STUDY OF MARKETING STRATEGIES UTILIZED

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					        A STUDY OF MARKETING STRATEGIES UTILIZED
             BY SELECT INDEPENDENT SCHOOLS




                              By
                    Kelly D.       Cawman




                           A Thesis

Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for
 0829.60/Specialization Seminar in Public Relations for
   the Master of Arts Degree in the Graduate Division
             of Rowan College of New Jersey
                          1994



           Approved by        i"d, d,
                         Professor


           DaLe Approved     M1w t )        '   /
                              MINI ABSTRACT


Kelly D. Cawman                 A Study of Marketing Strategies
                                Utilized by Select Independent
                                Schools, 1994, Thesis Advisor:
                                Dr. Don Bagin, Educational Public
                                Relations.



     This study focused on the marketing strategies of

selected independent schools and the different effects

marketing has on the independent school environment.

     Studies show that parents select independent schools

because they value the quality programs and services made

available to them.     Research shows that all marketing

strategies come back to one main objective---getting the

prospects on campus.




                          i
                            ABSTRACT


 Kelly D. Cawman,           A Study of Marketing Strategies
                            utilized by Select Independent
                            Schools, 1994, Thesis Advisor:
                            Dr. Don Bagin, Educational Public
                            Relations.



        A wide variety of factors now influence parents no
 take a long hard look at independent schools and at what

 those schools have to offer.   Historically, almost all
 independent schools have relied on social prestige
                                                     to
 ensure student enrollment and sponsors' gift giving;
                                                       this
 is no longer the Case. Independent schools are now
presenting and positioning themselves in more traditional

ways.    They are now highlighting the educational and social

advantages of attending an independent school.

     The independent schools studied utilized specific
enrollment and fundraising strategies geared toward

enrollees and their families. The study focused
                                                upon the
reasons independent schools need to concentrate on
                                                   reaching
children and families unaware of the benefits of an

independent education.

     Nationally, approximately 1% of school age children
attend indpendent schools. The findings supported
                                                   the
hypothesis that independent schools are using families.

alumni, faculty, and administrators to reach out
                                                 to those
who remain oblivious to independent school education.




                       ii
      The author reviewed highlights of research available

on the subject of marketing strategies of
                                          independent
schools.

     The study Contains information on four
                                            topics:
enrollment,   finance, curriculum, and diversity;   the author
found that marketing strategies of independent
                                               schools are
loosely constructed around one or all of
                                         those topics.
     Marketi.ng an independent education, in the
                                                 1990s is
necessary.    Major stumbling blocks for enrollees, such as

finances and educational aptitude, hinder
                                          many enrollees
from considering independent schools.

     Independent schools are advertising Whe benefits
                                                      and
rewards of such an education by showcasing
                                           happy parents
and successful graduates.




                      iii
                                                  TABLE OF CONTENTS




                                                                                                          Page
 MHJni AbstracL

 Abstract , .....................
                                                                                                           . ii
 Table of Contents ...............

 Preface .........                                                           .................              vi

 Chapter 1

      Introduction .........................                                                          .

     Need for the study........................                                                       ... 2
     Delimitations.......                                 .......

     Procedures...........

Chapter 2

     Related Literature.                            ........                                                7
     Enrollment                      ..........

     Curriculum ...........                                    .......                                      12
                 ~~"-~Finance
                     ~ .............
                          -                                                                                 12
     Finance.
            ........
            F"nancp       ...............                                           ........     ......     1L
     Diversity ..........                           .............                                          16
Chapter 3

     Proede                                                         urs.
     Procedures,                                                    ,                                  02C
                                                                                           ...................
                                                                                                   2
     Literature Search .....................                                                               20

     InLerviews .......                                                                                    2...1
Chapter 4

    Findings     ... .... .........................                                                        24
      Znrollmet....
               ..........
                       .25         ............
    Enrollment
                        ''.,......                      .       .        .     . ....... . _...-
                                                                                    ·         .           .
                                                                                                          ...




                                                       IV
     Curriculum.........

     Diversity....              ......     ......     ......          ......    33
     Finance .................                .....          .......
                                                                   .......      35
Chapter 5 .            ......                             .....                 38
     Summar;y                       ....... ....-.-...            .   ......... 38
     Conclusions..............                                                  39

     Recommendation s.......................
    Rcmmec indations3
                                                                      ......    43


Appendix A

Bibliography




                                                      v
     The motivation behind this thesis was due in part by

the author's love of education and the deep admiration for
those people who instill the love of learning in children
each year.   Mainly, though, this thesis came to fruition

because the author felt educators need to market and herald
wham's happening in their classrooms and schools On a daily

basis.




                        vi
                                                                    1



                             CHAPTER 1
                           INTRODUCTION


        One of the hottest topics in education today is

independent (private) versus public schooling.      Our President
and his family sparked a debate that is still being discussed

when they chose private institution for their daughter's
education.

        With a leader such as Bill Clinton choosing a private
school for his daughter to attend, the author felt that the

marketers of education, be they private or public, would be

scrambling to find out what the deciding factor was that led

the Clintons to choose The Friends School.      This factor would
be significant since the Clintons announced that they had
visited and reviewed public and private schools and that
their decision was based upon where their daughter would

receive the best education available in the Washington, DC

area.
        A wide variety of factors now influence parents to take

a long hard look at independent schools and what those
schools have to offer.     In the old days, before multicultural
education and the recession, most independent schools

positioned themselves so that they were available only to the
rich,    Almost all independent schools relied on social

prestige to insure enrollment and gift giving.      This is not

so anymore,     and independent schools are now positioning
themselves in more serviceable ways.      Among the factors that
                                                                2



initiated change are, "The meritocratic effect of

standardized aptitude testing as required by selective

colleges, the expanding diversity of America's population,

the increasing availability of financial aid, and the growth

in the numbers of students who make or influence the decision

on where they will go to school+,"

         Lest we forget that prestige still dominates che

independent market. many schools are having to find more

creative ways to reach the public who may not know about

independent education or who have never thought it

[independent education] was for them.     Independent school

marketers find that all families involved with independent

education are the untapped reserves that will insure that

their school continues successfully.



                          NEED FOR THE STUDY



         The need for this study evolves if the assumption is

valid that the independent schools researched and utilized

specific enrollment and fund-raising strategies geared toward

enrollees and their families.     Dr. Rich Cowan, a member of

the National Association of Independent Schools and author of




1 Rick   Cowan, The Next Marketing Handbook (Boston: National
Association of Independent Schools, 19911 p. 4
                                                                       3




The Next Marketing Handook of Independent Schools,

commented:

     Those who have experienced the value of any service and
are willing to talk to others about it are the most
convincing marketers...the most successful independent school
marketers are always figuring out ways to connect satisfied
current students and their parents with prospective students
and their parents. 2

        Faculty members, alumni, and fellow administrators are

also key communicators.     They can be the basis for a

successful enrollment campaign.     Empowerment is the best

possible description of independent schools' marketing

strategy.     The students, faculty, and administrators are

emnowered to share the unique qualities that make up the

independent school environment.     "Goods are produced,

services are performed. "3

        To reemphasize the author's assumption that independent
schools have specific techniques for marketing and fund

raising, one must understand the public's opinions and views
on independent educat on.     "Nationally, independent schools

enroll less than 1% of the school-age population."4         This can

present a huge problem for the independent school with a

marketing budget of zero to none.     TO clarify the author's



2                                             (Boston:
    Rick Cowan, The Next Marketing Handbook              NAIS, 1991)
p. 4.
3
    National Association of Independent Schools, .rinfinas.
Briefing NO. 2 (BoStOn: NAIS) p. 2.
4 Margaret Goldsborough, director of public information, NAIS,
phone conversation, 1-15-94.
                                                                     A




position, Cowan says,"Critical to the marketing success of

independent schools will be their ability to

"advertise" their educational quality to a broader

marketplace." 5     Therefore, the independent school must reach a

public that has deep-rooted loyalties to public education and

its benefits.

