Document Sample
					                                                                              December 2006

                          IDRC-RoKS 2005-2006 Awardees
      “Developmental Universities: A Changing Role for Universities in the South?”

I.        Graduate Research Awards: To be announced.

II.       National Awards:

Proposal Title: Inequality and Knowledge System: Challenges to Developmental
Universities in Indonesia
Principal Researcher: Dr. Sonny YULIAR
Country under Study: Indonesia
Recipient Institution (Lead): Institut Teknologi Bandung

Since 1999, some major decentralization policies have been undertaken by the central
government of Indonesia and have brought about widespread changes in the country’s
political and administrative systems. In 2000 decentralization of higher education sector
was initiated and since then the legal basis for university autonomy has been
successively refined. Despite all the challenges it faces, the higher education
decentralization process has opened up opportunities for universities to expand their role
in society. One of the crucial steps is to extend and deepen their interactions with
industries and various levels of government agencies. Constraining factors to such an
attempt would likely to be the widespread disparities that had been brought about by the
previous long-ruling centralized government.

This project seeks to analyze and examine the social and political issues surrounding
the emergence of autonomous universities. The main goal of this project is to analyze
the extent to which democratic ideas are adopted into the structures of higher education
institutions, and to assess the effectiveness of the newly endowed autonomous status in
expanding the role of these universities in society. The project will conduct surveys on
six autonomous universities and carry out interviews with policy makers, parliament
members, academic and administrative staff, students and their parents and other
relevant actors. We expect that the output of this project will be useful for the central and
related local governments to devise proper regulations that facilitate autonomous
universities to bring about social and economic values.

Proposal Title: An Innovative Public Policy Linking Science and Endogenous
Principal Researcher: Dr. M.C. PARRA-SANDOVAL
Country Under Study: Venezuela
Recipient Institution (Lead): Universidad del Zulia

Venezuela Government has created a new university (Universidad Bolivariana de
Venezuela: UBV) inspired in a model which most important principles are: public
responsibility, social equity, participative democracy, quality and innovation, social
relevance, critic thought, humanistic education, ethics and along life formation. Based on
that this research proposal has as central goals: To describe the UBV model as a new

IDRC-RoKS 2005-2006 Awardees                                                               1
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form of university in the South. To state if there actually are differences between the
UBV and the traditional university model represented in Venezuela by the public
universities. To evaluate the suitability of the academic model and practices of the UBV
with respect to include research as key strategy for contributing to sustainable and
endogenous development. The proposed methodology will be descriptive and
explicative, qualitative and centered in documental analysis and interview to key
informants in the UBV and selected traditional universities. The project’s achievements
will be evaluated for the accomplishment of the proposed objectives and timetable
phases. That evaluation will be peers reviewed. It is expected that the results show that
the UBV model is innovative as institution oriented to break the traditional university
model and driven towards a new form of university which privileges the social
commitment of knowledge. The results will be known for the officials in the government,
the UBV community and the traditional universities communities to implement the
required reforms. The duration of the project will be 18 months starting from the approval

Proposal Title: Interfacing university S&T research agenda with societal
Principal Researcher: Dr. D. B. DOVIE
Country(ies) Under Study: Ghana and South Africa
Recipient Institution (Lead): University of the Witwatersrand-SA

The recent scrutiny of the contribution of public universities to development policy issues
by the public and media are of grim concern to academic planners and policymakers in
and beyond Ghana. This is because most university research is necessary for
supporting social and development policies that emphasize science, technology and
development. In Ghana, the strategic role of University research and development is
recognized formally by government yet with no tangible policy support. The state of the
contribution and operation of university research to development remain largely
unknown in the public domain, preventing society to engage in science, technology and
development issues and vice-versa. This study therefore seeks to analyze the content of
university research in Ghana within social and development policy frameworks and to
suggest realistic scenarios and actions for implementing such research towards
Millennium Development Goals that can benefit the recent Millennium Development
Challenge Grant to Ghana. Although the emphasis will be on science, a multi-
disciplinary approach involving stakeholder analysis, workshops, latitudinal techniques
such as interviews and participatory appraisals through focus group discussions, gender
auditing and profiling. The project is expected to lead to better understating of the
evolution, policies, management and practices of university research, modeled to merge
goals from public and private development sectors. The long-term impact will be
capacity building and debates on innovative development policies based on informed
science in developing countries. In the short-term for the UNESCO Forum
on Higher Education, Research and Knowledge Research Seminar in Accra, Ghana 22
– 24 March 2007.

