THE BARCELONA SOLAR ORDINANCE A case study about how by whq15269

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									THE BARCELONA SOLAR ORDINANCE
A case study about how the impossible
became reality

Josep Puig i Boix
Former Sustainable City Councillor
of Barcelona
EUROSOLAR Spain
                       11/06/2010

Johannesburg, Aug.-Sept., 2002
The city of Barcelona

    Municipal surface: 99.07 km2
       buildings      55.89%
       roads          16.57%
       green spaces 9.42%

       forests       18.12%
    Inhabitants: 1,505,581 (15,197 inh/km2)
    Metropolitan area: 3,000,000 inhabitants
Barcelona Energy Flow
Minimum Domestic Energy Services
Barcelona (1)
Barcelona population (1997): 1,505,581

                                           W/cap        GWh/year
End-Use     conventional                   200           2,638
Technologies     efficient                  35             462
              real (1998)                  102           1,348

(only domestic sector, not including service sector nor industry)
Minimum Domestic Energy Services
Barcelona (2)
                      Supply Technology - conventional
                         TPP/CCGT - NukPP



 End-Use    conventional       377 MW
 Technology      efficient      66 MW
              real (1998)      192 MW

 (CF= 0.8)
Barcelona Renewable Energy Flow
Minimum Domestic Energy Services
Barcelona (3)
                  Supply Technology - RES
                  clean & renewable energies
               energy capacity surface capacity surface
                 GWh      MWSEGS    km2 MWWECS    km2
E-U conv. 2,638             860    16.61 1,004   10.04
Tech. effic.       462      151     2.91     176  1.75
      real(1998) 1,348      440     8.49     513  5.13

     SEGS (CF: 0.35; LU: 1.93 Ha/MW) - WECS (CF: 0.25; LU: 1 Ha/MW)
Barcelona: producing all the electricity
consumed with Sun and Wind
            Electricity    SEGS(th)   WECS
            consumed Capac. Surf. Capac. Surf.
               GWh       MW    km2 MW km2
    Total    5,385     1,756 33.9 2,459 24.6
    Domestic 1,348       440  8.5   616 6.2
    Com/ind. 3,917     1,278 24.6 1,789 17.9
    Transport 120         39  0.8    55 0.6
     SEGS (CF: 0.35; LU: 1.93 Ha/MW) - WECS (CF: 0.25; LU: 1 Ha/MW)
Barcelona: producing all the electricity
consumed with Sun (1)
            Electricity   SEGS(th)  SEGS(PV)
            consumed Capac. Surf. Capac. Surf.
               GWh       MW    km2 MW km2
    Total    5,385     1,756 33.9 2,442 24.4
    Domestic 1,348       440  8.5   611 6.1
    Com/ind 3,917      1,278 24.6 1,777 17.7
    Transport 120         39  0.8    54 0.5
     SEGSth (CF: 0.35; LU: 1.93 Ha/MW) - SEGSPV (EF: 0.15; LU: 1 Ha/MW)
Barcelona: producing all the electricity
consumed with Sun (2)
            Electricity SEGSPV
            consumed Capac. Surf.
               GWh      MW km2 m2/inh m2/aprt.
    Total    5,384.7 2,442 24.4  16.2  36.5
    Domestic 1,348.1    611 6.1   4.1    9.1
    Com/ind. 3,917.1 1,777 17.7  11.7  26.5
    Transport 119.6      54 0.5   0.4    0.8
     SEGSPV (EF: 0.15; LU: 1 Ha/MW)
Barcelona: Heating Water with the Sun
   Energy Consumption for Domestic Hot Water:
        Natural Gas: 558 GWh/year
        Electricity: 337 GWh/year
        Total         895 GWh/year
   Total area needed:          1.5 km2 (city: 100 km2)
   Total area per person:      1.0 m2
   Total area per apartment:   2.3 m2
   Total area per building:   19.0 m2
Realising the Renewable Energy Potential


