Anabolic Exercise for Health by Rabia06

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									 Anabolic    Presented by:
                     Dr. Robert Newton

 Exercise            Foundation Professor in
                     Exercise Science



for Health           Edith Cowan University
―Indeed, with the
possible exception of diet          Physical
modification, we know
of no single intervention
                                    Inactivity and
with greater promise than           Chronic
physical exercise to
reduce the risk of
                                    Disease
virtually all chronic
diseases simultaneously‖
            Booth et al, JAP 2000




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                             Chronic
    •slow progress, long
    continuance              Disease
    •individual crosses
    threshold - ‗‗clinical
    horizon‘‘ to manifest
    •mechanisms underlying
    active long before
    outwardly affected



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―there has been an
epidemic emergence of               Cost of
modern chronic diseases
in the latter part of the
                                    Chronic
20th century‖                       Disease
―costs in the USA are
now approaching $1
trillion‖


            Booth et al, JAP 2000


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    •coronary heart disease
    (atherosclerosis, heart      Examples of
    failure, hypertension, and   Major Chronic
    stroke)
    •obesity                     Diseases
    •Type 2 diabetes
    •some cancers
    •osteoporosis
    •sarcopenia



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    •Medical research and      Only fighting
    treatment is focused
    almost entirely on
                               half of the
    secondary and tertiary     battle: being
    prevention
    •Primary prevention is
                               reactive instead
    cheaper, more effective,   of proactive
    and far less painful




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―the human genome
evolved over at least the           We are
last 45,000 years within
an environment of high
                                    programmed
physical activity‖                  for physical
―the current human
genome expects and
                                    activity
requires humans to be
physically active for
normal function and
health maintenance‖

            Booth et al, JAP 2000
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    ―There is no pharmacological
    intervention that holds a greater promise
    of improving health and promoting
    independence in the elderly than does
    exercise‖

         Evans & Campbell, Journal of Nutrition, 1993




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•~ 250,000 deaths per
year in the US are                  Physical
premature due to
physical inactivity
                                    Inactivity and
•increases incidence of at          Chronic
least 17 unhealthy
conditions
                                    Disease
•almost all of which are
chronic diseases or
considered risk factors
for chronic diseases

            Booth et al, JAP 2000
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    •Physical inactivity ranks
    second only to tobacco                    Physical
    smoking in terms of the                   Inactivity and
    burden of disease from
    risk factors in Australia.                Chronic
    •6% (second highest                       Disease…2
    burden for men) of the
    total burden of disease
    and injury among males
    •8% among females
    (highest burden for
    women)
                  AIHW: Mathers et al. 1999

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•Adult participation in
sufficient physical activity
for a health benefit declined                    Physical
from 62% in 1997 to 57%
in 2000.                                         Inactivity and
•Overweight and obesity                          Chronic
remains a serious problem,
affecting around 65% of
                                                 Disease…3
men, 45% of women and
22% of children aged 2-17
years.
    Australian Institute of Health and Welfare
                       Australia’s Health 2002

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•leading cause of death among
Australians in 2000
•49,741 deaths or 39% of all
                                                  Cardiovascular
deaths.                                           Disease in
•coronary heart disease 53%
•stroke 25%
                                                  Australia
•heart failure 5%
•peripheral vascular disease 5%
     Australian Institute of Health and Welfare
                        Australia’s Health 2002




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                                                        How
                                                        important is
                                                        physical
                                                        activity?
     image from http://www.cotavic.org.au/ “Living Longer Living Stronger”




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     •Loss of muscle mass and
                                Sarcopenia
     function
     •60% of over 80yrs
     •Anabolic exercise most
     effective strategy to
     prevent or reverse
     sarcopenia



                                   image from http://www.cotavic.org.au/
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     •nutrition (under-nutrition
     and lack of vitamin D)          Causes of
     •decreased hormone levels       Sarcopenia
     (e.g growth hormone,
     testosterone)
     •reduced physical activity
     particularly high intensity
     •loss of nerves that
     innervate the muscles
                                               image from http://www.cotavic.org.au/



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                               Grounds, M.D. Biogerontology, 2002
•Diabetes is the world's
fastest growing disease
•It's Australia's sixth leading      Diabetes
cause of death
•Over one million
Australians have it — but
50% are as yet unaware
•Every 10 minutes someone
is diagnosed with diabetes


                             http://www.diabetesaustralia.com.au/
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Age-specific prevalence of impaired glucose
tolerance, 1999-2000
Age (years) Men%             Women%
25–34         2.1            4.9
35–44         4.8            8.5
45–54         8.4            11.2               Impaired
55–64         14.8           15.2
65–74         20.4           22.9               Glucose
75+           25.5           20.7
Source: Dunstan et al. 2001.                    Tolerance
•Metabolic stage between normal and diabetes
•Risk factor for Type 2 diabetes
•Also greater risk of heart disease
•Much higher in physically inactive and obese
•Improved with physical activity and weight
reduction
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•―In addition to controlling weight,
physical activity also improves the
body‘s sensitivity to insulin,               Impaired
helping to lower blood sugar.‖
•―Even a single bout of vigorous
                                             Glucose
physical activity will have an               Tolerance
immediate effect on insulin
sensitivity.‖


Australian Institute of Health and Welfare
Australia’s Health 2002
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•Exercise improves insulin
resistance
•Beneficial for preventing         Resistance
and treating type 2 diabetes
•Aerobic exercise hindered
                                   Exercise
in older, obese, co-morbid         and
patients                           Diabetes
•Anabolic exercise safe and
effective


