranes replacement
Maintenance
Production flow and
recovery rate
Waste volumes and
characterization
Conclusion                 *Total Organic Carbon
                           Grey Water Treatment Unit

GWTU
Purposes
Concordia
Chronology
GWTU
Membranes
Characteristics
Grey Water
                                  Source IPEV / PNRA
Treatment Unit
On-site follow-up
Functioning parameters
Analytical follow-up
Analytical results
TOC analysis
Microbiological analysis
Membranes cleanings
Membranes replacement
Maintenance
Production flow and
recovery rate
Waste volumes and
characterization
Conclusion                                             Source IPEV / PNRA
                           On-site follow-up

GWTU
Purposes
Concordia                      Process parameters         On-site analysis using a
Chronology
GWTU                                                       rapid detection assay
Membranes                  •   Temperature
Characteristics
                           •   Transmembrane pressure
Grey Water
Treatment Unit             •   Membrane inlet pressure    •   pH
On-site follow-up
                           •   Permeate flow              •   Conductivity
Functioning parameters
Analytical follow-up       •   Volumetric Concentration   •   Chloride
Analytical results             Factor                     •   Sulphate
TOC analysis
Microbiological analysis   •   Backwash frequency and     •   Ammonium
Membranes cleanings            duration                   •   Phosphate
Membranes replacement
Maintenance
                           •   Cleaning frequency
Production flow and
recovery rate
Waste volumes and
characterization
Conclusion
                  Functioning parameters

GWTU
                                            UF           NF          RO1          RO2
Purposes                 Transmembrane
Concordia                                       0.84         6.3        7.5          5.6
                         pressure (bar)
Chronology
GWTU                     Volumic Concentration
                         Factor
                                                 8.3        6.4        8.9          9.2
Membranes
Characteristics
Grey Water               Temperature (°C)                   20.7       18.8         22.0
Treatment Unit
On-site follow-up        Permeate flow (L/h)    240         350        535          500
Functioning parameters
Analytical follow-up
Analytical results
                         Working pH              7.0         6.7
TOC analysis
Microbiological analysis
                             The pressure applied on the different subunits is in line with
Membranes cleanings
Membranes replacement projections
Maintenance
Production flow and         The use of low pressure in the reverse osmosis subunits reduces
recovery rate
                          the energy consumption of the entire system
Waste volumes and
characterization
Conclusion
                           Analytical follow-up

GWTU
Purposes
Concordia
Chronology
GWTU
                                           Sampling           Freezing         Defrosting
Membranes
Characteristics
Grey Water
Treatment Unit                                      On-site                            Laboratory
On-site follow-up                                                        Shipping
                                                    analysis                            analysis
Functioning parameters
Analytical follow-up
Analytical results                                 pH              Storage at -20°C    pH
TOC analysis                                       Conductivity                        Conductivity
Microbiological analysis                           Chloride                            Anions
Membranes cleanings           Source IPEV / PNRA
                                                   Sulphate                            Cations
Membranes replacement                              Ammonium                            Total Organic
Maintenance                                        Phosphate                          Carbon
Production flow and                                                                    Microorganisms
recovery rate
Waste volumes and
characterization
Conclusion
                           Analytical follow-up

GWTU                                                   On-Site analysis
                                                                                        Source IPEV / PNRA
Purposes
Concordia
Chronology                   Laboratory bench on-site and
GWTU                         analysis kit Hach-Lange
Membranes
Characteristics
Grey Water
Treatment Unit
On-site follow-up
Functioning parameters
Analytical follow-up
                                        Off-Line analysis    Hardware used by TM to analyse:
Analytical results
TOC analysis
                                                            •TOC: Dhormann
Microbiological analysis                                    TOCmeter
Membranes cleanings
Membranes replacement
Maintenance                                                   • Anion-cation : Dionex
                                                                         DX-120 ionic
Production flow and
                                                                     chromatography
recovery rate
Waste volumes and
characterization
Conclusion
                           Analytical results
                             Comparison of the GWTU produced water quality with the ESA standards
GWTU
Purposes                   Parameters
                                                                                                                 GWTU           GWTU
                                                        ESA Potable water ESA Hygiene water GWTU produced produced water produced water
Concordia                                                       standard           standard water    2005          2006           2007
Chronology                 Number of samples analysed                                                 239           267            219
GWTU                       pH                                    6.5 - 8.5        5.0 - 8.5           5.8            6.3            7.8
Membranes
                           Conductivity       mS.cm-1                0.75                3          0.027          0.024          0.022
Characteristics
                           Turbidity            NTU                   2.5               10              -              -              -
Grey Water
                           TOC                  ppm                   0.5               10            5.5            2.3            3.1
Treatment Unit
                           Fluoride             ppm                     1               10           0.02           0.03           0.02
On-site follow-up
                           Chloride             ppm                  200             1000             0.2            0.8            0.2
Functioning parameters
Analytical follow-up       Nitrate              ppm                    25               50            0.1            0.2           0.26

