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					Our First Quarter Goes to
MEANING OF SCIENCE

What is Science??
– from the Latin scientia, meaning "knowledge" or "knowing" – the investigation and interpretation of events in the physical environment and w/in our bodies – effort to discover – increase human understanding of how the physical world works

What is Technology??
– term with origins in the Greek "technologia", "τεχνολογία" — "techne", "τέχνη" ("craft") and "logia", "λογία" ("saying") – broad concept that deals with an animal species' usage and knowledge of tools and crafts – how it affects an animal species' ability to control and adapt to its environment.

The Scientific Methods
• • • • • • State the Problem Gather the Information Form a Hypothesis Perform the Experiments Analyze Data State a Conclusion

Scientific Attitudes
• • • • • Respect for the view of others Being open- minded Belief in cause and effect Curiosity and Imaginations Ruthless self- criticism

• MAMMALOGY
– study of mammals

• ENTHOMOLOGY
– study of insects

• ORNITHOLOGY
– study of birds

• ETHOLOGY
– study of animals behaviors

• HERPETOLOGY
– study of reptiles and amphibians

• ICHTYLOGY
– study of fishes

• HELMINTOLOGY
– study of worms

• CONCHOLOGY
– study of mollusk and shells.

• PTERIDOLOGY
– study of ferns

• MYCOLOGY
– study of fungi

• PHYCOLOGY
– study of algae

• VIROLOGY
– study of virus

• BACTERIOLOGY
– study of bacteria

• PROTOZOOLOGY
– study of protozoa

ARISTOTLE
– father of biology

WILLIAM HARVEY
– discover the blood circulation

THEOPHRASTUS
– father of botany

MARCELO MALPIGHI
– discover capillaries

ALEXANDER FLEMMING
– invented penicillin

LOUIS PASTEOUR
– invented vaccination process

EDWARD JENNER
– invented vaccine for small fox

GREGOR MENDEL
– father of genetics

ANTON VAN LEEUWENHOEK
– first used the compound microscope

CAROLUS LINNAUES
– father of taxonomy

ROBERT KOCH
– discover bacteria causes tuberculosis

THOMAS HUNT MORGAN
– concluded that genes are arranged in a line on chromosomes

CHARLES DARWIN
– father of evolution

WATSON & CRICK
– discover DNA double helix strand

ANDREAS VESALIUS
– study human anatomy

ROBERT HOOKE
– discover cell

EDUARDO QUISUMBING
– father of Ph Orchidology

GERMINIANO de OCAMPO
– discover the corneal transplant

CARMEN VELASQUEZ
– discovered 32 species and one new genus of digenetic parasites

FRANCISCO FRONDA
– father of poultry science in the Philippines

FRANCISCO SANTOS
– specialist in the nutritive value of Filipino Food

GREGORIO VELASQUEZ
– discovers the bluegreen algae

WILLIAM PADOLINA
– father of Ph Biotechnology

MOVEMENTS
– the ability to move

REPRODUCTION
– ability of organism to produce another organism of it’s own kind

ADAPTATION
– the ability of an organisms to adapt to it’s environment

METABOLISM
– the sum of all chemical changes on an organism

GROWTH
– increase in size and number of cell w/c enables the organisms to grow

IRRITABILITY
– the ability to react or respond

TAXES/TAXIS & TROPISMS
• TAXES
– response of animals to stimulus

Stimuli
Light

Plants
Phototropism

Animals
Phototaxes

Gravity Pressure

Geotropism

Geotaxes

• TROPISMS
– response of plants to stimulus

Thigmotropism Thigmotaxes

Temperature Thermotropism Thermotaxes Water Chemicals Hydrotropism Hydrotaxes

Chemotropism Chemotaxes

DISSECTING PAN
– used to put dead organisms to dissect

MAGNIFYING LENS
– used to produce magnified image of the object

DISSECTING PINS
– used to hold down the body of the specimen being dissected

DISSECTING SCISSORS
– used to cut the dissected animals

FORCEPS
– used for grasping and holding smalls objects

PROBES
– used to explore inside the body

SCALPELS
– used for surgery, anatomical dissection

SAFETY GOGGLES
– protect the eyes and order to prevent chemicals from striking the eyes

GRADUATED CYLINDER
– used to accurately measure out volumes of chemicals

TEST TUBE
– used to hold chemicals

TEST TUBE RACK
– used to store test tubes

MEDICINE DROPPER
– used to tube measuring administrating liquid by drop

BEAKER
– a simple container for stirring, mixing and heating liquids

TRIPLE BEAM BALANCE
– used to determine the mass of a thing

MICROSCOPIC SLIDE AND COVER
– used to contain specimens when looking on the microscope

PIPETTE
– used to transport a measured volume of liquid

FUNNEL
– used to transport liquid or fine-grained substances into small openings

BUNSEN BURNER
– used for heating, sterilization and combustion

SAFETY MASK
– used to protect your face

MICROSCOPE
– used for viewing very small objects that can’t be seen by the naked eye

THERMOMETER
– used to measure temperature

METER STICK
– measures length

DEFINITION
– from the Greek: mikrós, "small", skopeîn, "to look" or "see― – instrument for viewing objects that are too small to be seen by the naked or unaided eye – microscopic means minute or very small, not visible with the eye unless aided by a microscope