                         Willey and Singh. Diabetes Care, 2003
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•It is estimated that
appropriate levels of
physical activity could        Physical
prevent 30-50% of new
cases of Type 2 diabetes
                               Activity
•Benefits for preventing and   and
treating diabetes occur only   Diabetes
with regular sustained
physical activity patterns
Manson & Spelsberg,1994)


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•Evidence is conclusive
•Lifelong physical activity has
strong preventative effect
•Anabolic exercise - greatest
                                              Anabolic
efficacy                                      Exercise and
•Example*
   •1 year study of strength and
                                              Osteoporosis
   endurance training
   •1.3% increase BMD in
   training group
   •1.2% decrease for control

         *Kemmler et al. Archives of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation, 2003
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     •Increased function e.g. stair
     climb and descend, chair rise,
     walking                           Anabolic
     •Reduced ratings of pain          Exercise and
     •Reduced stiffness
     •Studies report anabolic          Osteoarthritis
     exercise to be ―safe, effective
     and well tolerated in OA
     patients‖



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     •Feasible and safe in selected   Anabolic
     patients with well-controlled
     RA                               Exercise and
     •Significant improvements in     Rheumatoid
     strength, pain, and fatigue
     Without exacerbating disease     Arthritis
     activity or joint pain.




                                          Hakkinen, A. 2002 and 2003
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     •People who are physically
     inactive are nearly twice as
     likely to develop colon cancer   Physical
     (Colditz et al. 1997).           activity and
     •Physical activity is also
     associated with around a 30%     cancer risk
     reduction in the risk of women
     of all ages developing breast
     cancer
     (Thune & Furberg 2001).


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 •Disease and treatment usually
 results in debilitating fatigue          Exercise for
 •Research examining exercise
 programs pre surgery and/or              Cancer
 during treatment                         Patients
     Increased vigor
     Reduced muscle and bone loss
     Enhanced immune function




                                      Anabolic
                                      Exercise
     Possible increase survival
     Positive psychological influences
 •Prostate and Breast cancer
 •More accurate detection
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 •Physical inactivity - risk factor   Mental
 •Mechanism unknown                   Illness,
 •Physical activity – strong
 positive effect                      Dementia,
 •Slows progression of disease        Alzheimer‘s
 •Ageing population – dementia
 will become major problem




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     •Epidemiological studies into
     Alzheimer disease indicates
     physical activity appears                         Epidemiology
     beneficial, as does a diet with
     high levels of vitamins B6,
     B12 and folate, while red
     wine in moderate quantities
     also appears protective




                       McDowell, I. Alzheimer's disease: insights from epidemiology. Aging-Clinical &
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                                                           Experimental Research. 13:143-162, 2001.
 Cholesterol

     •Exercise and nutrition demonstrated effects on:
       •Lowered TC
       •Lowered LDL-C
       •Increased HDL-C
       •Lowered triglycerides



                  Scranton, R., et al. Predictors of 14-year changes in the total cholesterol to high-density
                   lipoprotein cholesterol ratio in men. American Heart Journal. 147(6):1033-1038, 2004
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 Hypertension

     •Exercise can lower BP in patients with stage 1 and
     2 essential hypertension
     •Average reduction in BP is 10.5 mm Hg for
     systolic and 7.6 mm Hg for diastolic BP




                       Kokkinos, P. F., P. Narayan, and V. Papademetriou. Exercise as hypertension
                                                     therapy. Cardiology Clinics. 19:507-516, 2001.
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 Obesity and Overweight


     •Combination of exercise and dietary modification
     is the only effective long-term strategy for
     controlling body weight




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     •accidental falls for >
                               Falls - Cost
     65 years $83 million in
     2001/02
     •1.5 % of health
     expenditure in WA
     •cost per fall was
     $6,500
     •Personal and family
     cost much larger
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     •Multifactorial
                                Falls -
     •Range of physical         Prevention
     activity interventions
     proven successful
     •Anabolic exercise
     reverse loss of muscle
     strength and slows bone
     loss – critical function

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•Must reverse our
concept of ―gentle
exercise‖                 Deficiencies of
•To maintain function,
                          some physical
reduce chronic disease,   activity
enhance quality of life   programs for
– MUST simulate pre-
industrial revolution!
                          seniors
•Ageism! We need to
change our perceptions
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•Clearly life-long
physical activity
including resistance                               Life-Long
exercise is crucial to                             Prevention
maintaining optimal
structure and function                             Strategy
into old age
•Primary prevention is
imperative!


           image from http://www.cotavic.org.au/
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                                                  Fighting Fit??
 http://www.ucomics.com/closetohome/2004/03/07/




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                                                      Edith
                                                      Cowan
                                                      University
     International enrolments exceed 3,000 with students originating from
     more than 80 countries.
     ECU's origins go back to 1902 when it began as a teaching college.
     Today it is Western Australia's second largest university with almost
     23,000 students.
     The University has three metropolitan campuses in Churchlands,
     Mount Lawley and Joondalup and a regional campus in Bunbury, a
     city 200kms south of Perth.
     More than 330 courses are offered through the five faculties: Business
     and Public Management; Computing, Health and Science;
     Communications and Creative Industries, which incorporates the
     Western Australian Academy of Performing Arts; Community
     Services, Education and Social Sciences; and the Faculty of Regional
36   Professional Studies
•Certificates offered
                             Sport and
     •Personal Training
     •Women‘s Wellness
                             Exercise
•Degrees offered             Science
     •Bachelor of Science
     (Sports Science)
     •Masters and PhD by
     research
     •Masters of Exercise
     Science (Strength and
     Conditioning)
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     ECU Wellness
     •Training and certification
     •Professional development
     •On-going support

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     Thank
     You
     www.ecu.edu.au


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