Analytical results         Phosphate            ppm                     5               50            0.1            0.1            0.1

TOC analysis               Sulphate             ppm                  250              TBD             0.1           0.08           0.05

Microbiological analysis   Sodium               ppm                  150              750             3.8            4.2            3.4
Membranes cleanings        Potassium            ppm                    12             120             1.7            1.1            0.4
Membranes replacement      Ammonium             ppm                   0.5              0.5            0.5            0.6            0.5
Maintenance                    All the parameters are widely compliant with ESA standards for hygiene
Production flow and          water
recovery rate
                                Except for TOC, they even meet ESA standards for potable water
Waste volumes and
characterization
                                Taking into account measurement error, the concentration of ammonium
Conclusion                   is also very close to the threshold value set by ESA
                           Total Organic Carbon analysis
                           Average TOC concentration for the 3 years:
GWTU
                           mg/ L
                                600
Purposes                                                                          Treatment yields:
Concordia                      500                                                    2005   97.5 %
Chronology
                               400                                                    2006   99.3 %
GWTU
Membranes
                                                                                      2007   99.5 %
                               300
Characteristics
Grey Water
                               200
Treatment Unit                 100
On-site follow-up
Functioning parameters           0
Analytical follow-up                    2005     2006      2007
Analytical results                    Influent   Produced water
TOC analysis                    The increase of the TOC concentration in the influent is due to a decrease of
Microbiological analysis      the amount of water used per person per day (109 L/day/person in 2006 and
Membranes cleanings           66 L/day/person in 2007)
Membranes replacement
Maintenance                     The treatment yields are very important for each year
Production flow and
recovery rate                   There was no evolution of the performance since the start-up
Waste volumes and
characterization                Whatever the concentration in the influent, the quality of the produced
Conclusion                    water is constant and satisfying
                           Microbiological analysis

GWTU                         Aim      search potential faecal contamination
Purposes
Concordia                       Coliform bacteria
Chronology                      Escherichia coli
GWTU
Membranes                       Enterococci
Characteristics
                                Mesophilic microorganisms
Grey Water
Treatment Unit
On-site follow-up
Functioning parameters
                             Principle     the search of the faecal contamination was
Analytical follow-up         carried out directly on the waters after defrosting
Analytical results
TOC analysis
Microbiological analysis
Membranes cleanings
                             Results: 26 samples were analysed since 2005
Membranes replacement        24 samples showed no trace of Coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli or Enterococci
Maintenance                  17 samples showed a weak contamination by Mesophilic bacteria
Production flow and
recovery rate
Waste volumes and                  This contamination is acceptable for a sampling
characterization                   in a non sterile environment
Conclusion
                           Membranes cleanings
                           Frequency of cleanings                    UF and NF cleanings
GWTU
Purposes                           Nb/
                                          Chemical
                                   mont
Concordia                                 product
                                    h
Chronology
                             UF     3       NaOH
GWTU
Membranes                                  NaOH,
                             NF     12
                                           HNO3
Characteristics
Grey Water                   RO1   1.2    NaOH, HCl
Treatment Unit
                             RO2   1.2    NaOH, HCl
On-site follow-up
Functioning parameters
Analytical follow-up
Analytical results
TOC analysis                  The cleanings are not much frequent
Microbiological analysis
Membranes cleanings           The ultrafiltration membranes were more cleaned during the first year
Membranes replacement       because it was necessary to find the right functioning parameters
Maintenance
Production flow and
recovery rate
                               The frequency of the cleanings is linked to the operator    more NF
Waste volumes and           cleanings were carried out during Winter 3
characterization
Conclusion
                    Membranes replacement
                                               01/09/2006 12/06/2007
                                                   RO         UF
GWTU
Purposes
Concordia                                    S                 S                S           S
                                 W1                  W2                W3          W4
Chronology                                   1                 2                 3           4
GWTU
Membranes
Characteristics          12/03/2005                                                        07/02/2009
Grey Water
Treatment Unit
On-site follow-up
                                         Winter (between 10 and 14 crew members)
Functioning parameters                   Summer (up to 69 crew members)
Analytical follow-up
Analytical results
TOC analysis                    The reverse osmosis membranes installed in March 2005 after
Microbiological analysis     reconditioning had already been used for the validation trials in
Membranes cleanings          France in 2004
Membranes replacement
Maintenance
                                All reverse osmosis membranes were replaced by prevention, at
Production flow and
recovery rate
                             the end of the second season, despite optimal performance
Waste volumes and
characterization                The ultrafiltration membrane was replaced in June 2007, to be
Conclusion                   verified, due to potential fiber damage
                           Maintenance

