# Hotel Break Even Point

W
Description

Hi, this Best Pratice of Hotel Break even point by Drs. Agustinus Agus Purwanto, MM website: www.hotelskonsultan.webs.com email: agustinus.aguspurwanto@ehotelier.com

Shared by:
Categories
Tags
-
Stats
views:
5717
posted:
2/14/2009
language:
English
pages:
32
Document Sample

```							www.hotelskonsultan.webs.com

BEST PRACTICE
HOTEL BREAK‐EVEN POINT
Drs. Agusttinus Agus Purwanto, MM  2/11/2009

This document is prepared to analysis Budget Year 2009 being proposed to Hotel’s Owner, the objective to  compute  Break  –  even  Point  is  to  ensure  the  Monthly  breakdown  was  objective  and  achievable.  To  see  which  month  is  bad  performance  and  best  performance.  As  Director  of  Finance  will  be  assist  Sales  &  Marketing to analyze by increasing and reducing the Room Rate when requested
Developed by: Drs. Agustinus Agus Purwanto, MM Page: 0

www.hotelskonsultan.webs.com

Hotel Room Division Break-even Point

Developed by: Drs. Agustinus Agus Purwanto, MM

Page:

1

www.hotelskonsultan.webs.com BEST PRACTICE
HOTEL BREAK-EVENT POINT

1. Formula
What is hotel break-even point computed by, the hotel is complex in business operation according to which Departmental Profit we want to compute the “Break-even Point” will meet the difficutly to follow “Break-Even Point” method as following without to know the caracteristic of expenses:

Formula A

BE=FC/ (1-VC %) BE Break Even Point FC Fixed Costs VC Variable Costs

Formula B

BEP = break-even point (units of production) TFC = total fixed costs, VCUP = variable costs per unit of production, SUP = selling price per unit of production

Formula C

1. Break-even point (in units) =

fixed expenses unit contribution margin
2. Contribution-margin ratio =

unit contribution margin unit sales price
3. Break-even point (in sales dollars) =

fixed expenses contribution-margin ratio
Formula D

Classic Spread Sheet from Consolidated Budget Still many other formulas like as Mathematic Equation etc.

Other Formula

Developed by: Drs. Agustinus Agus Purwanto, MM

Page:

2

www.hotelskonsultan.webs.com
2. Hotel Departmental Profit
In the hotel business has many types of Departmental Profit to follow Uniform System of Account for Hotel. These departmental profit can be minimized into three profit center as follow: a. Room Division Departmental Profit b. Food and Beverage Division Departmental Profit, and c. Other Operated Departmental Profit

2.1 Room Divison Departmental Profit

The main core business is services but is not really pure services business, because we also supply some operation supplies into the room for free to our guests. Cost and Expenses in the Room Divison Department ussualy categoried as follow: a. Payroll in this Best Practice is Fixed Cost, in the Consuldated Room Division Budget appear constant as Fixed Cost b. Provision in this Best Practice is Fixed Cost, but you can calculate this expenses by percentage of Sales and then become as Vaiable Cost c. Other Expenses in this Best Practice can be Fixed Cost or Variable Cost depend how you calculated in the budget, when is constant every month will be Fixed Cost and when the expenses based on the room occupancy, total sales or number of guest will categoried as Variable Cost If you are not following this method the Break – Even Point figures will be big differences when you are computing with another FORMULA.

2.2 Food and Beverage Division Departmental Profit

The main core business is not services, but combination between service and production / manufacturer, so you have to use different Formula to Food and Beverage Departmental Profit. Which will be analysis on the next Best Practice. Cost and Expenses in the Food and Beverage Departmental Profit different with Room Division Departmental Profit. This Cost and Expensres ussualy categoried as follow: a. Payroll in this Best Practice is Fixed Cost, in the Consuldated Food and Beverage Departmental Budget appear constant as Fixed Cost b. Cost of Sales – In Food and Beverage Departmental Profit has Cost of Sales but in the Room Departmental Profit is not, this expense in this Best Practice as Variable Cost c. Provision in this Best Practice is Fixed Cost, but you can calculate this expenses by percentage of Sales and then become as Vaiable Cost d. Other Expenses in this Best Practice can be Fixed Cost or Variable Cost depend how you calculated in the budget, when is constant every month will be Fixed Cost and when the expenses based on total sales or number of cover will categoried as Variable Cost

Developed by: Drs. Agustinus Agus Purwanto, MM

Page:

3

www.hotelskonsultan.webs.com
2.3 Other Operated Departmental Profit The main core business is also not really service, this is combined between service and production, the formula can use the same with Food and Beverage Division Department Profit. When you are using Classic Spread Sheet Break-even Point Analysis will some expenses different classification. Mean in the Food and Beverage Departmental Profit as Variable Cost but in the Other Operated Departmental Profit as Fixed Cost.