          NAIS noted that, "Educational quality is the single most

important factor that parents consider in weighing the

educational options open to their child"6

          NAIS also cited significant considerations made by

prospective parents when trying to choose their child's

educational setting. The significant considerations are

listed below:

                tthe quality of the faculty

               *the academic standards of the school

               *small class Size

               *the valve placed on college preparation

               *close contact with faculty

               *Concrete outcomes

          The concrete outcomes of a child's educational

experience may include admission to college, successful

improvement skills or overall moral and ethical development.



5 Rick    Cowan, The Next Marketina Handbook (Boston: NATS, 1991!
p.   1.
6NATS, Briefings. vol, #2 (Boston: NAIS, 1990) p. 2&3
                                                                        5




     NAIS stated that, "The intangible aspects of education,

quality relationships and the dynamics of community, are

often invisible to the general public." 7    Research indicated

that those very qualities that the public cannot     "see,"       are

the very cualities that independent schools need to market.

     To first understand why only 1% of the school-aged

children enroll in private schools, one must note that

parents will make no movement to inquire about alternative

educational situations if the public education they are

receiving is viewed as satisfactory.      Cost. loyalty,

dislocation, the label   "independent,"   as well as those

families that ask "what are the benefits?" are all factors

that contribute to the public's opinion of independent

education.

     This multi-purposed study was designed to help those

schools labeled as independent utilize the marketing

strategies that other independent schools are using.         It

targeted the strategies that were most effective in obtaining

enrollees and in keeping students and their families happy,




7 NAIS, Briefinas , Vol #2 (Boston: NAIS, 1990) p. 3
                                                                6




                          DELIMITATIONS



     This study was limited to published articles found in

the ERIC documents, January 1980 through October 1993.

Opinions and answers were from the selected headmasters,

chosen randomly,   from independent schools in the Delaware

Valley. Also included were articles, surveys, and critiques

supplied by the National Association of Independent Schools

and Independent School Managers.




                            PROCEDURES



     A review of previous marketing strategies of independent

schools was conducted using the DelCat Computer System.

Titles of related topics were searched to find specific

topics that would enhance the author's research.   The author

reviewed only those topics, she felt contained valid

information pertaining to the topic.
                                                                               7




                                CHAPTER 2
                            RELATED LITERATURE


         Within chapter two the author reviewed highlights of

    research available on the subject of marketing strategies of
    independent schools. in The NeMarketino Ha0rdook, Rick

    Cowan wrote, " In the bad old days, most independent schools

    were positioned along a very few dimensions."8         The dimensions
    of social prestige and financial stability were the common
    links between independent schools and prospective families.

Cowan noted that marketing was basically nonexistent.

         with that thought in mind, the author contacted Sheryl

Seiber, head of the lower school at Woodland Country Day
School,     Bridgeton, New Jersey, and a former colleague.               The
author discussed ideas on marketing with Seiber, specifically
that Woodland had hired a director of pubic relations 1993

94.     When the author asked the reasoning behind this move,
Seiber replied, "The decline in enrollment prompted the Board

of Directors to take a closer look at ways to draw new
students and families into the independent

climate. . marketing seemed to be an area we were lacking,'

        Seiber provided the author with addresses and phone
numbers for two independent school associations:             National
Association of Independent Schools (NAIS) of Washington,


a
  Rick Cawan, The New MJarkl^tfin  Hlok     (foston: NAIS, 1991) p. 1
 9Sheryl Seiber, head of lwer     school, Woodland Country Day School,
Bridgeton, NJ, phone converse ion, 10-25-93
                                                                        8




D.C.,   and Independent School Managers     (ISMI of Wilmington,

Delaware.

        The author then contacted NAIS and was referred to

Heather Smith, director of marketing.        SmiLh provide the

author with pamphlets, brochures, listings of publications,

and a summary of market research themes.

        Smith also provided the author with a listing of 30

related books and reports on independent schools.          These

books and reports are published by NAIS and were made

available to the author.     The Next Marketing Handbook and

ghajing Strateav.    Indenendent Schono   Planning in the 90s,

yielded information applicable to this research paper.

        A second call was placed to Independent School Managers

in Wilmington, Delaware.     ISM referred the author to Kelly

Rawlins. director of public information.        Rawlins provided

the author with annotated listings of all articles published

by ISM from 1975 through 1993.     The author reviewed ninety-

six summaries of articles listed under the titles of

"marketing,"    "marketing and promotion,"    "opinion,"   "relations

with publics. "'management style and practices,"       and

"planning and analysis."     From the ninety-six articles

reviewed, the author evaluated eighteen that related

information on the research topic.        The author selected eight

articles that contained the most pertinent information on the

research topic.
                                                                         G




     The author conducted a search on the nel Cat Cn-Line

Database system at the University of Delaware's Hugh M.

Morris Library, Newark, Delaware.      This search yielded

articles on microfiche only.

     Within uel Cat, the ERIC database was accessed.           The

author specifically researched articles, periodicals and

books published between January 1980 and October 1993.          This

search yielded one thousand three hundred and fifty related

articles.     The author used the following key words, "public

relations of independent schools,"      "marketing strategies of

private school,"    "fund raising,"   "private schools,"

"independent schools,"     and "private school public

relations."    The author previewed 100 summariese those
                                                 of

100, only six were applicable to the research topic.

     Also located within the Del-Cat system was the

ABI/Inform database.     The author found five related articles;

two contained information pertaining to the study.

     Another database within Del Cat was the Infotrac System.

This search yielded several articles that overlapped the ERIC

output.

     The final search was a dissertation search.        This

search, also conducted ac the University of Delaware's

library, was done by the author on the PROQUEST system of

Dissertation Abstracts.     The author used the following key

words:    "marketing and education,"    "private schools,"     "public

relations,"    "educational public relations,"   "independent
                                                                       10




education,"    and "private schools and marketing."     The
PROQUEST system had three time frames from which the author

could choose.     The author conducted a search pertaining to
the years 1992-93, 1988 92, and 1982-87.     The author felt

that anything prior to 1982 could be outdated.        The
dissertation search yielded 300 dissertations, using the key

words described above.     The author previewed summaries on

those dissertations and found that five contained bits and

piGces of the author's topic, but none contained the author's

research topic.

     The following information contains related findings on

the four topics to be covered in the author's research:

enrollment,    finance, curriculum and diversity.     The copics

were chosen because the author found, through researcn and in

discussions with NAIS and ISM representatives. that marketing

strategies of independent schools are loosely constructed

around one or all of those topics.