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III.    Regional Awards:

Proposal Title: Promoting Effective Modes of the University-Industry Interaction
and their Evolution for Economic Catch-up in Asia
Principal Researcher: Dr. Keun LEE
Countries Under Study: Korea, India, Malaysia, Thailand
Recipient Institution (Lead): Centre for Economic Catch-up of the East Asian

There are diverse modes of the university-industry relations, and the UIR in each country
takes a certain mode depending upon several country- or sector specific factors. Those
factors include: 1) R&D and absorption capacity of firms. 2) R&D and non-R&D capacity
of universities, 3) R&D capacity of government research institutes, 4) willingness or
incentives on universities/GRIs, 5) Sector-specific factors (SSI, technological regimes),
and 6) country-specific factors (NSI) or intermediary institutions, such as TLOs’,
technology markets, and IPR regimes. In this research on five Asian countries of China,
India, Malaysia, Thailand and Korea, first, we ask what the position of the UIR in each
country is in the two by two space and how it has changed over time. Second, we will try
to explain the reason for such positioning and its evolution by examining several
determinants of the position. Third, we will explore the question of what a more effective
mode and the possible extent of the U-I interaction are in each sector of countries and
how to reach that mode and extent from the current or ineffective position. We conduct
interviews, case studies, and quantitative and qualitative analysis using firm survey. The
survey data allow us to test a hypothesis that whereas the extent of the UIR depends
upon such factors as the social tradition and incentives facing universities and conducing
environment, the modes of the UIR depends on the relative R&D capacities of firms and
universities and the nature of the sectors.

Proposal Title: Interactions between universities and firms: searching for paths to
support the changing role of universities in Latin America
Principal Researcher: Dr. Eduardo ALBUQUERQUE
Countries Under Study: Mexico, Costa Rica, Argentina, Brazil
Recipient Institution (Lead): CEDEPLAR-UFMG

Many Latin American countries are characterized instead by poor interactions between
industry and the public research sector, including universities and research institutes.
Policy proposals aimed at remedying these weaknesses are plagued: (a) by the limited
knowledge of the state of university-industry linkages (UILs); and (b) by the mistaken
assumption that advanced economies’ policies can be adopted wholesale in developing
countries. Our research project aims at addressing these problems and promoting sound
policy proposals. To do this, we will study the current state of UILs in sufficient detail to
appreciate the heterogeneity of situations in different countries (Argentina, Brazil, Costa
Rica, Mexico) and economic sectors. Through surveys and case studies, we will develop
a fine-grained picture of the areas of knowledge and of economic activity where forms of
cooperation are present, of the needs and uses that firms have for knowledge emanating
from universities and research institutes, of the channels through which university and
industry communicate, and of the modes of effective interaction. This work will be
complemented by a historical overview of the national patterns of development of

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universities and research institutions, a necessary task in order to understand the roots
for current strengths and weaknesses in UILs and identify institutional constraints on the
formulation of policy proposals. This is the final goal of the project: proposing qualitative
and quantitative changes for universities and research institutes that will enhance their
contributions to the effectiveness of the countries’ NSI.

Proposal Title: Knowledge for Development: University-Firm Interactions in sub-
Saharan Africa
Principal Researcher: Dr. Glenda KRUSS
Countries Under Study: South Africa, Nigeria, Uganda
Recipient Institution (Lead): Human Sciences Research Council

The promise that technology and the knowledge economy hold for growth and
development in developing countries hinges centrally on university-industry linkages
(UILs). The pursuit of these relationships poses challenges for universities in the catch-
up economies of the South, particularly in Africa. This is because of a widening
knowledge and learning divide, specific problems that need original effort because their
solutions are undersupplied in the global economy, and the demands of transforming
resource-intensive activities into knowledge-intensive assets. How these differences
manifest themselves within and across countries and sectors, and what this implies for
harnessing the productive role of universities in economic development, is the central
concern of this study.

The focus is three African economies at different levels of development - South Africa,
Nigeria and Uganda. The research investigates how and why UILs differ, focusing on
incentives and constraints, as well as on their extent, intensity and performance. This
provides a basis to consider the contribution universities make to local and national
development goals.

Each country study focuses on a specific sector. The research design includes an
analysis of policy mechanisms, current research and technology activity, case studies of
university practice, and a firm survey. The results will first inform a series of national
round-tables with key stakeholders. Second, there will be a comparison across the three
countries from Africa, and finally across sectors and regions with selected countries in
Latin America and Asia through cooperation with our peer teams.

IDRC-RoKS 2005-2006 Awardees                                                                4