3. Classic Spread Sheet Break-even Point Analysis for Room Division
The Classic Spread Sheet Break-even Point Analysis is the easier way to calculate Room Divison Departmental Profit Break-even Point. This method can be prepared by following steps: a. STEP ONE Prepare Consulidated Operating Budget Summary and Monthly b. STEP TWO Move the expenses to Fixed Cost for constant expenses and move to Variable Cost for non constant expenses, all exepses calculated based on Occupied Room, Number Guest, Number Cover or Percentage of Sales c. STEP THREE Calculate the Contribution Margin the simple formula as bellow: (S – VC)/S Sales – Variable Cost divided by Sales d. STEP FOUR Calculate the Break-even Sales Volume the simple formula as below: FC/CM Fixed Cost divided by Contribution Margin e. STEP FIVE Do calculation the Break-even Point Analysis by using the Classic Spread Sheet as sample f. STEP SIX Do test with one of the formula as above or other furmula do you have

Developed by: Drs. Agustinus Agus Purwanto, MM

Page:

4

www.hotelskonsultan.webs.com
Example: MONTHLY BREAKDOWN OF CONSOLIDATED ROOM DIVISION BUDGET
Based on Proposed Budget 2009 BUDGET FOR 2009 - MONTH BY MONTH

Break-Even Analysis
Descriptions Sales Jan-09 239,986.00 Feb-09 226,089.00 Mar-09 210,177.00 Apr-09 244,581.00 May-09 306,720.00 Jun-09 327,720.00 Jul-09 365,324.00 Aug-09 362,475.00 Sep-09 325,616.00 Oct-09 254,896.00 Nov-09 253,186.00 Dec-09 273,228.00

Yearly Total

% of Sales

\$3,389,998.00

Fixed Costs Payroll Provision In House Movie/Satellite TV Music Entertainment Reservation Expenses Subscription - Newspaper Administration & General Human Resources Sales & Marketing P.O.M.E.C Interest Charges Other Fixed Charges Depreciation Total Fixed Costs 19,718.37 1,550.00 230.00 250.00 75.00 266.67 12,393.85 1,960.78 6,907.19 3,592.61 22,800.00 764.00 39,520.00
110,028.47

19,718.37 1,550.00 230.00 250.00 75.00 266.67 12,393.85 1,960.78 6,907.19 3,592.61 22,800.00 764.00 39,520.00
110,028.47

19,718.37 1,550.00 230.00 250.00 75.00 266.67 12,393.85 1,960.78 6,907.19 3,592.61 22,800.00 764.00 39,520.00
110,028.47

19,718.37 1,550.00 230.00 250.00 75.00 266.67 12,393.85 1,960.78 6,907.19 3,592.61 22,800.00 764.00 39,520.00
110,028.47

19,718.37 1,550.00 230.00 250.00 75.00 266.67 12,393.85 1,960.78 6,907.19 3,592.61 22,800.00 764.00 39,520.00
110,028.47

19,718.37 1,550.00 230.00 250.00 75.00 266.67 12,393.85 1,960.78 6,907.19 3,592.61 22,800.00 764.00 39,520.00
110,028.47

19,718.37 1,550.00 230.00 250.00 75.00 266.67 12,393.85 1,960.78 6,907.19 3,592.61 22,800.00 764.00 39,520.00
110,028.47

19,718.37 1,550.00 230.00 250.00 75.00 266.67 12,393.85 1,960.78 6,907.19 3,592.61 22,800.00 764.00 39,520.00
110,028.47

19,718.37 1,550.00 230.00 250.00 75.00 266.67 12,393.85 1,960.78 6,907.19 3,592.61 22,800.00 764.00 39,520.00
110,028.47

19,718.37 1,550.00 230.00 250.00 75.00 266.67 12,393.85 1,960.78 6,907.19 3,592.61 22,800.00 764.00 39,520.00
110,028.47

19,718.37 1,550.00 230.00 250.00 75.00 266.67 12,393.85 1,960.78 6,907.19 3,592.61 22,800.00 764.00 39,520.00
110,028.47

19,718.37 1,550.00 230.00 250.00 75.00 266.67 12,393.85 1,960.78 6,907.19 3,592.61 22,800.00 764.00 39,520.00
110,028.47

\$236,620.50 \$18,600.00 \$2,760.00 \$3,000.00 \$900.00 \$3,200.00 \$148,726.15 \$23,529.41 \$82,886.30 \$43,111.33 273,600.00 \$9,168.00 \$474,240.00 \$1,320,341.69

6.98% 0.55% 0.08% 0.09% 0.03% 0.09% 4.39% 0.69% 2.45% 1.27% 8.07% 0.27% 13.99% 38.95%

Developed by: Drs. Agustinus Agus Purwanto, MM

Page:

5

www.hotelskonsultan.webs.com
Variable Costs T/A Commission Flower & Decorations Guest Supplies - F & B Guest Supplies - Amenities Guest Relocations Laundry Operation - Linen Laundry Uniform Printing & Stationery Cleaning Supplies & Tools Entertainment Telephone & Fax Transportation Other Operating Supplies Administration & General Human Resources Sales & Marketing P.O.M.E.C Management Fees 540.06 669.03 1,853.42 3,774.11 524.95 3,578.73 361.87 1,132.69 1,521.84 1,671.88 472.10 1,021.84 193.94 7,560.18 1,650.91 6,980.17 21,888.00 11,225.11 414.36 835.44 1,768.94 3,267.14 428.82 3,353.71 360.74 1,136.84 1,489.94 1,470.33 387.72 989.94 159.28 6,550.61 1,369.34 6,820.66 19,706.39 9,952.46 678.90 114.79 1,758.42 2,302.50 (76.12) 3,307.23 383.48 1,101.48 1,452.48 2,434.81 635.26 452.48 260.97 10,196.03 2,206.28 7,682.28 24,273.37 11,831.75 730.06 591.77 2,030.68 2,893.18 113.78 4,035.15 384.01 1,137.57 1,598.45 1,937.67 638.19 848.45 262.17 8,781.62 1,893.35 7,350.93 22,720.16 11,543.21 471.44 507.76 2,618.88 3,465.25 569.03 4,843.78 360.31 1,693.84 2,195.18 1,804.79 441.14 1,445.18 181.22 7,339.83 1,566.33 6,995.86 24,899.02 14,076.06 542.16 80.12 2,646.66 4,706.52 890.43 5,313.00 364.88 1,397.94 2,020.74 1,397.83 507.31 1,520.74 208.40 7,318.03 1,559.11 6,983.66 25,957.27 15,026.07 762.40 1,063.45 3,287.18 4,923.64 834.36 6,307.01 383.09 1,929.05 2,626.22 2,149.47 633.14 1,126.22 260.09 9,403.26 1,949.78 7,499.89 30,433.83 17,729.37 569.70 496.81 2,862.61 4,289.34 320.53 5,005.79 367.77 1,853.35 2,354.40 2,387.38 533.08 1,354.40 218.99 10,139.29 2,201.35 7,681.00 31,363.97 18,236.86 452.98 386.10 1,960.76 6,294.50 1,361.89 5,630.77 359.97 2,277.12 1,088.17 207.69 423.86 1,088.17 174.12 4,491.62 950.65 6,264.44 22,046.48 13,192.61 570.98 348.25 2,266.48 3,795.38 551.78 4,605.13 367.92 1,378.54 1,891.84 1,753.67 534.28 1,891.84 219.48 7,607.79 1,593.72 7,150.01 23,159.12 12,085.93 746.93 255.97 2,211.38 3,564.17 435.15 4,360.30 386.73 1,411.59 1,880.31 2,402.20 652.93 1,880.31 268.23 9,591.61 2,100.34 7,702.12 26,362.42 13,545.64 569.62 321.75 2,056.24 3,146.36 836.98 3,919.69 361.74 1,437.46 1,832.26 2,071.10 470.10 1,832.26 193.12 7,870.43 1,819.13 7,199.22 24,314.27 13,065.34 \$7,049.58 \$5,671.24 \$27,321.65 \$46,422.10 \$6,791.57 \$54,260.29 \$4,442.49 \$17,887.47 \$21,951.85 \$21,688.82 \$6,329.11 \$15,451.85 \$2,600.00 \$96,850.27 \$20,860.30 \$86,310.24 \$297,124.32 \$161,510.42