. FNROLLMET


     In 1991 the NAIS published a Summary of market research

themes to help independent schools combat the rising side of

low enrollment, inflation, curriculum challenges and so

forth.   In   this book, author Meg Moulton and a team of

researchers surveyed schools only to identify current         themes
and patterns in independent school marketing        All schools

participated anonymously.    None of the schools    interviewed
                                                                         11




for :his research paper participated in the study, although

all are members of the NAIS.

     Moulton stated, "Academic quality, positive educational

outcomes, an emphasis on the individual and high standards

(academic and personal) all shine through research as

Consistently distinctive attributes of an independent

education. ,lc

     Margaret Goldsborough, the director of public

information for NAI$,     spoke with the author on the telephone

stating, "The bottom-line for enrolling a student in an
                                               l
independent school is the educational suality. "

     Moulton stated,    ,The reputation of independent schools

for educational excellence appears to be well grounded in the

quality of its academic programs.       "12


     Rick Cowan, author of The Next. Marketing Handbook, had

this to say about enrollment, "The object of the game

(enrollment marketing),    is    to find your corner of the

consumer's consciousenss        (sometimes referred to as a   "niche")

and then exploit it,    expand it, and defend it." 1 3   He also




10 Meg Moulton, Summary of Market RefSroh Themes         (Boston:
NAIS, 1991) p. 4,
11 Margare: Goldsborough, director of public information,
NAIS, phone conversation,l-15-94.
12 Meg Moulton, Summary of Market Research ..Theres (Boston:
NAIS, 1991) p+ 4
13 Rick Cowen, The Next Marketing Hnrdboook (Boston:   NAIS,
1991) p, 4
                                                                        12




noted that, "If you don't bother to position yourself, your

customers and competitors will do it for you. "14

       NAIS cites in its newsletter, Briefings, that,       "76%   of

the parents in one market study cited     "quality Curriculum" as

an important characteristic entering into their decision-

                      t
making on enrollment."'

       NAIS goes on to say,   "That the concrete   outcomes of the

child's educational experience may include admission to

college, successful improvement in the child's skills or

overall moral and ethical development."    6


       Rick Cowan suggests that a large percentage of inquirers

of   independent education "Clutch at what can be touched,

seen, and shown."17

CURRICULU   m

       Research has shown the author that curriculum issues are

the most widely discussed, evaluated and reviewed by

inquiring parents, faculty, boards of trustees, current

students, and alumni,

       Cowan found that parents already satisfied with their

child's current educational     setting will make no move toward

finding alternative educational options.       He stated,

"Critical to the marketing success of independent schools


14 Cowen, p, 4
15 NAIS, Briefing , Briefing 02 (Boston: NAIS) p.2
16 Briefings, p. 2
17 Rick Cowen, The Next Marketing Handbook (Boston:         NAIS,
1991) p. 5
                                                                    13



will be their ability to 'advertise' their educational

quality to a broader marketplace."l

     Meg Moulton of NAIS noted that academic quality is
mentioned repeatedly by prospect, inquirer, and current

parents alike.
     The author found through research and related articles

that, "A desire for a better education for their child
appears to prompt many parents to consider another

educational setting."    19

     W. Rodman Snelling, editor of Tdeas_ &PernSeetv s_, a

newsletter published by ISM, states, "A renewed concern for

'basics' has had a direct influence on the increased interest
in non-public educaeion."20

     Snelling notes, "Independent and other private schools
are viewed by many as representing tradition and tradition
implies 'basics. ' "21

      ISM listed reasons that alternative educational
settings are sought by the public, and ISM found that they

usually center on:

           'Increased orientation to college preparation.

           *Young people marrying older...after a nest egg has
            been earmarked for education.


18 Cowen, p. 20
19 Meg Moulton, S    mary of Market ResearcThemes. (Boston:
NAIS, 1991) p.4.
20 ISM, Ideas & Persnectives, Vol.    1 #9(ISM:   Wilm.,DE: 1976G
p. 38
21 ISM, p. 38
                                                                   14



       Without a doubt, the biggest competitor
                                                 to the
  independent school is the public
                                    school,  Cost puts
  independent schools at a distinct
                                     disadvantage when compared
  to the perceived-to-be "no cost'
                                    public school.
       NAIS notes that, "the deep seated
                                           loyalty to the public
  education system is hard to crack.
                                     "' NAYS conducted a market
 research study in 1991.   In this study, ninety-seven percent
 of parents questioned rated "good
                                     preparation for college" as
 either very Or extremely important.
                                       NAIS advises the
 marketers of independent schools
                                   to emphasize the independent
 school commitment to higher education
                                         in all publications and
 contacts with the public.




     Although all findings, discussions
                                        and research
emphasized academic quality,
                             a recurring undertone was the
cost of independent education.

      -The cost of an   independent education and   the lack of
awareness of the availability
                              of financial aid appear to have
significant impact on the ability
                                  of many schools to broaden
their inquiry and applicant pool."   21

     Two articles provided by NAIS,_inaci
                                                    i

           ffalit   Educ.tion   fr our      .   and Pri.Cn__n


22 NAIS, Bs
             ji  A, Briefing #2 (Boston: NAI$,
23 Meg Moulton, S-mamo                         19901p. 3
                    o    farkeah         he       (Boston:
NATS, 1990) p. 4
                                                                                 15


     ALforahil            i,   BiSin.         Volume 4,
                                            May 19911), contained
     excellent references on
                              pricing and affordability.
                                                            NA2S
     found that, "Cost appears
                                 to be a major stumbling block
                                                                 for
     many families considering
                                an independent education.",2
                                                                More
     often many families that
                               lived in high-income communities
                                                                   had
     educational alternatives,
                                meaning public schools of
                                                            value at
     low or perceived "no cost."

       "Day and boarding schools
                                   have far outpaced rhe consumer
 price index, especially
                            since 1980," reports NAIS.
                                                       " The
 rapid rise    of tuitions since the early
                                           1980s is almost
 certainly related to schools'
                                  increased Commitment to
                                                           faculty
 salaries. " 2

      NAIS explains that independent
                                      schools have expensive
 commitments, "They have
                         traditionally believed in
                                                    low
student:teacher ratios,
                         strong academics and extracurricular
activities, small school
                          size and excellent facilities,
                                                          and
the development of the whole
                              child. 27 The pricing of
independent schools narrows
                             their market, and defines
                                                        the
kinds of institutions they
                            are.
      How then do high tuition
                                independent schools market
financial options? NAIS
                          found that,   kAn extended trend in
tuition and fee increases
                           exoeeding the rates of
                                                    growth of
the consumer price index
                          and other measures of peoples

 5 Meg Moulton,                m                    t Rh              (stont
NAIS.    1991) p.        30
26   NAIS, Briefinp,               Briefing   t4,
7
27r----Q,                                            (Boston: NAIS, 1991) p. 3
                    p.    4
                                                                       16



     ability to pay for independent education,'   has stemmed
     enrollment. 2
          Several pertinent ideas on increasing enrollment
                                                           by
     providing more creative financing was found by this
                                                         author   in
     all research.   MAZS provides its members with a list of
     financial advisors that will help interested families
                                                           work
 out financial difficulties.