GWTU
Purposes
                             Due to its low degree of automation requested by IPEV, the
Concordia
Chronology
                             conduct of the unit requires human intervention which could be
GWTU                         more or less important depending:
Membranes
                              • on the operator,
Characteristics
Grey Water                    • on the number of people living in the station,
Treatment Unit
                              • on the cleaning sequence frequency.
On-site follow-up
Functioning parameters
Analytical follow-up
                             Only a few actions have been carried out on electronic
Analytical results
TOC analysis                 components (replacement of a conductivity meter, small
Microbiological analysis     interventions on relays …)
Membranes cleanings
Membranes replacement
Maintenance                  No pump replacement has been performed
Production flow and
recovery rate
Waste volumes and
characterization
Conclusion
                           Production flow and recovery rate

GWTU
Purposes                   Average running time:
Concordia                     Winter: 19% of the time
Chronology                    Summer: 27% of the time
GWTU
Membranes
                            Average operating time:
Characteristics
Grey Water
                              8-9 hours per day of operation
Treatment Unit
On-site follow-up
Functioning parameters
Analytical follow-up
Analytical results
TOC analysis
Microbiological analysis
Membranes cleanings                                  Value        The unit can produce between 1000 and
Membranes replacement                                          2000 litres of hygiene water during a day
                            Production flow          173 l/h
Maintenance                                                    of production (6 to 11 hours)
Production flow and         Recovery rate obtained   74.5 %
recovery rate
                            Recovery rate expected   70-80 %
                                                                 The recovery rate obtained is in the
Waste volumes and
                                                               range expected
characterization
Conclusion
                       Waste volumes and characterization

                           The test on the ESA breadboard lasted
GWTU
                           166 days with an average production flow of
Purposes                   48 l/day.
Concordia
Chronology                 The purge frequencies were:
GWTU                             NF: 2 L/day
Membranes                        RO1: 1 l/50 h
Characteristics                  RO2: no purge
Grey Water
Treatment Unit
On-site follow-up
Functioning parameters
                           Since the GWTU starting the average purge
Analytical follow-up
                           flow obtained correspond to 25% of the
Analytical results
                           total flow.
TOC analysis
Microbiological analysis   The ultrafiltration generates the biggest
Membranes cleanings        part of the waste (purge and backwashes).
Membranes replacement
Maintenance
Production flow and
recovery rate
Waste volumes and          The recovery rate obtained at Concordia (75%) is lower than the one obtained with
characterization           the ESA breadboard (95%) because of the presence of the UF stage and the non
Conclusion                 automation of the GWTU.
                       Waste volumes and characterization

GWTU                        Characterization of the ESA breadboard and GWTU waste waters:
Purposes
Concordia                                                   Influent          UF waste             NF waste                    RO1 waste

Chronology                                         Breadboard          GWTU    GWTU      Breadboard           GWTU   Breadboard            GWTU

GWTU                            TOC (mg/l)            553              340      1023        1200              352       578                554
Membranes
                                λ (µS/cm)             626              762      1011        1138              2580      5516               5322
Characteristics
Grey Water                      [Cl-] (mg/l)          9,3               89       89          12               293       138                773
Treatment Unit
On-site follow-up              [PO42-] (mg/l)         2,8               60      112          11               173        39                296

Functioning parameters
                               [SO42-] (mg/l)          97               33       36         158                96       330                139
Analytical follow-up
Analytical results             [Na+] (mg/l)            65              151      194          66               577       148                1288

TOC analysis
                               [NH4+] (mg/l)          0,7              6,5       22         1,3                12       8,7                 18
Microbiological analysis
Membranes cleanings        Part of treated water                                20 %        4%                 4%       1%                  1%
Membranes replacement
Maintenance
Production flow and          Because the NF waste represents 4% of treated water the final
recovery rate              concentration of the ESA breadboard waste will be close to the NF one
Waste volumes and
characterization             Because the UF waste represents 20% of treated water the final
Conclusion                 concentration of the GWTU waste will be close to the UF one
                           Conclusion

GWTU                        The unit operation meets the initial specifications
Purposes
Concordia
Chronology                  The analysis of the operating data generated during three
GWTU                        years has highlighted the impact of the operator on the unit
Membranes                   performance. However, whatever the operator, the
Characteristics
Grey Water
                            produced water meets ESA standards for hygiene water
Treatment Unit
On-site follow-up
Functioning parameters
                            The average production flow is close to 170 L/h and the
Analytical follow-up        recovery rate is 74.5%. This recovery rate is lower
Analytical results          compared to results obtained with the ESA breadboard
TOC analysis                (i.e. > 93%) due to the requested low level of automation
Microbiological analysis
Membranes cleanings
                            by the client
Membranes replacement
Maintenance
Production flow and
                            The GWTU needs a low maintenance
recovery rate
Waste volumes and
characterization
Conclusion
Thank you for your attention

								
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