0.21% 0.17% 0.81% 1.37% 0.20% 1.60% 0.13% 0.53% 0.65% 0.64% 0.19% 0.46% 0.08% 2.86% 0.62% 2.55% 8.76% 7.84%

Total Variable Costs

66,620.81

60,462.65

70,996.38

69,490.39

75,474.91

78,440.86

93,301.47

92,236.64

68,651.90

71,722.15

79,758.32

73,317.08

\$900,523.57

26.56%

Income from Operations

63,336.72

55,597.87

29,152.15

65,062.14

121,216.61

139,250.66

161,994.06

160,209.89

146,935.63

73,095.38

63,399.21

89,882.45

1,169,132.76

34.49%

Developed by: Drs. Agustinus Agus Purwanto, MM

Page:

6

www.hotelskonsultan.webs.com
Income from Operations Analysis Contribution Margin Break-Even Sales Volume Sales Volume Above BreakEven 72.24% 152,310.24 87,675.76 73.26% 150,194.87 75,894.13 66.22% 166,154.27 44,022.73 71.59% 153,696.84 90,884.16 75.39% 145,940.11 160,779.89 76.06% 144,651.22 183,068.78 74.46% 147,767.33 217,556.67 74.55% 147,582.94 214,892.06 78.92% 139,424.27 186,191.73 71.84% 153,152.19 101,743.81 68.50% 160,629.89 92,556.11 73.17% 150,381.28 122,846.72 73.44% 1,797,952.05 1,592,045.95

53.04% 46.96%

Room Available Room Sold Average Room Rate Income from Operations Analysis Average Room Rate Breakeven Room Night % Occupancy Breakeven

6,200 2,660 \$90.22

5,200 2,566 \$88.09

6,200 2,479 \$88.09

6,000 2,652 \$84.79

6,200 3,581 \$92.22

6,000 3,959 \$85.64

6,200 4,198 \$82.78

6,200 4,165 \$87.02

6,000 3,984 \$87.03

6,200 2,929 \$81.73

6,000 2,874 \$87.02

6,200 3,101 \$88.08

72,600 39,148 86.00

\$90.22 1,689 27.2%

\$88.09 1,705 32.8%

\$88.09 1,887 30.4%

\$84.79 1,813 30.2%

\$92.22 1,583 25.5%

\$85.64 1,690 28.2%

\$82.78 1,786 28.8%

\$87.02 1,696 27.4%

\$87.03 1,602 26.7%

\$81.73 1,874 30.2%

\$87.02 1,846 30.8%

\$88.08 1,708 27.5%

\$86.00 20,907 28.8%

Developed by: Drs. Agustinus Agus Purwanto, MM

Page:

7

www.hotelskonsultan.webs.com
4. TEST USE FORMULA A
We do test the Classic Spread Sheet Break-even Point with the formula A as per page 1 with the formula as bellow: BE=FC/ (1-VC %) BE Break Even Point FC Fixed Costs VC Variable Costs

We do test for January 2009 for Room Division as follow: JANUARY 2009 BREAK-EVEN POINT: Fixed Cost: \$110,028.47 VC%: 27.760290% Solution on Break-even point of January 2009 Room Division as bellow: BE = \$110,028.47/(1-27.760290%) BE = \$110,028.47/72.2397% BE = \$110,028/0.722397 BE = \$152,310.24 compare with Classic Spread Sheet is \$ 152,310.24

We do test for Total 2009 for Room Division as follow: TOTAL 2009 BREAK-EVEN POINT: Fixed Cost: \$1,320,341.69 VC%: 26.564132% Solution on Break-even point of Total 2009 Room Division as bellow: BE = \$1,320,341.69/(1-26.564132%) BE = \$1,320,341.69/73.4359% BE = \$1,320.341.69/0.734359 BE = \$1,797,952.28 compare with Classic Spread Sheet is \$ 1,797,952.28

Developed by: Drs. Agustinus Agus Purwanto, MM

Page:

8

www.hotelskonsultan.webs.com
5. TEST USE EQUATION
The result of Classic Spread Sheet Break-even Point also can be proved by using “Equation Method” as following:

Sales = Variable Cost + Fixed Cost + Profit

To prove January 2009 Result of Classic Spread Sheet Break-even Point for Room Division: Information we got as follow: Average Room Rate = \$90.22 Sales = \$236,986 Room Sold = 2660 Fixed Cost = \$110,028.47 Variable Cost = \$66,620.81 Proved: Variable Cost per Occupied = \$66,620.81 / 2660 = \$ 25.045 \$90.22Q = \$25.045Q + \$110,028.47 + \$0 65.175Q = 110,028.47 Q = 1,688.21 ronded 1,689 R/N compare with Classic Spread Sheet BEP 1,689 R/N

You can do test the other months and in Yearly Total with this Equation Method

Developed by: Drs. Agustinus Agus Purwanto, MM

Page:

9

www.hotelskonsultan.webs.com
6. BREAKEVEN CHART

This is Breakeven Chart for January 2009, you are free to do for another month within the Classic Spread Sheet Break-even Point:

Breakeven Chart

350,000.00 300,000.00 250,000.00

Money

200,000.00 150,000.00 100,000.00 50,000.00 -

Operating Surplus Variable Costs Fixed Costs Business Revenue Total Costs (110,028.47) 110,028.47 110,028.47

563.00 (73,335.18) 14,100.57 110,028.47 50,793.86 124,129.04

1,126.00 (36,641.89) 28,201.14 110,028.47 101,587.72 138,229.61

1,689.00 51.40 42,301.71 110,028.47 152,381.58 152,330.18
Room Sold

2,252.00 36,744.69 56,402.28 110,028.47 203,175.44 166,430.75

2,815.00 73,437.98 70,502.85 110,028.47 253,969.30 180,531.32

3,378.00 110,131.27 84,603.42 110,028.47 304,763.16 194,631.89

Developed by: Drs. Agustinus Agus Purwanto, MM

Page:

10

www.hotelskonsultan.webs.com

Hotel F & B Division Break-even Point

Developed by: Drs. Agustinus Agus Purwanto, MM