 DIVERSITY

      Diversity is important to the major theme of independent
 school marketing because many independent schools
                                                   need to
 rise above social and economic exclusiveness.
                                                ISM says,
 "Minority birthrates in the united States has
                                               considerably
outstripped those of whites. a'
         ISM also states. "The effects of social diversification
have already begun to appear in schools. Averaging
                                                   11.5% in
1987 88, minority enrollment in NAIS schools
                                             has risen over
20% this decade."30

     ISM found that Asian students form the majority
                                                     in some
grades of Celifornia independent schools, ISM
                                              surveyed
independent schools in major trade centers, such
                                                 as New York




29    NAIS, Brzifinfi. Brieting # 4 (Boston: NAIS,
                                                    1991) p.4
   ISM, Ideas       PIersectMiy "Emerging Markets for Private-
Independent Schools."(TISM Wilm., DE, 1989) p.
                                                   62.
3O Ideas_.d Persnecri   v__ p. 62
                                                                       17



  and Los Angeles,     found,   "foreign executives children
                                                             make up
  10-25% of     independent school enrollment.'
                                                S

       The United States is just beginning
                                            to realize it has
 resources found in no other
                              nation on earth.   Ethnic ties to
 virtually every race and religion
                                    on this planet enables the
 United States educational
                            system to have a slight edge
                                                          over
 other countries' educational
                               system.
       This realization will push
                                   United States business
  leaders to promote education
                               in and for diversity.   ISM
 notes, "BusineSs leaders
                           will need managers who can
                                                       cope with
 an increasingly diverse work
                               force."'2 ISM feels that a
                                                            well-
 managed independent school
                             with a diverse student body
                                                           and
 appropriate programs can provide
                                    these managers.

          The author found in all the
                                      research that diversity
 among races, religions,     and socioeconomic backgrounds
                                                           at
 independent schools needs
                                to heralded.   Many schools must get
 beyond the social,"highclasst
                                     exclusive name tag that often
precedes people's thinking
                           about independent        school
education.

      Often independent schools
                                are viewed as,  "inclusive,
diverse communiies ... homogenous
                                  and apart from the "real
world. " 33



"1 ISM,          'I
                P"Emerging
Independent Schools" (Wilm., DE:      Markets for Private
32 de&s.                         ISM, 1989) pG 62.
             ereti,        p. 63
33 Meg Moulton. urnmmw nf MrLae
NAI$, 1991) p. 15                                  (Boston-
                                                                         18




      Many studies pointed out that independent schools need

to "Work toward heterogenously grouping or risk becoming
obsolete. "3-

      Diversity doesn't just mean mixing people of race or

color.   Diversity includes marketing toward learning disabled

and students from poor economic backgrounds.

      "Opportunities for personal growth" was mentioned most
frequently in the research findings.        Many   parents value
camaraderie/friendships     as the second most important thing

about attending an independent school, the first being

educational value. 3
      William Weary stares, "Even with a considerably broader

mix of backgrounds, a broader mix from which we all benefit,

a school can in some ways still be homogenous."zb

      weary points out that the different perspectives of the
child of a foreign
                 iawyer, undeniably important, may be the
only diversity an independent school seeks.

      Unfortunately, many parents are not tuned in to the
diversity present in most independent schools.          Cowan stated,
"Non-traditional parents have a greater difficulty

appreciating the intangible benefits of an independent school

Community. "37


34 NAIS, Briefings, Volume 5, (Boston: NAIS, 1992) p. 1
35 Meg Moulton, Summary of Mrket Research Themes, (Boston:
NAIS, 1991) p. 13
'6 ISM, Ideas & PerqsDetive "Paying Attention to Diversity
Today," Vol. 14, #12 (Wilm.,DE:;      SM, 1990) p. 47.
37 Rick Cowen, The NexL Marketinn Hnrlnlok. (BoStLn: AISZ, 1991) p. 20
                                                                19



     Although the author's resources were limited, the author
found valuable information in the reSearch.   Due to the
limited information on marketing strategies of independent
schools, the author will attempt to provide, in the ensuing

chapters, some enlightening information on marketing

strategies that are currently successful.
                                                                      20




                                  CHAPTER 3
                                  PROCEDURES


THE LITERATURE SEARCH

       TO define the reason for the author's thesis topic,

several avenues of    information were researched.     This insured

that the topic was feasible and had never been done before.

       To begin the research, the author contacted Sheryl

Seiber, a former colleague from the woodland Country Day

School, Bridgeton, New Jersey.     Seiber provided the author

with addresses of two independent school organizations.

These organizations or associations are groups much like the

AMA,   AARP, NEA, etc.   All members of NAIS receive support,

resources, and occasionally financial assistance information.

       The National Association of Independent Schools, NAIS,

referred the author to Heather Smith, director of marketing

for NAIS.    Smith sent brochures, dies,            pamphlets and

listings of publications, as wel    as a summary of market

research themes.     Smith was extremely helpful in sending

informati     on
              on the targeted areas of finance, enrollment,

market research and curriculum.    The market study done by

NAIS is the most current study available.      It   was published

in 1991.

       A call to the Independent School Managers,     ISM, in

Wilmington, DE, provided the author with an opportunity to

discuss marketing strategies with Kelly Rawlins, director of
                                                                   21




public information.     Rawlins also sent brochures, news

articles, and related pamphlets on independent schools.

     Next, a computer search was conducted at the University

of Delaware's Hugh M. Morris Library.     This search was

conducted to find the most relevant and Current information

available.     The author reviewed materials from three

databases

     Research     for the study was conducted on the DelCat

System.     Within DelCat, ERIC Databases were accessed using

the key words, "public relations of independent schools,"

"marketing strategies of private schools,"    "private schools,"

"independent schools<"    "fund raising," cnd "private school

public relations."     This search yielded one thousand three

hundred and tifty titles.     The author previewed 100 topics;

only six were applicable to the author's topic.     The author

was able to use three of the applicable six.

     The study also accessed the AB3/Inform Database.       This
search yielded two topics that were acceptable.     Key words in
this search were, "PR in private schools,"    "fund raising,
and "independent school marketing

     The last search conducted on database was on the

Infotrak System.     This system yielded several articles that

overlapped the DelCat output.



THE INTERVIEWS

     This study interviewed seven independent schools from
                                                                  22



  from New Jersey, Delaware, and Pennsylvania.
                                                  NAIS provided
 the author with a listing of all schools
                                          within its
 organization.   This list came complete with addresses,
                                                         phone
 numbers, and names of headmasters.
                                      The author sent
 introduction letters, with a return
                                     postcard, to each school
 in Delaware, Southern New Jersey,
                                   and Southeastern
 Pennsylvania.   Seven independent schools. out of 15,
                                                         sent
 postcards back acknowledging that they
                                         would consent to be
 personally interviewed by telephone
                                      by the author. Each
 school shared similar characteristics
                                          Each school was a
 pre-school to grade nine or grade 12.
                                         Each school was
 coeducational. Each school was a
                                   day school, and each was
 independent, not affiliated with any
                                        particular church.
      To ensure response, a cover letter
                                          explaining the study
and a self addressed postcard for
                                   response were mailed to
each school.   If the headmaster or director agreed
                                                     to a ten
minute telephone interview. the postcard
                                          was to be mailed
back to the author. This allowed
                                   the author to then set up
appointments with the interested parties
                                            All of the
questions for the interview were asked
                                        of each school.
regardless of possible economic and
                                    enrollment differences.
     The questions were pretested on
                                     the Serminar I public
relations class at Rowan College of
                                    New Jersey.   Copies were
distributed and the class discussed
                                    and fine tuned rhe
author's questions. This helped the
                                     author to make certain
the questions were specific, unbiased,
                                       and pertained to the
                                                                23



topic.   Dr. Den Bagin, seminar advisor, also assisted in

supplying some "hot" topics in independent eaucation.
     This study concentrated on the marketing strategies of
independent schools.    II centered on the specific topics:

finance, curriculum,   ethnic diversity, and enrollment

strategies.   The information was correlated and presented to
provide the reader with a clear understanding of the most-
used marketing strategies of independent schools today.

