THE POTENTIAL FOR CONSERVATION CONTRACTS TO CONTRIBUTE TO by vow15418

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									THE POTENTIAL FOR CONSERVATION
  CONTRACTS TO CONTRIBUTE TO
 BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION IN
         MADAGASCAR


       Joanna Durbin, Aristide
   Andrianarimisa, Philip Decosse,
   Andrew Keck and Frank Hawkins
                  Madagascar
• One of the most important biodiversity hotspots in
  the world :
   – Very high endemicity, at higher taxonomic levels as
     well as species
   – Extreme species richness for plants (12,000 + spp.)
   – Almost all endemic species limited to forests
   – High and increasing rates of habitat loss, mostly
     through slash-and-burn, an assured source of food and
     revenue in a climatically and politically variable
     context
   – Very little privately-owned forest land
       Conservation Initiatives
• 15 year National Environmental Action Plan
  largely initiated through donor interest in
  biodiversity (1991-2007)
• 300 M USD + in the first ten years
• Initially a conventional focus on protected areas
  and provision of alternatives to unsustainable
  resource use
• Latterly a switch (with enabling legislation) to
  community forest management at a landscape
  scale
               Initial lessons
• Protected areas work well but at a relatively small
  scale and are expensive
• The linkage between development investment and
  conservation was obscure, leading to little
  conservation gain
• Community forest management is rarely adequate
  to ensure biodiversity conservation on its own;
  hunting and small-scale forest use continue to
  erode biodiversity
       Conservation Contracts
Our hypothesis is that existing management
 transfer contracts can be modified to
 provide a direct incentive for conservation,
 and that this will provide a productive
 complement to other initiatives already
 underway
 Context of existing management
        transfer contracts
• Contracts relate to use of forest resources for
  subsistence or commercial use
• Contracts are between villages and the Water and
  Forests authority, with the commune as a
  guarantor
• Contracts are for three years renewable to ten
  years
• Control and oversight are very difficult as
  infrastructure is poor, authorities under-resourced
  and abuse frequent
 How will conservation contracts
             work
• Using existing management transfer legislation
• Funds will come through regional biodiversity
  coordination committee, who provide regional
  biodiversity planning context to ensure larger-
  scale conservation benefit
• Contracts will be agreed for conservation areas
  adjoining village-managed sustainable use areas
 How will conservation contracts
            work (2)
Payments will be made to three main
  contractual beneficiaries
  – Village(s) with a management contract for the
    conservation area
  – Local authority with responsibility for forest
    management (Water and Forests Ministry)
  – Local administrative authority (communes)
           Contract parameters
• Payments will be made on a yearly basis for an
  amount negotiated either:
   – As an estimation of the value of the forest products
     foregone (traditional use rights);
   – Or on willingness to accept
• Villages agree not to cut wood, hunt, clear forest
  for cultivation, collect honey, tubers, medicinal
  plants in the conservation area
• They agree to report infractions to an agreed
  agency
             Communities
• Payments will be made to individuals
  represented by community organisations
• Communities will agree not to use the core
  area of forest at all
• Communities will agree on a set of rules
  and sanctions implemented through a
  traditional local law- a “dina”
            Local authorities
• The Water and Forests authority are
  responsible for creating the management
  plan and implementing the national forest
  law- particularly preventing third party
  abuses
• The communes approve the contract,
  facilitate the dina, and mediate in regional
  disputes
   Monitoring and enforcement
• Deforestation can be tracked by remote
  sensing
• Small-scale forest use by regular patrols
  involving independent monitors,
  community members and local authorities
• Abundance of important bushmeat species
  may be monitored through repeated and
  replicated presence-absence surveys
                      Testing
• Testing is envisaged in three areas of particular
  biodiversity importance
   – Menabe forests, centre-western deciduous forest,
     threatened by clearance for maize and unsustainable
     logging
   – Lake Alaotra, extensive papyrus reedbeds, where
     burning and hunting of an locally-endemic lemur occur
   – Makira forest, eastern lowland and mid-altitude
     rainforest, cleared for hill rice
           Larger-scale issues
• Provides a mechanism for external investors to
  channel funding directly to “biodiversity
  providers”
• Beneficiaries often the poorest of the rural poor
• Potential complementarity with, or channel for,
  ecosystem service payments
• For larger contiguous areas of forest beyond
  village management capacity, the state may agree
  to conservation concessions

								
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