Page:

11

www.hotelskonsultan.webs.com
7. Hotel F & B Departmental Profit
1.1. Food and Beverage Payroll

Payroll in this Best Practice is Fixed Cost, in the Consuldated Food and Beverage Departmental Budget appear constant as Fixed Cost

1.2. Food and Beverage Cost of Sales

Cost of Sales – In Food and Beverage Departmental Profit has Cost of Sales but in the Room Departmental Profit is not, this expense in this Best Practice as Variable Cost

1.3. Provision of Food and Beverage

Provision in this Best Practice is Fixed Cost, but you can calculate this expenses by percentage of Sales and then become as Vaiable Cost

1.4. Other Expenses

Other Expenses in this Best Practice can be Fixed Cost or Variable Cost depend how you are calculated in the budget, when is constant every month will be Fixed Cost and when the expenses based on total sales or number of cover will categoried as Variable Cost

You are never can to compute by using formula directly without to identify the expenses caracter, because the Fixed Cost such as Administration, Human Resources, Sales & Marketing and Property Operation & Energy Cost (P.O.M.E.C) share with Room Division and Other Operated Department. In this case you can splite based on Revenue percentage. Your operation Break-even Point will be wrong when you don’t split the above Expenses, also you will to find difficulties when you are not moving your expenses into the two categories expense i.e., Fixed Cost and Variable Cost. Do not confusing with Cost of Sales, because this expenses should be categoried by Variable Cost because these expenses will be increase or decrease paralel to the Food and Beverage Sales. Remember to compute Break-even Point, you only need Fixed Cost and Variable Cost. The Cost of Sales is the presentation in the Profit and Loss format. So, to get the Calculation you can follow the steaps as bellow:

Developed by: Drs. Agustinus Agus Purwanto, MM

Page:

12

www.hotelskonsultan.webs.com
8. Classic Spread Sheet Break-even Point Analysis
The Classic Spread Sheet Break-even Point Analysis is the easier way to calculate Food and Beverage Divison Departmental Profit Break-even Point. This method can be prepared by following steps: a. STEP ONE Prepare Consulidated Operating Budget Summary and Monthly b. STEP TWO Move the expenses to Fixed Cost for constant expenses and move to Variable Cost for non constant expenses, all exepses calculated based on Number Guest, Number Cover or Percentage of Sales c. STEP THREE Calculate the Contribution Margin the simple formula as bellow: (S – VC)/S Sales – Variable Cost divided by Sales d. STEP FOUR Calculate the Break-even Sales Volume the simple formula as below: FC/CM Fixed Cost divided by Contribution Margin e. STEP FIVE Do calculation the Break-even Point Analysis by using the Classic Spread Sheet as sample f. STEP SIX Do test with one of the formula as above or other furmula do you have

Developed by: Drs. Agustinus Agus Purwanto, MM

Page:

13

www.hotelskonsultan.webs.com
Example: MONTHLY BREAKDOWN OF CONSOLIDATED FOOD AND BEVERAGE DIVISION BUDGET
Based on Proposed Budget 2009 BUDGET FOR 2009 - MONTH BY MONTH

Break-Even Analysis
1/09 Sales Fixed Costs Payroll Provision Administration & General Human Resources Sales & Marketing P.O.M.E.C Depreciation Total Fixed Costs Variable Costs Cost of Sales Kitchen Fuel Laundry Linen Music Entertainment Cleaning Supplies Guest Supplies F & B Printing & Stationery Decorations 38,790.29 1,884.84 460.58 2,666.00 609.66 1,153.04 580.20 172.41 32,757.48 1,431.42 581.27 2,064.00 599.64 954.07 617.95 112.18 53,989.27 2,479.78 750.80 3,400.00 986.39 1,622.75 1,002.09 201.41 39,020.77 2,068.20 242.32 3,234.00 547.69 1,195.61 524.07 225.44 38,162.44 1,642.43 676.75 2,390.00 718.46 1,112.18 748.78 124.61 38,440.86 1,968.57 326.70 2,671.00 582.85 1,173.34 534.10 186.89 48,400.38 2,430.12 406.91 3,409.00 751.41 1,466.74 700.99 226.40 52,547.25 2,318.75 778.86 3,247.00 1,015.01 1,570.56 1,058.03 175.83 23,837.18 1,303.33 115.88 1,926.00 271.23 711.03 203.89 139.19 40,782.81 1,960.72 547.76 2,793.00 639.35 1,202.41 608.78 178.21 53,387.56 2,530.50 723.95 3,495.00 900.37 1,595.00 883.91 219.85 41,831.97 1,879.23 736.41 2,725.00 715.96 1,211.65 718.21 156.89 17,704.57 1,950.00 6,400.77 1,012.64 3,567.20 1,855.39 \$20,410 \$52,901 17,704.57 1,950.00 6,400.77 1,012.64 3,567.20 1,855.39 \$20,410 \$52,901 17,704.57 1,950.00 6,400.77 1,012.64 3,567.20 1,855.39 \$20,410 \$52,901 17,704.57 1,950.00 6,400.77 1,012.64 3,567.20 1,855.39 \$20,410 \$52,901 17,704.57 1,950.00 6,400.77 1,012.64 3,567.20 1,855.39 \$20,410 \$52,901 17,704.57 1,950.00 6,400.77 1,012.64 3,567.20 1,855.39 \$20,410 \$52,901 17,704.57 1,950.00 6,400.77 1,012.64 3,567.20 1,855.39 \$20,410 \$52,901 17,704.57 1,950.00 6,400.77 1,012.64 3,567.20 1,855.39 \$20,410 \$52,901 17,704.57 1,950.00 6,400.77 1,012.64 3,567.20 1,855.39 \$20,410 \$52,901 17,704.57 1,950.00 6,400.77 1,012.64 3,567.20 1,855.39 \$20,410 \$52,901 17,704.57 1,950.00 6,400.77 1,012.64 3,567.20 1,855.39 \$20,410 \$52,901 17,704.57 1,950.00 6,400.77 1,012.64 3,567.20 1,855.39 \$20,410 \$52,901 134,835.30 2/09 114,123.67 3/09 188,093.22 4/09 137,513.67 5/09 132,954.15 6/09 133,924.07 7/09 168,622.04 8/09 183,069.25 9/09 83,046.27 10/09 142,083.21 11/09 185,996.77 12/09 145,738.38