     A copy of the sample questionnaire is provided in

Appendix A.
                                                                   24




                               CHAPTER 4
                                FINDINGS


     This chapter reports the findings obtained from

telephone interviews with seven headmasters of independent

schools.    Their responses further support the author's

research on the marketing of independent schools.     Until the

late 1980's. marketing was largely ignored or seen as not

needed by the independent school environment.
     To summarize, all seven headmasters agreed that
marketing the benefits of an independent school education is

necessary in the 1990s.     All respondents agreed that the cost

of an independenn education is the major stumbling block for

the enrollees of the 1990s.    Basically all stated that the

majority of parents inquire because they are dissatisfied
with their son's or daughter's current educational setting

and are looking for alternative solutions.
     LaStly, the author found that the research supported her

hypothesis that independent schools are advertising the

benefits and rewards of such an education by showcasing happy

parents and successful graduates.

     Each school received a cover letter and response
postcard from the author.     Each school in Southern New

Jersey. Southeastern Pennsylvania. and Delaware received the

letter.     Of the schools that returned the postcard, one was
located in New Jersey, two in Pennsylvania and four in

Delaware.     One school was pre kindergarten to sixth grade,
                                                                  25




one was pre-kindergarten to twelfth grade, one was pre-

kindergarten to ninth grade, and four were pre-kindergarten

to eighth grade.     Enrollment ranged from 150 students to 700

students.     Of the headmasters interviewed, four were men and

three were women.


INDEPENDENT SLC.OL EDUCATION

      Studies show that parents select independent schools

because they want their children treated as individuals and

because of the quality programs and services made available

to them.     To define the differences between independent

schools and public schools, and to     share why parents might

Choose one over the other may seem a formidable task. Yet

research shows that all recruitment strategies come back to

one main objective---getting the prospects on campus. The

author found that the more people talked and communicated,

conveying the community and educational atmosphere,    the more

exposure in the community an independent school receives.



ENROLLMNEN

      Enrollment literally begins not with the enrollment

officer or headmaster, but within the core of the

school...the students.     If the student is happy and excited

about education, then Mom and Dad are sati.sfied with the

money being spent on this education.     iT the whole family is

happy, they tell friends, who tell friends, etc.     It's the
                                                                      26



admissions director, marketing director, or headmaster's job

to make sure than families remain satisfied.       One hundred

percent of those questioned stated word of mouth was their

most effective motivator in prompting families with no

interest to inquire.     The Tatnall School, Wilmington,

Delaware, reported that parents were their most compelling

spokespersons.     All schools use current parent and student

testimonials in school publications such as brochures,

advertisements, newsletters, and enrollment campaign

materials.

       All schools questioned use parents and students at Open

Houses.    Most Open Houses are held in the Fall and the

Spring.    At Open Houses parents and students give tours,

greet guests, staff booths, and give speecnes.

       At the Tatnall School, parents conduct the initial tour

of   the campus.   The Chestnut Hill Academy,   Philadelphia.

Pennsylvania, uses student tour guides.     The Independence

School, Newark, Delaware, uses the headmaster's secretary to

conduct   tours.   The remaining four schools' initial visit is

conducted with the headmaster or the director of admissions.

       The Upland School, Kenuett Square, Pennsylvania.

conducts the initial visit with the parents only        This was

the only school interviewed that does the initial visit this

way,   Upland feels it's much less of a disappointment if       the

family decides the environment is not what they expecred, or

perhaps it's beyond their means.    Upland feels that parents
                                                                       27



 are usually more blunt and up front with
                                          their questioning
 when the children are not present.

      When asked what    forms of marketing are used to encourage

 inquiry, one hundred percent responded
                                        "print media."           All
 schools advertised minimally in educational
                                             publications,
 local newspapers, and on local radio.
                                           All schools stated
 lack of funding as the major stumbling
                                        block to marketing
 their school.    The Tatnall School conducted one
                                                   direct mail
 campaign in 1992;    it resulted in a substantial increase

 (over 50%),   in inquiries.   Tatnall's budget, for marketing,

 is better than most independent schools
                                         in the Delaware
Valley, but marketing stills ranks
                                   low compared to other
demands on Tatnall's budget.     Even though the direct mail
Campaign generated a 2% increase in
                                    enrollment,     its budget
doesn't allow for another campaign
                                   in the near future.
Tatnall   is completing a public service announcement
                                                      for
radio, a venture very new to their
                                   marketing department.
woodland Country Day School, Bridgeton,
                                        New Jersey, is
pursuing advertising on cable as a means
                                         of increasing
awareness and inquiries.

     All schools distribute materials in
                                         a brochure.        These
brochures have information on the
                                  history of the school, the
mission statement, goals, financial
                                    options and curriculum.
The Independence School sends a    "Welcome Wagon Kit of
Goodies" to anyone who inquires.
                                    It Contains aill of    the
aforementioned paperwork, but it
                                 also contains pencils, pens.
                                                                      28



 a hat, a school calendar, and a pennant, all with the
 Independence name and logo on them.
      All schools have "Buddy Days."     These are days when
students can bring interested friends to school to spend the
day, "soaking up the atmosphere."      Chestnut Hill Academy
feels that these days are usually the "clincher" for the

family that's undecided.   Many students enter undecided and
by the end of the day are ready to attend full time.
     When the author asked each school representative what he
or she felt was the strongest selling point, two

representatives responded, "The quality of the staff members

and their dedication to quality education."     One school
responded, "size."   This school felt that its small size
contributed to its family atmosphere      One school felt
confident in all categories, from academic to campus

appearance.   The last three schools reported "quality
curriculum" as their selling point.     Their opinions were that
families base enrollment decisions on how each school values
education.
     All schools felt that first impressions were lasting, so
a full maintenance staff is hired to maintain appearances.

All schools rated appearance a six or higher, with a ten as

most important and a zero as not important at all.

     All schools have extensive grounds to maintain,        Tatnall
is situated on over 100 acres and employs a large
groundskeeping crew full time.   Upland stated that if the
                                                                     29




 environment looks safe and inviting, the parents and students

 feel safe, so maintenance is extremely important.

 Independence School stated, "Shabby and genteel might appeal

 to monied people, but new buildings, clean grounds, and an

environment immersed in education looks good."

       When the author asked each school to discuss what

competitive strengths each had to offer versus the public

schools, all schools felt very strong in all areas of

academics, especially in the arts, morals and ethics part of

the curriculum.

       Two schools, upland and Chestnut Hill Academy, reported

that   they do cater to the brightest kids.   Successful

educational outcomes, i.e. college, are most important to

these students.    All schools group homogeneously.