 Three conditions:
  political will: political commitment

  technical ability: committed & skilled technicians

  people’s involvement: public participation




               PARTNERSHIP
Realising the RE Potential:
the case of Barcelona (1)
Barcelona, June 1995 - May 1999:
 A committed group of people worked hard to open the
  door to the Energy Sustainability into the city
 An interesting set of circumstances came together to
  make it happen:
        municipality

        RE Companies

        RE NGOs
Realising the RE Potential:
the case of Barcelona (2)
  Municipality
 As a result of the 1995 municipal elections the city
   government adopted sustainability as a issue.
 April 22nd., 1998: the Plenary Session of the City
   Council adopted a political decision on Energy
   Sustainability, including:
         promotion  of energy efficiency,
         use of renewable energies,

         information to the citizens,

         cooperation with other local energy actors.
Realising the RE Potential:
the case of Barcelona (3)
    To implement policies the municipality made use of
     two key instruments:
          theCivic Table on Energy (‘Taula Cívica de l’Energia’)
          the Local Energy Agency (‘BarnaGEL - Barcelona
           Grup de Energia Local’).
Realising the EE Potential:
the case of Barcelona (4)
   The Civic Table on Energy (municipal body)
 created in 1994 as a result of a public hearing on
    environment and energy
 involves local officials/staff from different departments
    of the city council with a local representative of a
    NGO energy platform Barcelona Saves Energy
    (‘Barcelona Estalvia Energia - BEE’)
 main objective: to build complicities on energy from
    all people in different departments of the city council.
Realising the RE Potential:
the case of Barcelona (5)
    The local Energy Agency BarnaGEL(independent)
 EU-PERU (now SAVE) project, 1994
 Main proposers: Leicester City Council and Metropolitan
     Area of Barcelona
 Other local Partners: Ecoserveis (local NGO on energy &
     environment), ICAEN (Regional Energy Agency of Catalonia)
     and UAB (Autonomous University of Barcelona)
 Main objective: to build complicities between local
   actors in order to develop energy projects
Realising the RE Potential:
the case of Barcelona (6)
    The results of the work (1995 -1999)
       an EE&RE demo caravan

       the Sustainable City Resources Centre

       doubling the solar the collector area
           solar   thermal: from 700 to 1,350 m2
        29 times more solar PV collector area
           solar   PV: from 80 to 2,400 m2
        the Solar Law (Solar Ordinance)
Realising the RE Potential:
the case of Barcelona (7)
   The solar/wind/efficient
    caravan:
    Equipment being used in
    Barcelona city and around
    Barcelona province’s villages and
    cities to show in real operation
    how a house could run with
    renewables and energy efficient
    appliances


                                        35
Realising the RE Potential:
the case of Barcelona (8)
   The Sustainable City Resources
    Centre:
    A municipal fixed facility equipped with a
    permanent exhibition with energy efficient
    devices and appliances and renewable
    energy devices. It’s open to the public,
    free of charge, since May 1999.




                                                 35
Realising the RE Potential:
the case of Barcelona (9)
  Solar Thermal Water
   Systems in all the existing
   municipal sports facilities.
 Two first installations completed:
    Poliesportiu Torrent de
      Melis (74 m2 of solar
      collectors)
    Piscina Bon Pastor (80 m2
      of solar collectors).
Realising the RE Potential:
the case of Barcelona (10)
    A PV Solar Roof
     at the two main
     buildings of the
     City Hall
     EC Thermie Project
     1,000 m2, 100 kWp
Realising the EE and the RE Potential:
the case of Barcelona (11)
    Biogas valorisation from
     organic fraction of wastes
       Garraf Landfill

       3 Methanisation Plants
        (75,000 tn each):
          thefirst one now in
           operation
          two more in construction
Realising the EE and the RE Potential:
the case of Barcelona (12)
    The Solar Law or the Barcelona Ordinance on
     Application of Solar Thermal Energy Systems into
     the Buildings
     The Law enforces all the new buildings to be built in
     Barcelona (and all the integrally retrofitted
     buildings) to have Solar Thermal Water Systems to
     cover 60 % of sanitary water heating needs.
 Adopted by the Plenary Session of the Council (July 1999)
 Mandatory since 1st August 2000.
Barcelona Solar Ordinance