Year 1

% of Sales

\$1,750,000

\$212,455 \$23,400 \$76,809 \$12,152 \$42,806 \$22,265 \$244,920 \$634,807

12.14% 1.34% 4.39% 0.69% 2.45% 1.27% 14.00% 36.27%

\$501,948 \$23,898 \$6,348 \$34,020 \$8,338 \$14,968 \$8,181 \$2,119

28.68% 1.37% 0.36% 1.94% 0.48% 0.86% 0.47% 0.12%

Developed by: Drs. Agustinus Agus Purwanto, MM

Page:

14

www.hotelskonsultan.webs.com
Menu & Wine List Spoilage Telephone & Fax Laundry Uniforms F & B Promotions Bar Supplies Banquet Expenses Entertainment Miscellaneous Administration & General Human Resources Sales & Marketing P.O.M.E.C 47.88 61.91 86.28 663.54 208.79 21.01 106.90 61.88 75.49 3,904.43 852.61 3,604.89 11,304.00 31.15 40.28 56.14 675.88 135.85 13.67 69.55 40.26 49.07 3,383.04 707.19 3,522.51 10,177.31 55.93 72.33 100.79 1,097.12 243.91 24.55 124.88 72.28 87.90 5,265.71 1,139.43 3,967.49 12,535.92 62.61 80.96 112.81 633.44 273.01 27.47 139.78 80.91 98.40 4,535.24 977.82 3,796.37 11,733.77 34.61 44.75 62.36 808.57 150.91 15.19 77.26 44.72 54.72 3,790.63 808.92 3,612.99 12,859.04 51.90 67.11 93.52 625.28 226.32 22.78 115.88 67.07 80.98 3,779.38 805.20 3,606.69 13,405.56 62.88 81.30 113.29 810.81 274.17 27.59 140.38 81.25 98.30 4,856.29 1,006.96 3,873.30 15,717.47 48.83 63.14 87.99 1,146.99 212.93 21.43 109.02 63.10 76.42 5,236.41 1,136.88 3,966.83 16,197.84 38.66 49.98 69.66 263.57 168.57 16.96 86.31 49.96 60.26 2,319.68 490.96 3,235.25 11,385.85 49.49 63.99 89.18 697.86 215.81 21.72 110.50 63.96 77.47 3,929.02 823.07 3,692.60 11,960.47 61.06 78.95 110.02 987.64 266.24 26.79 136.32 78.90 95.81 4,953.56 1,084.71 3,977.74 13,614.80 43.57 56.34 78.51 792.23 189.99 19.12 97.28 56.31 67.81 4,064.66 939.49 3,718.02 12,557.04 \$589 \$761 \$1,061 \$9,203 \$2,567 \$258 \$1,314 \$761 \$923 \$50,018 \$10,773 \$44,575 \$153,449 0.03% 0.04% 0.06% 0.53% 0.15% 0.01% 0.08% 0.04% 0.05% 2.86% 0.62% 2.55% 8.77%

Total Variable Costs

\$67,317

\$58,020

\$89,221

\$69,611

\$67,940

\$68,832

\$84,936

\$91,079

\$46,743

\$70,508

\$89,209

\$72,656

\$876,071

50.06%

Income from Operations

\$14,618

\$3,203

\$45,972

\$15,002

\$12,113

\$12,191

\$30,786

\$39,090

(\$16,598)

\$18,674

\$43,888

\$20,182

\$239,122

13.66%

Developed by: Drs. Agustinus Agus Purwanto, MM

Page:

15

www.hotelskonsultan.webs.com

Income from Operations Analysis Contribution Margin Break-Even Sales Volume Sales Volume Above Break-Even 50.07% \$105,643 \$29,192 49.16% \$107,608 \$6,516 52.57% \$100,637 \$87,456 49.38% \$107,132 \$30,382 48.90% \$108,182 \$24,772 48.60% \$108,841 \$25,083 49.63% \$106,591 \$62,031 50.25% \$105,277 \$77,792 43.71% \$121,015 (\$37,969) 50.38% \$105,013 \$37,071 52.04% \$101,659 \$84,338 50.15% \$105,492 \$40,246 49.94% \$1,271,170 \$478,830 72.64% 27.36%

Guest Cover Capture Rate Income from Operations Analysis Average Room Rate Breakeven Cover Breakeven Capture Rate

5,191 11,063 213.1%

4,885 10,030 205.3%

4,847 15,033 310.2%

5,180 12,814 247.4%

7,076 11,928 168.6%

7,728 11,577 149.8%

8,368 14,785 176.7%

8,274 15,862 191.7%

7,827 7,512 96.0%

5,754 10,809 187.9%

5,691 10,910 191.7%

6,077 11,700 192.5%

76,898 144,023 187.3%

\$12.19 8,668 167.0%

\$11.38 9,457 193.6%

\$12.51 8,043 165.9%

\$10.73 9,983 192.7%

\$11.15 9,706 137.2%

\$11.57 9,409 121.7%

\$11.40 9,346 111.7%

\$11.54 9,122 110.2%

\$11.06 10,946 139.9%

\$13.14 7,989 138.8%

\$17.05 5,963 104.8%

\$12.46 8,469 139.4%

\$12.15 104,616 136.0%

Developed by: Drs. Agustinus Agus Purwanto, MM

Page:

16

www.hotelskonsultan.webs.com
9. TEST USE FORMULA A
We do test the Classic Spread Sheet Break-even Point with the formula A as per page 1 with the formula as bellow: BE=FC/ (1-VC %) BE Break Even Point FC Fixed Costs VC Variable Costs

We do test for January 2009 Food and Beverage Division as follow: JANUARY 2009 BREAK-EVEN POINT: Fixed Cost: \$52,900.58 VC%: 49.925% Solution on Break-even point of January 2009 Food and Beverage Division as bellow: BE = \$52,900.58/(1-49.925%) BE = \$52,900.58/50.07492% BE = \$52,900/0.5007492 BE = \$105,642.86 compare with Classic Spread Sheet is \$ 105,642.86

We do test for Total 2009 as follow: TOTAL 2009 BREAK-EVEN POINT: Fixed Cost: \$634,806.98 VC%: 50.061217% Solution on Break-even point of Total 2009 Food and Beverage Division as bellow: BE = \$634,806.98/(1-50.0612%) BE = \$634,806.98/49.938783% BE = \$634,806.94/0.49938783 BE = \$1,271,170.30 compare with Classic Spread Sheet is \$ 1,271,170.29

Developed by: Drs. Agustinus Agus Purwanto, MM

Page:

17

www.hotelskonsultan.webs.com
10. TEST USE EQUATION
The result of Classic Spread Sheet Break-even Point also can be proved by using “Equation Method” as following:

Sales = Variable Cost + Fixed Cost + Profit

To prove January 2009 Result of Classic Spread Sheet Break-even Point: Information we got as follow: Average Per Cover = \$12.19 Sales = \$134,835.30 Cover = 11,063 Fixed Cost = \$52,900.58 Variable Cost = \$67,316.63 Proved: Variable Cost per Cover = \$67,316.63 / 11,063 = \$ 6.084844 \$12.19Q = \$6.085Q + \$52,900.58 + \$0 6.105Q = 52,900.58 Q = 8,665.12 ronded 8,666 Covers compare with Classic Spread Sheet BEP 8,668 Cover