       Lastly, the author questioned why a family should

Consider an independent school.    Independence School stated

the traditional reasons, something Headmaster Kenneth Weinig

called,   "the three P's---purpose, personalization, and

push(expectation)..   Woodland and Pilot feel     that many

parents are unhappy with current situations or they are

hoping to lay a strong foundation for successful      later years.

Tatnall doesn't   feel that everybody should consider

independent education.   Tatnall feels that   a   family really

needs to want it to make it happen.    Nontessori and Upland

don't think there is any one reason.   They both felt     that

environment is usually a deciding factor.     Finally there's
                                                                          30



Chestnut Hill Academy.          CHA felt that generalizations are

dangerous, but basically public schools can't hold a candle

to independent schools.          Most families are looking for

educational expansion and the best place to find it is in an

independent setting.



CURRICULUJM



          "The middle of the road is where the white line is

                   and that's      the worst place   to be."

                                                           Robert Frost

        In this competitive world, taking the middle road and

being everything    to everyone is not as successful as really

focusing on several things and doing those several really

well.

        Support for public education continues to be very strong

in the United States.      Therefore, independent schools need to

capitalize on and market their strong points.           What sets them

apart?    What makes them unique?        Independent schools, because

of their independent nature and size, can offer

individualized attention. a challenging curriculum, and a

more nurturing atmosphere.         Public schools are often able to

offer broader curriculum choices, but independent schools are

free to offer individualized curriculums in advanced

sciences, mathematics. languages, and literature.
                                                                   31



      When the author asked the school representatives
                                                       what
 their strongest curriculum area was, four
                                           schools responded
 that they were strong in all Curriculum areas.
                                                   Three schools
 responded that they were strongest in Language
                                                Arts/Reading.
 The independence School requires students
                                           to take two English
 courses in the seventh and eighth grades.

       Each school was asked if any learning links
                                                   exist with
 nearby schools, be they public or private.
                                              All schools have
 "feeder schools.    "These schools are pre-schools and high
 schools, in the area, that "feed" students
                                            into the
 independent environment.    Independent and Woodland maintain
strong relationships with all local high
                                         school counselors in
the public and private schools.    The author found only two
schools that experience a sense of competition
                                               from local
public schools.     The remaining five expressed a desire to
work as closely with the local public
                                       schools to create an
atmosphere that nurtures education and
                                        fosters cooperation
Woodland continually strives to do more
                                         with the local public
schools because of its rural location.

     Another question pertained to the moral
                                             and ethical
development of the student. All schools
                                         felt strong in their
commitment to teaching a basic code of
                                       ethics and values.
Woodland teaches a values course in its
                                         upper grades, and
Upland has an honor system and a moral
                                        code that all students
are expected to uphold.
                                                                      32



      On the subject of curriculum development, all schools

responded that their teachers write, evaluate, and refine the

curriculum.      Chestnut Hill called its curriculum

development, "quite a democracy."     upland recently completed

a three-year evaluation of its curriculum by the teachers.

Oddly enough. Independence School reported that they are

under pressure to review the curriculum because of

"overlaps."     Independence offers a varied selection of

accelerated courses that are conflicting with the local high

schools' curriculum, and when students from Independence

enter area public high schools,    they are experiencing overlap

in some subjects.

     Independent schools are not under state regulations, so

teaching certificates are not required by law.       However,

Independence, Woodland, Pilot, Montessori, and Tatnall

require BAs    of all new teachers, while Chestnut Hill and

upland do not.     chestnut Hill stated that a teaching

certificate is not an issue, when 66% of their professional

staff enter with masters' degrees      Of Tatnall'sr staff, 50%

have masters'    degrees and eight to ten percent have Ph.D.s.

Of the Independence staff, 35% have their masters' degrees.

     All but one school provides assistance for professional

development.     Independence feels this is   its weakest area and

in need of serious review, but states a low budget as the

reason.   They do fund seminars, workshops,    and lectures to

enhance staff development.    Woodland is continually trying     to
                                                                   33



 encourage its staff members to grow professionally by
 offering salary advancements and title changes.

      All schools stated that a large part of their success
                                                            is
 due to the fine teaching staff they employ. Thomas
                                                    Beazely,
 Woodland Country Day School's Headmaster, quotes
                                                    'The
 commitment, dedication. and caring of these particular

 professionals are superb."    Upland commented that outstanding
 teachers create satisfied students and satisfied students

 tell others.   upland continued with, "Teachers hold down the
attrition rate, they create the atmosphere, and they're

basically the glue that holds a school together."




      This section proved to be the smallest section
                                                     of the
author's questionnaire, but one that the author
                                                initially
felt was important.

     All schools, whether they be independent or
                                                 public,
strive to be diverse.    The author had hoped to hear some

exciting ways that independent schools market
                                              themselves to
many different students.    unfortunately, all schools are

"gung-hoe   to be multi-cultural, but not diverse, in their

makeup.     Only Pilot School, Wilmington, Delaware, strives
                                                             to
be diverse, and that's because they are required
                                                 to.    Pilot
is a school that deals with students who are
                                             learning
disabled and socially disabled.   Pilot has an enrollment of

150 students, ages five through fourteen, who have
                                                   a myriad
                                                                     34




 of learning problems.     The school has no need to market

 itself, families seek them out.     Doris LeStourgeon commented,

 "Families that do come co us are just as committed to

 education as the families enrolled in other private schools "

       The author found that all but Pilot do discriminate

 against learning disabled students and Some discriminate

against children who are termed below average.        Independence
wants only gifted students,      Woodland felt that it didn't

discriminate per se, but accepted only those students who

could pass its     tests and pay its tuition.    Tatnall is   the
only school that     felt it looked for a "real Cross section' of

students.

       when the author questioned each school on filling ethnic

quotas, all schools responded that they re under strains
                                                         to
create diversity for fear they might become labeled

"elitists."      Each school sees the Hispanic community as the

ethnic group on the rise in independent education.
                                                          Tatnall
stated that professional minorities,     those minorities who

hold degrees and good jobs,    are now discovering the benetirs

of an independent education.     Almost all schools stressed the

fact   that reaching out no more and more ethnic groups comes

out of practical purposes;     in Other words,   it's the old

bottom line...money.
                                                                      35




FINANCE



         All parents involved in their child's education

understand the benefits of any education.         Where independent

schooling is concerned, parents especially understand the

Costs.     Understandably so. many parents are concerned about

affording private SChool.

         In these changing economic times,    independent schools

must     strive to offer parents different ways to finance their

children's education.     Tuitions of the schools interviewed

ranged from $5.000 to 11,000 a year.         All schools admitted

that cost is the leading factor that affects enrollment.        All
schools are trying very hard not to be elitists, but

independent education continues to get more and more

expensive

       Once tuition rises, the people able to afford

independent education are the elite, especially since very

few scholarships are offered.     Independence School believes

that   it can be academically challenging and relatively

inexpensive.     woodland, on the other hand. feels that costs

affect    its enrollment patterns as much as 80%;     they're

located in a very poor, rural area and tuition is

approximately $S6000. Upland believes finances have dampened

interest in independent education.     Tatnall and Chestnut Hill

believe that tuition for an independent education isn't the
                                                                    36



issue with most families that apply.    These families have
already decided that this educational lifestyle is worth any

sacrifices.    What hurts most schools is the lack of aid, and
very few schools can offer full aid.
     When asked how each felt about the proposed voucher

system, most didn't think about it at all.    As one headmaster
reminded me, what's $2,000 when tuition is at $11,000. and
that doesn't include uniforms, books, and supplies.      All felt
that parochial schools would benefit the most from the

voucher system.

