Global Warming and its effect on Arctic Sea Life by tze65444


									   The Arctic Ocean!
•Located in the Northern Hemisphere,
extends from the Bering Sea to the
Northern Atlantic Ocean

•Occupies a space of approximately
14,056,000 km2 (5,427,000 sq mi), about
the size of Russia!
   It is one of the most extreme ocean
    environments due to the year-round ice
    cover and seasonal conditions
   Holds a great number of highly
    adapted organisms, many of
    which have not been identified
   The effects of Global Warming
    are most prominent in the Arctic Ocean
    due to increasing temperatures, resulting
    in reduction of Sea Ice
   The general increase in
    Earth’s near surface air
    and ocean temperatures

Caused by:

1.) Natural phenomena
       Volcanic activity
       Solar variation

2.)External forcings created
    by human activities
       Greenhouse gases
       Aerosols(CFC’s) and soot
   Greenhouse gas emissions are composed of 4
    major gases
     Carbon Dioxide (CO2): 36-70%
     Water Vapor: 9-26%
     Methane(CH4 ):4-9%
     Ozone(O3 ): 3-7%
   Ice Core samples have shown that CO2 and CH4
    level are the highest they’ve ever been 650,000
   Since 1750, CO2 levels has increased by 36% and CH4
    levels by 148%
   Increasing global temperatures leads to the
    reduction of Sea Ice, which in turn causes the
    melting of permafrost
   Less sea ice  Less ice-albedo
   The melting of permafrost releases trapped
    methane gas, which will accelerate the global
    warming process (positive feedback)

Broken down into 3 realms:

1.) Sea Ice

2.)Water Column

3.) Sea Floor
   The Arctic sea ice covers approximately
    7x106 km2 in the summer and twice that in the
    winter. It reaches a thickness of 2–3m and
    covers nearly all of the central deep basins.
    < >

   This year round ice hosts a variety of ice-
    endemic organisms, typically unicellular plants
    and animals.
   Many taxa of Sea Ice organisms still have not
    yet been classified
Onisimus nanseni
       Arthropod (shrimp-like crustacean)
       Lifespan of 2.5 years
       Endemic to Arctic

Boreogadus saida
       Arctic Cod
       The main source of food for many
        marine mammals, birds, and fishes

Sympagohydra tuuli
       1.1 mm long
       Newly discovered genus of a Hydriod
Broken down into 3 realms:

1.) Sea Ice

2.)Water Column

3.) Sea Floor
   Inflow from surrounding oceans allows the
    importing of different organisms
   Most exotic organisms die because of the frigid
    Majority of species consists of Copepods
    Highest concentrations of water column
    communities found in lower latitudes
    Gaetanus brevispinus
       Copepod
       5mm length, 3 year lifespan
       Found from 1500m and up

Crossota Millisae
       Cnidarian
       Some Cnidaria can survive up to 10
        years, and be as large as 30m long!
Broken down into 3 realms:

1.) Sea Ice

2.)Water Column

3.) Sea Floor
    Organisms found on sea floor rely on food found
     in the water column above
    At present, roughly 5000 species of marine
     invertebrates are known to inhabit the Arctic. Over
     90% of those live at the seafloor 1
         Roughly 350 species live in the central Arctic Sea Floor,
          the rest are located at lower latitudes on the continental
    Consists mostly of crustaceans, polychaetes (bristle
     worms), and mollusks

1<   >
Ctenodiscus Crispatus
       Echinoderm
       Over 50 different types of sea star
        species found in the Arctic Ocean

    Chiton (Tonisella Lineata)
       Mollusk
       Prey of humans, seabirds, seastars,
        crab, lobster, and fish
Ursus maritimus (Polar Bear)
•   Associated with sea ice
•   Approx. size of 8.5 feet tall, 900lbs (male)
•   Lifespan of 25-30 years

Erignathus barbatus(Bearded Seal)
•   Approx. size of 7 feet long, 500lbs(male)
•   Circumpolar arctic distribution
•   Lifespan of about 30 years

Delphinapterus leucas(Beluga whale)
•    Approx. size of 12 feet long, 3500lbs (male)
•    Arctic and subarctic distribution, often in or
near sea ice or glacial ice
•    Lifespan of 35-50+ years
   Recent investigations have estimated a loss in
    summer arctic sea ice of 9.2% per decade
       Ice endemic species*
   Ice algae growth is increased when sea ice melts,
    and interrupts the plankton blooms
   Higher trophic levels (marine mammals) suffer due
    to the lack of energy within the ocean system
   Animals, such as polar bears, have to change their
    feeding and migratory patterns due to the lack of ice
   Melting of sea ice leads to decreased ocean
       Responsible for changing global water cycles
   It has been proposed by arctic geoengineers,
    that by actively pumping fresh water onto the
    pre-existing sea ice, it would freeze and thicken
   Thicker sea ice is less resistant to melt, and
    could possibly slow down the global warming

   INFO

To top