You can do test the other months and in Yearly Total with this Equation Method

Developed by: Drs. Agustinus Agus Purwanto, MM

Page:

18

www.hotelskonsultan.webs.com
11. BREAKEVEN CHART FOR FOOD AND BEVERAGE DIVISION

Breakeven Chart

200,000.00

150,000.00

100,000.00

Money

50,000.00

-

(50,000.00)

(100,000.00)

Fixed Cost Variable Cost Operating Surplus Total Cost Revenue 52,900.58 (52,900.58) 52,900.58 -

2,167 52,900.58 13,185.86 (39,675.15) 66,086.44 26,411.29

4,334 52,900.58 26,371.71 (26,449.71) 79,272.30 52,822.58

6,501 52,900.58 39,557.57 (13,224.28) 92,458.15 79,233.87

8,668 52,900.58 52,743.43 1.15 105,644.01 105,645.16

10,835 52,900.58 65,929.29 13,226.59 118,829.87 132,056.45

13,002 52,900.58 79,115.14 26,452.02 132,015.72 158,467.74

Cover Food and Beverage

Developed by: Drs. Agustinus Agus Purwanto, MM

Page:

19

www.hotelskonsultan.webs.com

Hotel Minor Operated Department Break-even Point

Developed by: Drs. Agustinus Agus Purwanto, MM

Page:

20

www.hotelskonsultan.webs.com
12. Hotel Minor Operated Departmental Profit
12.1 Minor Operated Department Payroll Payroll in this Best Practice is Fixed Cost, in the Consuldated Minor Operated Departmental Budget appear constant as Fixed Cost

12.2 Minor Operated Department Cost of Sales Cost of Sales – In Minor Operated Departmental Profit also has Cost of Sales but in the Room Departmental Profit is not, this expense in this Best Practice as Variable Cost

12.3 Provision of Minor Operated Department Provision in this Best Practice is Fixed Cost, but you can calculate this expenses by percentage of Sales and then become as Vaiable Cost

12.4 Other Expenses Other Expenses in this Best Practice can be Fixed Cost or Variable Cost depend how you are calculated in the budget, when is constant every month will be Fixed Cost and when the expenses based on total sales or number of cover will categoried as Variable Cost

You are never can to compute the Minor Operated Department by using formula directly without to identify the expenses caracter, because the Fixed Cost such as Administration, Human Resources, Sales & Marketing and Property Operation & Energy Cost (P.O.M.E.C) share with Room Division and Food and Beverage Division. In this case you can splite based on Revenue percentage. Same with Room Division and Food Beverage Division, Other Operated Department Break-even Point will be wrong when you don’t split the above Expenses, also you will to find difficulties when you are not moving your expenses into the two categories expense i.e., Fixed Cost and Variable Cost. Again do not confusing with Cost of Sales, because this expenses should be categoried by Variable Cost because these expenses will be increase or decrease paralel to the Minor Operated Department Sales. Remember to compute Break-even Point, you only need Fixed Cost and Variable Cost. The Cost of Sales is the presentation in the Profit and Loss format only.

Developed by: Drs. Agustinus Agus Purwanto, MM

Page:

21

www.hotelskonsultan.webs.com
13. Classic Spread Sheet Break-even Point Analysis
The Classic Spread Sheet Break-even Point Analysis is the easier way to calculate Minor Operated Departmental Profit Break-even Point. This method can be prepared by following steps: a. STEP ONE Prepare Consulidated Operating Budget Summary and Monthly b. STEP TWO Move the expenses to Fixed Cost for constant expenses and move to Variable Cost for non constant expenses, all exepses calculated based on Number Guest, Percentage of Sales c. STEP THREE Calculate the Contribution Margin the simple formula as bellow: (S – VC)/S Sales – Variable Cost divided by Sales d. STEP FOUR Calculate the Break-even Sales Volume the simple formula as below: FC/CM Fixed Cost divided by Contribution Margin e. STEP FIVE Do calculation the Break-even Point Analysis by using the Classic Spread Sheet as sample f. STEP SIX Do test with one of the formula as above or other furmula do you have

Developed by: Drs. Agustinus Agus Purwanto, MM

Page:

22

www.hotelskonsultan.webs.com
Example: MONTHLY BREAKDOWN OF CONSOLIDATED MINOR OPERATED DEPARTMENT BUDGET
Based on Proposed Budget 2009 BUDGET FOR 2009 - MONTH BY MONTH

Break-Even Analysis
1/09 Sales Fixed Costs Payroll Provision Cleaning Supplies Guest Supplies FB Administration & General Human Resources Sales & Marketing P.O.M.E.C Depreciation 7,899.00 1,196.00 25.00 75.00 1,590.00 251.55 886.12 460.89 \$5,070 7,899.00 1,196.00 25.00 75.00 1,590.00 251.55 886.12 460.89 \$5,070 7,899.00 1,196.00 25.00 75.00 1,590.00 251.55 886.12 460.89 \$5,070 7,899.00 1,196.00 25.00 75.00 1,590.00 251.55 886.12 460.89 \$5,070 7,899.00 1,196.00 25.00 75.00 1,590.00 251.55 886.12 460.89 \$5,070 7,899.00 1,196.00 25.00 75.00 1,590.00 251.55 886.12 460.89 \$5,070 7,899.00 1,196.00 25.00 75.00 1,590.00 251.55 886.12 460.89 \$5,070 7,899.00 1,196.00 25.00 75.00 1,590.00 251.55 886.12 460.89 \$5,070 7,899.00 1,196.00 25.00 75.00 1,590.00 251.55 886.12 460.89 \$5,070 7,899.00 1,196.00 25.00 75.00 1,590.00 251.55 886.12 460.89 \$5,070 7,899.00 1,196.00 25.00 75.00 1,590.00 251.55 886.12 460.89 \$5,070 7,899.00 1,196.00 25.00 75.00 1,590.00 251.55 886.12 460.89 \$5,070 32,854.00 2/09 28,628.00 3/09 45,141.00 4/09 37,098.00 5/09 32,719.00 6/09 32,951.00 7/09 41,295.00 8/09 44,769.00 9/09 21,540.00 10/09 34,913.00 11/09 45,426.00 12/09 35,791.00