     All schools furnish financial aid information at the

initial visit or inquiry.    All schools set up appointments
with their financial aid officers once an initial interest is
shown.   Upland was the only school that offered alternative
payment plans in the form of sliding scale and alumni child
discounts,    All schools are flexible and will set up
financing and payment plans for a 12-month period.    Also,
almost every school shows favoritism toward an alumnus' child
requiring assistance and in some cases, that child will
"bump" other applicants.

     The author ended the interviews on a general note,

asking all schools to relate their best fundraising projects.

All schools have at least one auction per year, dinner
dances, costume balls, Grandparents Day (a BIG fund-raiser),

donations, covered dish dinners, honor society dinners, and
family visitation days.    One unique idea the author found was
                                                                37



used by four independent schools from Delaware+
                                                  Local
supermarkets offer $100 coupons to the schools,
                                                the students
Sell these coupons to family and friends for the
                                                  face value
of the coupon. In return, the school gets back
                                                 five percent
of the face value of the coupon.

     The author found through these conversations that
independent educators are basically still concentrating
                                                          on
providing a sound, well-rounded education.   All schools are
genuinely concerned with enrollment and the continuation
                                                         of
their environment. Each school sees the vital role
                                                    that
marketing plays in its continuance.

     All schools realize the need to preach, praise,
                                                     and push
their assets, be it on local radio or cable, or
                                                in print.
Finally, each will endeavor to sharpen its skills
                                                  on an ever
changing population in hopes of attracting potential

customers.
                                                                  38




                                CHAPTER 5
                    Summary, Conclusions, and Recommendations


A.   Summary

      The issues facing this nation change almost daily.     AS
the nation faces and deals with economic, political and
social upheaval, the schools are facing these very same

problems.      Surveys have shown that the "baby-boomers'
children are marrying later, saving more money, and getting
better paying jobs.     These same people are looking for

alternative educational settings to provide their children

with as many advantages in life as possible.

     Many parents, all over the country, are faced with

making educational decisions that could ultimately influence

how successful their sons or daughters will be in adulthood.

Violence, poor test scores, low self-esteem, a devalued

curriculum, and the crumbling of the family unit have all

combined to disintegrate our public school systems.
     what happens to the families and students who do choose
to value education and the only public school available to
them has a history of violence, poor test scores, a devalued

curriculum, etc.?     They choose an independent school.
Regardless of popularity, many independent schools are having

to use creative ways to reach a public that may not know
about independent education, or who have never thought it was

for them.   Therefore, the independent school must reach a
                                                                39




public that has deep-rooted loyalties to public education and

its benefits.
     Marketers of independent schools must continually strive

to attract a wide variety of students.    Independent school
strengths lie in a deep commitment to continuing education, a

moral and ethics code, and a commitment to offer the best

education "money can buy" through small student:te&cher

ratios, advanced curriculum, and small class size.

     Perhaps public schools could learn from the attitudes
and ideas that seem so family oriented.   But nevertheless,
the author experienced great joy in discussing education and

educational goals with people who seem to be genuinely

interested in producing quality education.



B. CONCLUSIONS

     This study surveyed seven independent schools from
Delaware, Southern New Jersey. and Southeastern Pennsylvania,
asking what specific enrollment and fundraising strategies

are utilized to attract enrollees and their families.

Overall, all schools target current students and families to

help them market the school.   Paculty, alumni, students, and
administrators are basis for a successful enrollment

campaign.
     A questionnaire was formulated with the help of the
author's professor and classmates.   A cover letter, with a
response card, was mailed to fifteen independent schools;
                                                                  40




seven returned the postcards and telephone interviews were

arranged.   These conversations lasted anywhere from 10 to 40

minutes in length.   Since the sampling was not random, the

results and innerpretation reflect opinions only of the

headmasters.

     The questionnaire was divided into four main topic

areas:   finance, enrollment, Curriculum, and diversity.

After reviewing the answers from the representatives,      the

author found that all schools use current parents and

students in school publications, brochures, advertisements,

newsletters, and enrollment Campaigns.

     All schools responded that their budget for enrollment

campaigns is minimal, so therefore, all "free" forms of

advertising are utilized.     These "tree'   forms are "word of

mouth" and happy students and families discussing their

successes with other families.

     Several pertinent ideas on increasing enrollment by

providing more creative financing was found by this author in

all research.   NATS provides its members with a list of

financial advisors thar will help interested families work

cut financial difficulnies.

     Under curriculum,   the author found that all schools

highlight a strong commitment to quality curriculum and an

unbending discipline code.

     This commitment provides for many marketing strategies.

Parents rated strong Commitment to quality curriculum has
                                                                     41



very important, therefore, all schools should strive

highlight this in all publications.

     Support for public education continues to be strong

Therefore,    independent schools must really market   their

strong points, i.e.:    individualized attention, challenging

curriculum, and nurturing atmosphere.

     A point continually emphasized throughout the study was

the dedication of independent school teachers and their

commitment to provide a quality education.       All schools could

not say enough about their fine teachers.

     Independent schools are not under any state regulations,

therefore, their teachers do not have to be certified.

Demands for only the best teachers, though, have made it

necessary for independent      schools to require that all

incomi.ng staff hold teaching certificates.      In many cases

this is not necessary; many hold masters and PH.Ds.

     'All schools, be they private or public, strive         to be

diverse.     Unfortunately, diversity, in its truest form,

rarely occurs.     Only one independent school, Pilot,   is viewed

diverse.     It's a school   for the academically and socially

disabled.    One other, Tatnall,   tries to look for a "real

cross section" of stdLents, yet     the respondent could not tell

exactly how.

     All schools are under pressure to fill ethnic quotas,

but not learning disabled student quotas.      All schools stated
                                                                 42



  that money is the bottom line
                                 of any reason to solicit
  enrollees  from ethnic groups.

       Many schools are becoming
                                 ethnically diverse due to
                                                           the
  makeup of their community.
                              with the influx of working
                                                         class
  immigrants into the United States,
                                     independent schools are
  finding their classrooms filled
                                  with a wide variety of
 students.   These particular families
                                        are searching for
 educational settings that
                            match or exceed the local
                                                       public
 school.   Many families are also searching
                                             for instiLutions
 where education is valued;
                             independent schools are catering
 to these individuals.

      Finally, there is   finance.   Independent schools must
 Continually strive Lo offer parents
                                     alternative ways to
 finance their children's
                          education.    Cost is the leading
 factor that affects enrollment.

     All schools furnish financial
                                   aid information at the
initial visit or inquiry.
                           Only one school offers alternative
payment plans, hut all schools
                               are flexible and will set
                                                         up
financing.