    In 1995, as a city councillor, I asked the question:
     Why the solar energy was not widely used in
     Barcelona ?
       We have the resource: Sun

       We have needs: heating sanitary water

       We have surface available in the city
Barcelona Solar Ordinance:
The Resource
    The Sun in Barcelona
        Sunshine hours: 2,351 hours/year
        Solar radiation:  14.5 MJ/m².day
                             1,470.1 kWh/m².year
    The surface of Barcelona municipality receives
          524.35 PJ/year = 145.65 TWh/year
          10 times the energy consumption of the city
          28 times the electricity consumption of the city
Barcelona Solar Ordinance:
The Needs
    The families living in Barcelona use for heating
     sanitary water:
         - natural gas: 558,139,535 kWh/year
         - electricity: 407,942,893 kWh/year
    The result:
       200,000 T CO2/year

       3.8 * 1012 Bq of radioactivity/year

       1,400 kg/year of radioactive wastes
Barcelona Solar Ordinance:
The Available Surface
    The buildings in Barcelona

      mainly have roofs or flat terraces on top
      have between 14 m2 and 43 m2 of
       roof/terrace per apartment
Barcelona Solar Ordinance (5):
The Needed Surface
    To heat by the Sun all the domestic
     sanitary water the city uses, it will be
     necessary to cover
       1.61 km2 of surface
           1.62 % of municipal surface or
           2.82 % of built surface

        It represents 1.07 m2/inhabitant
           2.4m2/apartment
           20.15 m2/building (residential)
Barcelona Solar Ordinance:
The Process (1)
    June 1997: The Sustainable City Councillor’s Office translated
     to catalan the Berlin Solar Collector Ordinance Draft.
     Information to the Mayor of Barcelona.
    January 1998: The Barcelona Civic Table on Energy adopted a
     resolution to work on developing a Solar Ordinance for the city.
    1998: discussion of the Barcelona Solar Energy Ordinance’s
     Draft with all interested parties.
       Sceptics said: ‘a city like Barcelona has no power to implement
         a local law about solar energy’
       The supporters: ‘we will proceed and see what will happen’
Barcelona Solar Ordinance:
The Process (2)
    February 1999: the Plenary Session of the City Council adopts the
     initial text of the Barcelona Solar Ordinance.
    Feb-May 1999: open time period for people/organisations to present
     writen proposals to modify the initial text.
    July 1999: the Plenary Session of the City Council adopts by
     unanimity the Barcelona Solar Ordinance.
    1st August 2000: enforcement of the Barcelona Solar Ordinance
Barcelona Solar Ordinance
What are the results?
    Evolution of solar collector
     surface:
       1995: 700 m2 of SHS

       1998: 1,181 m2

       1999: 1,350 m2

       2000: 1,632 m2

       2001: 6,321 m2
Barcelona Solar Ordinance
The results (m2)
    Number of buildings: 65
      Domestic:         3,145     6,425
      Hotels:           1,745     2,114
      Sports facilities: 972      1,458
      Hospitals:          307       349
      Other:              152       421
       TOTAL:           6,321    10,768
                      dec.2001   jun.2002
Barcelona Solar Ordinance

    The city has opened the door to the Sun
Barcelona Solar Ordinance
Complicities
    All that have not been possible
     without a lot of complicities,
     ranging from companies to
     NGOs.
Barcelona Solar Ordinance
The exemple
    In Catalonia                     inhabitants   mandatory
       Sant Joan Despí                24,977       nov.1999
       Montcada i Reixac              26,356       nov.2000
       Esplugues de Llobregat         48,310       end 2001
       Terrassa                      158,063       jun. 2002
       Cardedeu                        9,040       end 2002
       Palafrugell                    17,417       end 2002
       Sant Cugat del Vallès          38,937       end 2002
    In Spain: Sevilla, Valladolid, Madrid, . . .
THE BARCELONA SOLAR ORDINANCE
is a clear case that shows how the
impossible becomes a reality !
Josep Puig i Boix
EUROSOLAR Spain

e-mail: barnagel@energiasostenible.org



END                      11/06/2010

								
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