MAGNIFYING PARTS
• OCULAR OR EYEPIECE
– short tube with two lenses – magnifies image – Marked by 5x, 10x and so forth

• OBJECTIVES
– responsible for the quality of the image
• Low Power Objective
– show the outline of the specimen

• High Power Objective
– detailed structure of the specimen

• Oil- Immersion Objective
– to show the specimen clearly

ILLUMINATING PARTS
• MIRROR
– collects and reflects up into the microscope

• SUBSTAGE CONDENSER
– consists of a condensing lens – directs the maximum amount of light up into the microscope

MECHANICAL PARTS
• IRIS DIAPHRAGM
– flat disc located beneath the condenser – has different size of openings

• DRAW TUBE
– used to adjust the mechanical tube length

• BODY TUBE
– holds the draw tube and serves of attachment to the objectives

• STAGE
– place where the specimen is mounted

MECHANICAL PARTS
• ADJUSTMENTS
– bring the object into focus
• Coarse Adjustment
– used to focus LPO – big button like disc

• REVOLVING NOSEPIECE
– used to get desired objective in place

• Fine Adjustment
– used for more precise focusing – small button like disk

• DUST SHIELD
– protect the objective from dust

MECHANICAL PARTS
• BASE
– used to anchor the microscope firmly on the table

• INCLANATION POINT
– permits the upper part of the microscope to be tipped back

• PILLAR
– supports the upper parts of the microscope

• MIRROR ARM
– holds the mirror

• HAND LEVER
– used to regulate iris diaphragm

Discovery of Cells
• 1665- English Scientist, Robert Hooke, discovered cells while looking at a thin slice of cork. • He described the cells as tiny boxes or a honeycomb • He thought that cells only existed in plants and fungi

Anton van Leuwenhoek
• 1673- Used a handmade microscope to observe pond scum & discovered single-celled organisms • He called them ―animalcules‖

• He also observed blood cells from fish, birds, frogs, dogs, and humans • Therefore, it was known that cells are found in animals as well as plants

150-200 Year Gap???
• Between the Hooke/Leuwenhoek discoveries and the mid 19th century, very little cell advancements were made. • This is probably due to the widely accepted, traditional belief in Spontaneous Generation. • Examples: -Mice from dirty clothes/corn husks -Maggots from rotting meat

19th Century Advancement
• Much doubt existed around Spontaneous Generation • Conclusively disproved by Louis Pasteur Pasteur: Ummm, I don’t think so!!!

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Development of Cell Theory
• 1838- German Botanist, Matthias Schleiden, concluded that all plant parts are made of cells • 1839- German physiologist, Theodor Schwann, who was a close friend of Schleiden, stated that all animal tissues are composed of cells.

Development of Cell Theory
• 1858- Rudolf Virchow, German physician, after extensive study of cellular pathology, concluded that cells must arise from preexisting cells.

The Cell Theory Complete
• The 3 Basic Components of the Cell Theory were now complete:
1. All organisms are composed of one or more cells. (Schleiden & Schwann)(1838-39) 2. The cell is the basic unit of life in all living things. (Schleiden & Schwann)(1838-39) 3. All cells are produced by the division of preexisting cells. (Virchow)(1858)

Modern Cell Theory
• Modern Cell Theory contains 4 statements, in addition to the original Cell Theory:
• The cell contains hereditary information(DNA) which is passed on from cell to cell during cell division. • All cells are basically the same in chemical composition and metabolic activities. • All basic chemical & physiological functions are carried out inside the cells.(movement, digestion,etc) • Cell activity depends on the activities of sub-cellular structures within the cell(organelles, nucleus, plasma membrane)

How Has The Cell Theory Been Used?
• The basic discovered truths about cells, listed in the Cell Theory, are the basis for things such as:

The Cell

Cell Membrane
Cell Membrane: controls what goes in and out of the cell. Analogy: like the National Guard because the National Guard controls who goes in and out of the United States

Cytoplasm
Cytoplasm: holds the cells organs in place Analogy: like a rollercoaster because it has straps that hold you in during the ride.

Nucleus
• Nucleus: the cells brain • Analogy: like a general because a general gives out orders to everyone else

Ribosome
Ribosome: sticks the protein cells together Analogy: like glue because it sticks stuff together

Lysosome
Lysosome: the cells stomach Analogy: like a car crusher because car crushers breaks down cars

Endoplasmic Reticulum
Endoplasmic Reticulum: moves stuff around the cell Analogy: it’s like a train because trains move things from place to place

Golgi Apparatus
Golgi Apparatus: storing & packing chemicals Analogy: like a packer because a packer will pack up your things and store them in a safe place.

Chromosomes
• Chromosomes: contains genetic DNA that is passed on • Analogy: like Paul Revere because he passed on the information that the British were coming

Chloroplast
• Chloroplast: takes solar energy ad turns it into chemical energy • Analogy: like a solar panel because a solar panel takes solar energy and turns it into electrical energy.

Centirole
• Centriole: pulls the chromosomes apart • Analogy: like a crow bar because a crow bar pulls the nail away from the wood

Cytoskeleton
• Cytoskeleton: gives the cell support • Analogy: like a skeleton because it gives the cell its shape

Nucleolus
• Nucleolus: makes RNA • Analogy: like a baker because a baker makes food and other pastries and things

PATRIXIA

GERALDINE JAMES

JESSY ―14‖

EDD-GHAR

ROMALETTE


				
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