Basic Principles of Physical Fitness

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					Basic Principles of
Physical Fitness

  Fahey/Insel/Roth, Fit & Well: Core Concepts and Labs in Physical Fitness and Wellness
Physical Activity and Exercise
for Health and Fitness

Physical activity levels have declined
Healthy People 2010:
  More than 55% of U.S. adults do not engage
   in recommended amounts of activity
  25% are not active at all
Levels of Physical Activity
Physical Activity on a
Physical activity = any body movement carried out
 by the skeletal muscles and requiring energy
Exercise = planned, structured, repetitive
 movement of the body designed to improve or
 maintain physical fitness
Physical fitness = a set of physical attributes that
 allows the body to respond or adapt to the
 demands and stress of physical effort
Lifestyle Physical Activity
For health promotion:
  Expend about 150 calories—equivalent to 30
   minutes of brisk walking—on most days
For health promotion and weight
  Engage in 45–60 or more minutes of activity
   on most days
Moderate Amounts of
Physical Activity
Exercise to Develop
Physical Fitness

Lifestyle physical activity improves health
 but may not improve fitness
A structured, formal exercise program
 improves physical fitness and provides
 even greater health improvements
How Much Physical
Activity Is Enough?

Moderate-intensity versus high-intensity
Continuous versus intermittent exercise
Low-intensity exercise improves health
 but may not be very beneficial for
 improving physical fitness
How Much Physical
Activity Is Enough?
Health-Related Components
of Physical Fitness
Health-related fitness = physical
 capacities that contribute to health
Five components:
1. Cardiorespiratory endurance = the ability of the
  body to perform prolonged, large-muscle,
  dynamic exercise at moderate-to-high levels of
Health-Related Components
of Physical Fitness

2. Muscular strength = the amount of force a
  muscle can produce with a single maximum
3. Muscular endurance = the ability of a muscle or
  group of muscles to remain contracted or to
  contract repeatedly
4. Flexibility = the ability to move joints through
  their full range of motion
Health-Related Components
of Physical Fitness

5. Body composition = the proportion of fat and
  fat-free mass (muscle, bone, and water) in the
Skill-Related Components
of Fitness

Reaction time
Principles of Training:
Adaptation to Stress

The hman body adjusts to meet
 increasing demands placed on it; the
 greater the demand the greater the
 adjustment made
Particular types and amounts of exercise
 are most effective in making the body fit.
Four principles of successful
Specificity—Adapting to
Type of Training

The body adapts to the particular type and
 amount of stress placed on it
To develop a particular fitness component,
 perform exercises specifically designed for
 that component
Progressive Overload—Adapting
to Amount of Training
Placing increasing amounts of stress on
 the body causes adaptations that improve
FITT principle for overload:
  Frequency—How often
  Intensity—How hard
  Time—How long (duration)
  Type—Mode of activity
Reversibility—Adapting to
a Reduction in Training

Fitness improvements are lost when
 demands on the body are lowered
If you stop exercising, up to 50% of
 fitness improvements are lost within 2
Individual Differences—
Limits on Adaptability

Everyone is NOT created equal from a
 physical standpoint
There are large individual differences in
 ability to improve fitness, body
 composition, and sports skills
Designing Your Own
Exercise Program
Medical clearance
Fitness assessment
Setting goals
Choosing activities for a balanced
  Include activities to develop health-related
   components of physical fitness
Physical Activity Pyramid
Benefits of Different Programs
Guidelines for Training
Train the way you want your body to
Train regularly
Get in shape gradually; do not overtrain
Warm up before exercise
Cool down after exercise
Exercise safely
Guidelines for Training
Listen to your body
Cycle the volume and intensity of your
Try training with a partner
Train your mind
Add variety and have fun
Keep your exercise program in perspective
Progression of an Exercise
Program: Get in Shape Gradually
Amount of Exercise for
Fitness Benefits
Choosing a Fitness Center

Trained personnel

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