Year 1

% of Sales

\$433,125.00

\$94,787.97 \$14,352.00 \$300.00 \$900.00 \$19,080.00 \$3,018.58 \$10,633.44 \$5,530.73 \$60,840.00

21.88% 3.31% 0.07% 0.21% 4.41% 0.70% 2.46% 1.28% 14.05%

Total Fixed Costs Variable Costs Cost of Sales Laundry Uniforms Telephone & Fax Printing & Stationery

17,453.56

17,453.56

17,453.56

17,453.56

17,453.56

17,453.56

17,453.56

17,453.56

17,453.56

17,453.56

17,453.56

17,453.56

\$209,442.71

48.36%

6,120.54 111.07 44.34 90.18

5,010.32 105.36 42.10 83.14

8,908.09 129.49 49.95 107.87

6,962.60 111.58 46.03 95.53

6,004.34 111.19 44.10 89.44

6,055.41 108.33 44.20 89.76

7,883.52 470.16 47.88 101.36

8,644.07 595.67 49.41 106.19

3,376.19 87.99 38.81 72.75

6,486.13 110.99 45.07 92.49

8,799.38 127.89 49.73 107.16

6,679.82 116.18 45.46 93.71

\$80,930 \$2,186 \$547 \$1,130

18.69% 0.50% 0.13% 0.26%

Developed by: Drs. Agustinus Agus Purwanto, MM

Page:

23

www.hotelskonsultan.webs.com
Laundry Supplies Laundry Operation Linen Miscellaneous Administration & General Human Resources Sales & Marketing P.O.M.E.C 90.00 1,233.42 53.00 969.89 211.79 895.48 2,808.00 75.00 973.46 54.00 840.37 175.67 875.02 2,528.12 119.00 1,967.00 55.00 1,308.04 283.04 985.56 3,114.02 120.00 1,480.15 56.00 1,126.59 242.90 943.05 2,914.76 83.00 1,219.04 55.00 941.62 200.94 897.49 3,194.28 95.00 1,235.15 54.00 938.83 200.02 895.93 3,330.04 119.00 1,436.25 53.00 1,206.34 250.14 962.16 3,904.34 100.00 1,538.16 53.00 1,300.76 282.41 985.39 4,023.67 80.00 947.69 54.00 576.23 121.96 803.66 2,828.33 100.00 1,350.05 53.00 976.00 204.46 917.27 2,971.07 123.00 1,966.27 54.00 1,230.50 269.45 988.10 3,382.02 88.00 1,398.33 53.00 1,009.69 233.38 923.58 3,119.26 \$1,192 \$16,745 \$647 \$12,425 \$2,676 \$11,073 \$38,118 0.28% 3.87% 0.15% 2.87% 0.62% 2.56% 8.80%

Total Variable Costs

12,627.71

10,762.57

17,027.06

14,099.19

12,840.46

13,046.68

16,434.14

17,678.74

8,987.60

13,306.52

17,097.50

13,760.42

\$167,668.60

38.71%

Income from Operations

2,772.73

411.87

10,660.38

5,545.26

2,424.98

2,450.76

7,407.30

9,636.71

(4,901.16)

4,152.92

10,874.94

4,577.02

\$56,013.69

12.93%

Income from Operations Analysis Contribution Margin Break-Even Sales Volume Sales Volume Above BreakEven 61.56% 28,350.20 4,503.80 62.41% 27,968.01 659.99 62.28% 28,024.21 17,116.79 61.99% 28,153.28 8,944.72 60.76% 28,727.62 3,991.38 60.41% 28,893.84 4,057.16 60.20% 28,991.15 12,303.85 60.51% 28,843.51 15,925.49 58.27% 29,950.43 (8,410.43) 61.89% 28,202.48 6,710.52 62.36% 27,987.56 17,438.44 61.55% 28,355.14 7,435.86 61.29% \$341,731.73 \$91,393.27 78.90% 21.10%

Guest Income from Operations Analysis Average Price for MOD Breakeven Guest Breakeven Capture Rate

5,191

4,885

4,847

5,180

7,076

7,728

8,368

8,274

7,827

5,754

5,691

6,077

76,898

\$6.33 4,479 86.3%

\$5.86 4,772 97.7%

\$9.31 3,009 62.1%

\$7.16 3,931 75.9%

\$4.62 6,213 87.8%

\$4.26 6,776 87.7%

\$4.93 5,875 70.2%

\$5.41 5,331 64.4%

\$2.75 10,883 139.1%

\$6.07 4,648 80.8%

\$7.98 3,506 61.6%

\$5.89 4,814 79.2%

\$5.63 60,672 78.9%

Developed by: Drs. Agustinus Agus Purwanto, MM

Page:

24

www.hotelskonsultan.webs.com
14. TEST USE FORMULA A
We do test the Classic Spread Sheet Break-even Point with the formula A as per page 1 with the formula as bellow: BE=FC/ (1-VC %) BE Break Even Point FC Fixed Costs VC Variable Costs

We do test for January 2009 Minor Operated Department as follow: JANUARY 2009 BREAK-EVEN POINT: Fixed Cost: \$17,453.56 VC%: 38.43585% Solution on Break-even point of January 2009 Minor Operated Department as bellow: BE = \$17,453.56/(1-38.43585%) BE = \$17,453.56/61.56415% BE = \$17.453.56/0.6156415 BE = \$28,350.20 compare with Classic Spread Sheet is \$ 28,350.20

We do test for Total 2009 Minor Operated Department as follow: TOTAL 2009 BREAK-EVEN POINT: Fixed Cost: \$209,442.71 VC%: 38.711365% Solution on Break-even point of Total 2009 Minor Operated Department as bellow: BE = \$209,442.71/(1-38.711365%) BE = \$209,442.71/61.288634% BE = \$209,442.71/0.61288634 BE = \$341,731.73 compare with Classic Spread Sheet is \$ 341,731.73

Developed by: Drs. Agustinus Agus Purwanto, MM

Page:

25

www.hotelskonsultan.webs.com
15. TEST USE EQUATION
The result of Classic Spread Sheet Break-even Point also can be proved by using “Equation Method” as following:

Sales = Variable Cost + Fixed Cost + Profit

To prove January 2009 Minor Operated Department Result of Classic Spread Sheet Break-even Point: Information we got as follow: Average Per Guest = \$6.33 Sales = \$32,854.00 No Of Guest = 5,191 Fixed Cost = \$17,453.56 Variable Cost = \$12,627.71 Proved: Variable Cost per Guest = \$12,627.71 / 5,161 = \$ 2.4326 \$6.33Q = \$2.4326Q + \$17,453.56 + \$0 3.8974Q = 17,453.56 Q = 4,478.26 ronded 4,479 Covers compare with Classic Spread Sheet BEP 4,479 Cover

You can do test the other months and in Yearly Total with this Equation Method

Developed by: Drs. Agustinus Agus Purwanto, MM

Page:

26

www.hotelskonsultan.webs.com
16. BREAKEVEN CHART FOR MINOR OPERATED DEPARTMENT

Breakeven Chart

50,000.00 40,000.00 30,000.00 20,000.00 10,000.00 (10,000.00) (20,000.00) (30,000.00)

