RIVER TAY CASE STUDY Page 4/5 Atlas (British Isles – yellow section) 119 miles long – Scotland’s longest, Britain’s largest Starts in the mountains in the West of Scotland and flows east, through Perth and Dundee and flows into the North Sea Upper course Characteristics of landscape – Characteristics of river – Wet marshy hilltop Small channel – narrow and shallow Rain collects and forms into channel Fast flowing in steep areas Water reeds and bright green vegetation – Lots of energy in parts sphagnum moss Poor soil Steep land Processes - Landforms – Water forced down by gravity – Energy builds = Source vertical erosion Falls of Acharn near Kenmore Wears away soil and rock forming waterfalls and Waterfalls are a popular tourist resort gorges – softer rock easier to erode than harder V-shaped valleys steep and narrow. rocks. Use of land and river- Other features - Forests of pine trees The drainage basin is very large and because of Sheep farming the relief and location has high rainfall. This On one of the Tay’s major tributaries – River produces a number of tributaries and therefore a Tummel – provides 1/5th of water supply. Has number of sources (and v-shaped valleys and so hydro electric power controlled by dams. Once on) water used in power stations the water is put back into the river. MIDDLE COURSE Loch Tay to Perth Characteristics of landscape – Characteristics of river – Gentler slope. Tributaries meet up with main river e.g. River When river floods it spills out onto flat land – Tummel and River Tay meet at confluence flood plain River is wider and begins to meander Land is flat and fertile and capable of Leaving a pattern of spurs (harder rock to producing high yields of crops. erode so river travels round it) Water is dark brown and murky because of the load. Appears calm and gentle but river has enormous power at this stage cutting through the countryside. Flooding is common here. Water rises very quickly and floods hundreds of acres. Processes - Landforms – River picked up (eroded) lots of sand, gravel Meanders form a zig-zag shape in the and small rocks transporting them downstream. landscape. Outside of bend water travels at great speed Spurs are formed as the river moves around cutting into the bank and eroding material. areas of harder rock. Indside of bend water travels slower and is River cliffs (outside bend of river where erosion shallower leading to deposition and creating takes place) beaches. River beaches (inside bend of river where Deposits silt or alluvium on floodplain. deposition occurs) Rapids formed where there are large stones, boulders, and resistant rocks. Usually found in the lower course but on the Tay found in the middle course where the river hasn’t managed to erode a crop of resistant rock. Use of Land and River – Controversy – Fertile soil is ideal for arable and mixed farming Tourism is important (economically and – farmers can’t prevent flooding so they have socially) to the people who live along the River to work around the river’s regime (timetable). Tay but there different needs result in conflict. They must make sure that no animals, Anglers are unhappy that sporting activities machinery or winter crops are at risk during at such as white-water rafting is taking place on flooding periods. the river because this activity unsettles the fish. Rivers provided a transport route through The activities are not compatible. Fishing is a inaccessible areas. Settlements flourished like relaxing, tranquil activity whereas whitewater Dunkeld which was a major religious centre. rafting is fun and noisy. Important for industry – power used for water To try and help the situation whitewater rafters wheels to power textile mills and factories. are advised on how to be considerate to other Water wheels still used and have become a river users. tourist attraction. Fishermen spend a lot of money but are Tourism has become one of the Biggest earner understanding of the fact that others have a industry on River Tay. Different groups of people right to use the river. using river include canoeists, anglers, walkers and The two groups of people need to reach a sightseers and whitewater rafters. compromise with their activities. LOWER COURSE - Tay has a short lower course. Starts and ends around Perth. Estuary and mouth from Dundee to North Sea Characteristics of landscape – Characteristics of river – Land is much flatter. Begins to take on physical characteristics of River has eroded even the most resistant sea rock. River is wider, deeper – deep enough for ships to sail up. Browny colour as sediment in suspension. sea animals like seals Landforms – Processes - Large meanders ●ox-bow lakes Little energy to carry load of material so it Braiding ●deltas deposits them as islands or deltas. mouth ●estuary ●Sand banks Because of amount of deposition dredgers often have to dig out sand to enable shipping but sand doesn’t go to waste – sold to other parts of Britain. Use of land and river - Delta on the Tay is used as a golf course. Flood plain transformed from farming to settlements. Tempting to build on flood plain because land is flat, but benefits have to be weighed against risk of flooding. North Newton Estate – scene of worst flooding this century. Spent months out of home in temporary accommodation. Destroyed interiors of homes. Perth’s proximity to the sea made it ideal for ships to sail into. Docks still used today for trade with Scandinavia and Mainland Europe in timber, cement, agricultural products.
Pages to are hidden for
"River Tay Case Study"Please download to view full document