     The data from this study shows
                                    that independent schools
 are slowly coming to recognize
                                 the need to market their
schools.   No longer can independent
                                      schools rely on prestige
or social  status to get enrollees.
                                      Although all schools do
utilize some forms of marketing
                                  and public relations, it's
essential that they continually
                                  search for other markets
                                                           to
emphasize their strengths.
                                                                      43




 B.   Reconmmendat ions


       Because cost is leading factor that influences

 enrollment patterns, the author recommends
                                            that all schools
 interviewed devise more financial aid
                                       opportunities      for
 enrollees.

       The author found that the curriculum
                                            strategies of       the
 independent schools interviewed were
                                      excellent.       All schools
 involve teachers in curriculum changes
                                        and some include the
 students.    Yet the author feels that all independent
                                                        schools
need to include, in their budgets,
                                   a means for training
 teachers to handle the technological
                                      changes   (i.e. computers,
video productions, CD-ROMS, etc.).
                                      These changes could only
enhance the image that independent schools
                                           have been able to
foster.

      The author recommends that all schools
                                             strive to create
an atmosphere where all students are
                                      welcome. regardless of
race, religion, financial background,
                                       and educational
aptitude. The influx of immigrants to
                                      this nation will demand
that these changes take place, and
                                   the author feels that
immigrants will become the "bread and
                                      butter'of    the
independent school environment.

      The author recommends that each school
                                             continue
featuring the students and parents
                                   in all   forms of
communication.    Featuring these people seems to be an
                                                                44



especially successful endeavor on the independent school

marker.    The author has listed a few suggestions to further
enhance public relations in the independent market.
      Hire a public relations or marketing director

     -Do a direct mail Campaign
      Perform local radio spots
     -Campaign through local corporations

     -Activities/Events/Plays open no public

     Workshops, seminars and lectures for staff on effective
     public relations

    -Workshops, seminars and lectures for staff on
     technological advances.
                                  APPENDIX A


 Sample Questionnaire

 Name of participant:

Title:

Date of interview:

School name:

Enrollment:
PK-8
K-6
FK-12
K 12

QUESTIONS WERE CATEGORIZED INTO
                                FOUR TITLES:  PINANCE,
CURRICULUM, DIVERSITY, AND
                           ENROLLMENT.
AUTHOR AND THE PERSON ANSWERING         THIS ENABLED THE
                                THE QUESTIONS TO RSEELIN
FOCUSED ON ONE TOPIC AT A TIME.

 1. What do you feel is your mosc
                                    effective motivator in
prompting families with no interest
                                     to inquire?
 2.  WhaN forms of marketing do you use to encourage
inquiries about your school-

         __TV                  RADIO         -_F_PRI
__ _..NEWSLETTERS                                      NT

 3.  What forms of communication do you
                                        use to encourage
families to apply or inquire.
                              check all that apply:
                _    Personal Contact
                     Enrollment drives
                     Alumni
                     Mailers/brochures
                     Back co School Nights
         ---        Others- please list:
4.     How are staff involved in enrollment-
  5.    At what part of the enrollment process are campus visits
 encouraged?             Who conducts these tours?
 6. what do you feel is your school's strongest selling
point? Check all that apply.
                         campus appearance
                       _curriculum
                _        staff
                _        education of staff
                         alumni association

 7.  Do you use parent, faculty, or student spokespersons to
highlight academic quality in school publications or during
on campus events?

 8.    Do you provide summer, academically oriented, programs
that might introduce families to the quality of the
independent school experience? if so, what are some of your
offered programs? Can anyone apply?
 9.    DO you use pictures and testimonials in school
promotional materials tc show "atmosphere," school spirit,
friendships, etc.?

10. What forms of maintenance does your school employ to
ensure that the outward appearance of the school is
physically pleasing? On a rank of 1 to 10, 10 being the
highest, how would you rank the importance of physical
appearance?

       1_ 2          3         5     6   7    8   9   10
11. what competitive strengths do you emphasize in
comparison to public school? Check all that apply.

                       Academic quality
              _-Size
                       Individual attention
                       Consistent faculty
                       Opportunities in the Arts
                       FOCus on ethics
                 _       .ttention to moral values
           ___Diversity
                       Sense of community spirit
                    _ Access
                _ Successful educational outcomes
                _ Safe environment
                  Facilities
12.    Why should a family consider an independent school?
CURRICULUM

13.   what is your strongest curriculum area?

14.  Do you establish any learning links with nearby
community schools. i.e. student internships, community
service, exchange programs with local high schools, etc.

15.  How much effort is there to demonstrate a commitment to
the moral and ethical development of the student?

16,   How involved is your staff in curriculum developmentt

17.  What educational degree is   required to teach in your
school?


DIVERSITY

18.   What do you feel makes your school unique?

19.   Do you have a primary targeted audience?

20.   Are you under any strains to fill ethnic quotas?

21, With the American melting pot becoming increasingly
larger, what particular ethnic group do you see becoming more
and more a part of the independent school/ climate?

FINANCE

22,  How much do you fell the costs of independent schools
vs. the so called "free" public schools affects the
enrollment patterns?

23.  The voucher system --what impact do you think it    will
have on your school?

24. What percentage of people do you feel, you lose due to
the costs of independent education?

25.   Do you publicize that financial aid is available?     If
so, how/
             word of mouth
             brochures
         _pamphlets
         ..
             conferencine
             advertisements

26.    Do you have alternative payment plans?
                sliding scale tuition
            -"Early   bird" specials
               Alumni child discounts
               Other
27.      What have been your most successful
                                             fundraising
Bibliorapjects?
Bibliography;
                              Bihhiography

     Rick Cowan, The Nexl Malketinu Handbook   (Boston:
National Association of Independent Schools, 1991) p, 4

      "Pricing, Affoirdablity, and Accessibility, " Jia
&Persnect ivns     (Independent School Marketers, Vol. 16,    #6)
9-16-91

      "Attracting and Retaining a Diverse, Multicultural
Student Body,,"   ideas & Perspeacti.e (Independent School
Marketers. vol. 14, 912) 1 8 90

      "Ten Sbeps to Make Your Family Part of Your School's
Marketing Team,"   Ideas & Pers(Deive   (Independent School
Marketers. vol. 15, #1) 4 23 90

      "Emerging Markets for Private Independent Schools,
Idea&    PerS  c       (Independent School Marketers, Vol.
15, tl) 4-23-90

     "Eleventh Hour Marketing," leaS. & Perspectve
(Independent School Marketers, Vol. 9, #S) 6 25 84

     w   Rodman Snelling, Ed. : "Snobbery in Private
Education,    Ideas i? PerSpectives (Independent School
Marketers, Vol.1, #7) 2 2 76

     William A. Weary:   "Paying Attention to Diversity
Today, Ideas &  Perspectives (Independent School Marketers.
Vol. 14, #12) 1 8-90

     Meg Moulton, Snummary of Market Research Themes.
(Boston:       National Association of Independent Schools,
1991) p.   4

       National Association of Independent Schools,
Briefn-ians.  (Boston: National Association of Independent
Schools, 1992) p. 2

     National Association of Independent Schools,
Briefings.  .(Boston; National Association of Independent
Schools, 1992) p. 5
     National Association of Independent Schools, PErents
Guide andtirectory   (Boston: National Association of
Independenr Schools, 1992)

     Susan Stone, Shaoing Strateuv: Inrdegendfnc School
planning in the 9O's.  (Boston: National Association of
Independent Schools.   1993)