Money

Fixed Cost Variable Cost Operating Surplus Total Cost Revenue 17,453.56 (17,453.56) 17,453.56 -

1,120 17,453.56 2,724.53 (13,089.58) 20,178.09 7,088.51

2,240 17,453.56 5,449.06 (8,725.59) 22,902.62 14,177.03

3,360 17,453.56 8,173.59 (4,361.61) 25,627.15 21,265.54

4,479 17,453.56 10,895.69 (1.52) 28,349.25 28,347.73

5,599 17,453.56 13,620.22 4,362.46 31,073.78 35,436.24

6,719 17,453.56 16,344.75 8,726.45 33,798.31 42,524.76

Number Guest of Minor Operated Department

Developed by: Drs. Agustinus Agus Purwanto, MM

Page:

27

www.hotelskonsultan.webs.com

Hotel Operation Break-even Point

Developed by: Drs. Agustinus Agus Purwanto, MM

Page:

28

www.hotelskonsultan.webs.com
17. HOTEL OPERATION BREAK-EVEN PINT To compute Hotel Operation Break-event Point can do just added all Sales Volume Break-even Point or by using Break-even Analysis with Multiple Products as bellow:

Example Sales Break-even Point for January – December 2009 Description Room Division F & B Division Minor Op. Dept. Total Sales BEP Description Room Division F & B Division Minor Op. Dept. Total Sales BEP Jan-09 152,310.24 105,642.86 28,350.20 286,303.30 Jul-09 147,767.33 106,591.24 28,991.15 283,349.72 Feb-09 150,194.87 107,607.96 27,968.01 285,770.84 Aug-09 147,582.94 105,277.25 28,843.51 281,703.70 Mar-09 166,154.27 100,637.10 28,024.21 294,815.58 Sep-09 139,424.27 121,015.07 29,950.43 290,389.77 Apr-09 153,696.84 107,131.59 28,153.28 288,981.71 Oct-09 153,152.19 105,012.66 28,202.48 286,367.33 May-09 145,940.11 108,182.42 28,727.62 282,850.15 Nov-09 160,629.89 101,658.55 27,987.56 290,276.00 Jun-09 144,651.22 108,840.61 28,893.84 282,385.67 Dec-09 150,381.28 105,492.07 28,355.14 284,228.49

Remember, the hotel operation is unique compare to manufactures or other business and we now about “Break-even Analysis with Multiple Products” is far different under than the above break-even point. Let we try to compute

HOTEL XYZOTEL XYZ Description
Sales Less Variable Expenses Contribution Margin

Room Division
239,986.00 66,620.81 173,365.19 100.0% 27.8% 72.2%

F & B Division
134,835.30 67,316.63 67,518.67 100.0% 49.9% 50.1%

M.O. D
32,854.00 12,627.71 20,226.29 100.0% 38.4% 61.6%

Total
407,675.30 146,565.15 261,110.15 100.0% 36.0% 64.0%

Less Fixed Expenses

110,028.47

52,900.58

17,453.56

180,382.61

Net Operating Income

80,727.54

Computation of Break-even Point: Fixed Cost / Overall Contribution Margin 180,382.61 / 0.64 = 281,847.83 Different: 286,303.30 – 281,847.83 = 4,455.47 under than calculation

Developed by: Drs. Agustinus Agus Purwanto, MM

Page:

29

www.hotelskonsultan.webs.com
18. CONCLUTION:

18.1 Hotel Operation is unique
The hotel operation is unique not like normal manufactures, there is many departmental profit that can be computed the break-even point. Those departmental profits has different characteristic of operations.

18.2 Computation Break-even Point of Hotel
Because every departmental profit is different in operations also the expenses structures are different, so to calculate the break-even point is better use this example.

18.3 Common Formula used

Common Break-even formula still used to calculate departmental profits, but overall hotel operation will have big different.

Developed by: Drs. Agustinus Agus Purwanto, MM

Page:

30

www.hotelskonsultan.webs.com GLOSSARY OF TERMS
Break-even point the break-even point is the point at which the supplier of a service or goods has covered all fixed and variable costs, to that point. After that point, the supplier can begin to make a profit, because the contribution is now to profit and not to fixed costs. For more detail see the toolkit on developing a financing strategy. A cost accounting concept that allows a company to determine the profitability of individual products. It is calculated as follows: Product Revenue - Product Variable Costs Product Revenue The phrase "contribution margin" can also refer to a per unit measure of a product's gross operating margin, calculated simply as the product's price minus its total variable costs.. Payroll dependent upon usage, can mean a. the total amount of money paid in wages; b. a list of employees and their salaries; or, c. the department that determines the amounts of wage or salary due to each employee. is the budget that accounts for all operating accounts of a parent and all subsidiaries presented. is operating expenses that are incurred to provide facilities and organization that are kept in readiness to do business without regard to actual volumes of production and sales. Fixed costs remain relatively constant until changed by managerial decision. Within general limits they do not vary with business volume. Examples of fixed costs consist of rent, property taxes, and interest expense. are those costs associated with production that changes directly with the amount of production, e.g., the direct material or labour required to complete the build or manufacturing of a product.

Contribution Margin

Consolidated Budget

Fixed Cost

Variable Cost

End of Best Practice of Hotel Room Division Departmental Profit See you for Best Practice of Hotel F & B Division Departmental Profit

Developed by: Drs. Agustinus Agus Purwanto, MM

Page:

31

```
Related docs