Learning Center
Plans & pricing Sign in
Sign Out

Early childhood programs


									Early Childhood Programs
This Presentation Covers 2 Areas:
• How early childhood programs relate to teen
  pregnancy prevention

• Major findings from recent Campaign
  publication produced through PWWTW
  Teen Pregnancy
in the United States
                                      Some good news…
After increasing 23 percent between 1972 and 1990 (including 10 percent between 1987 and
1990), the teen pregnancy rate for girls aged 15-19 decreased 28 percent between 1990 and
2000 to a record low.
  100                                                                                                                 99.6
     1972 1974 1976 1978 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000
     Henshaw, S. (2003). U.S. teenage pregnancy statistics with comparative statistics for women aged 20-24. New York: The Alan Guttmacher
                      More Good News…
• Teen pregnancy and birth rates are down.
• Decreasing percentage of teens who have ever
  had sex (14%).
• Decreasing percentage of teens with four or
  more partners (23%).
• Increasing condom use (36%).

Note: changes over 1991-2003 from the YRBS, high school students in grades 9-12.
        Some Bad News…

The U.S. still has the highest rate of
 teen pregnancy in the industrialized
34% of Girls Get Pregnant at Least
   Once Before the Age of 20

                                                                                            Not Pregnant

  Source: National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, Fact Sheet “How is the 34% Statistic is Calculated,” February
     This translates into:
• About 850,000 pregnancies to teens per year
  in the US.

• Almost 100 teen girls get pregnant each hour.
 Early Childhood
  Information from PWWTW
          Issue Brief
• Science Says: “Early Childhood Education
• Developed by Child Trends and the
  National Campaign.
• Based on three longitudinal studies.
  What Do Early Childhood Programs
   Have to Do with Teen Pregnancy?

• Research suggests that children’s experience in
  programs long before adolescence may contribute
  to a reduced likelihood that they will become
  parents during their teen years.
     What the Research Shows
• Longitudinal studies have:
  – linked early, high-quality preschool education
    to higher educational achievement;

  – shown that school performance, attendance, and
    attitudes in early childhood can predict high
    school completion;

  – indicate that positive educational performance
    and expectations can help reduce risky sexual
   What Program Studies Show
• Three programs have shown success
• Two experimentally evaluated:
  – Abecedarian Project
  – High/Scope Perry Preschool Program

• One quasi-experimental design:
  – Seattle Social Development
             Abecedarian Project
• North Carolina (1972-1977), high risk children, nearly all
• Goal was to produce long-term benefits, such as improved
  academic performance, economic self-sufficiency, and social
• From infancy through first three years of elementary school,
  year round, 6-8 hrs per day, weekday childcare with a pre-
  school curriculum
• At each age, emphasis on adult-child and parent-child
• Each teacher made an average of 15 visits to students’ homes
  each year
 Abecedarian Project Findings
• Experimental Evaluation found that:
  – program participants were less likely than the
    control group to have become teen parents
    (26% vs. 45%);

  – of those who were parents, program
    participants were older when their first child
    was born than those in the control group (19.1
    years old vs. 17.7 years old).
High/Scope Perry Preschool Program
• Michigan (1962-1965), low income African American
  children, ages three and four

• Designed to improved kids’ short and long-term
  outcomes, such as increasing academic performance,
  increasing educational attainment, and reducing
  involvement with crime

• Two years, class every weekday morning, weekly
  home visits by teachers, monthly group meetings with
  children’s parents
High/Scope Perry Preschool Program
 • Experimental Evaluation found that:
   – Program participants were less likely than the
     control group to have had a birth outside of
     marriage (57% vs. 83%);

   – Program participants were also more likely to
     be married at 27 than the control group (40%
     vs. 8%).
        Seattle Social Development
• Washington State (1981-1987), eight public schools,
  47% White, 26% African-American, 21% Asian, 7%
• At least one semester in 1st – 4th and one in 5th or 6th
• Designed to help children avoid risky behavior by
  increasing their attachment to school and family
• Classroom based program with three components:
  teacher training, parent training, child social and
  emotional development
• Provided opportunities for child and family
  involvement in school.
Seattle Social Development Findings
• Quasi-experimental design found that:
  – Participants were less likely than comparison group
    to have had sex by age 18 (72% vs. 82%);
  – At 21, participants were more likely than
    comparison to report using a condom the last time
    they had sex (60% vs. 44%);
  – Female participants were less likely to have ever
    been pregnant (38% vs. 56%);
  – Female participants were less likely to report
    having given birth (23% vs. 40%).
Early Childhood
          What It All Means
• Better an hour too early than a minute too
  – Appears to be a connection between
    participating in early childhood programs,
    performing better in school, and having a more
    positive outlook for the future.
  – Collectively, these factors motivate teens to
    avoid too-early pregnancy and parenthood.
         What It All Means
• Beyond the usual suspects.
  – Professionals working with young children and
    those working with teens may have more of a
    shared mission than they realized.
  – Early childhood and teen pregnancy prevention
    leaders should look for opportunities to
    collaborate and support one another’s efforts.
         What It All Means
• It’s not always about sex.
  – For communities fighting over the best
    approach to preventing teen pregnancy, early
    childhood interventions may offer a long-term
    and less controversial approach.
  – Programs should not replace sex ed programs
    for older youth, but be an early investment
    towards the future.
         What It All Means
• Using What Works.
  – There is value in using programs with proven
    track records.
  – Preschool programs should offer
    developmentally appropriate activities and
    parental education in addition to employing
    well-trained, educated staff.
              A Final Note
• Although the evaluation findings from these
  programs are encouraging, there is still
  much research to be done.

• Must recognize potential limitations of
  adaptability of programs in addition to their
Thank You!

 For more information:
Putting What
Works to Work
              PWWTW: What?
• Cooperative Agreement funded by the
  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

• Goal: Enhance the ability of state and local
  organizations to incorporate science-based
  approaches into their teen pregnancy
  prevention efforts.
              PWWTW: How?
• Produce high-quality, research-based, user-
  friendly materials.
• Use these materials to encourage states,
  communities, and national organizations to
  incorporate research-based practices into their
• Go beyond the “usual suspects” and reach out
  to media executives, state legislators, funders
  and other opinion leaders.

To top