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									    Using a mixed methods approach to explore
 strategies, metacognitive awareness and the effects
       of task design on listening development

                                 Anne O’Bryan
                                Iowa State University
                             Volker Hegelheimer
                               Iowa State University


    Although research in the area of listening processes and strategies is in-
    creasing, it still remains the least understood and least researched of the
    four skills (Vandergrift, 2007). Based on research in listening comprehen-
    sion, task design and strategies, this article uses a mixed methods approach to
    shed light on the development of four intermediate English as a second lan-
    guage (ESL) students’ listening strategy use and awareness over the course
    of one semester. Specifically, we investigate the complexities of students’
    listening strategy use by level of language proficiency (low-intermediate to
    high-intermediate), the impact of repetition on listening strategies and the
    development of students’ metacognitive awareness.
    Si la recherche sur les processus et stratégies de compréhension auditive a
    augmenté, ce domaine reste encore le moins bien compris et le moins étudié
    des quatre compétences (Vandergrift, 2007). En s’appuyant sur les recherches
    en compréhension auditive, conception de tâches et stratégies, cet article uti-
    lise une approche multiple pour expliquer le développement de stratégies de
    compréhension auditive et de conscientisation chez quatre étudiants de niveau
    intermédiaire en anglais langue seconde (ALS) au cours d’un semestre. On
    examine en particulier l’utilisation complexe de stratégies de compréhension
    auditive par les étudiants selon leur niveau de maîtrise de la langue (intermé-
    diaire faible à intermédiaire élevé), l’impact de la répétition sur les stratégies
    de compréhension auditive ainsi que le développement de la conscientisation
    métacognitive des étudiants.



Introduction
Research on language learning strategies has been a recurring theme in applied
linguistics books and journals for over 30 years (e.g., Naiman, Fröhlich, Stern
and Todesco, 1978; Wenden and Rubin, 1987; O’Malley and Chamot, 1990;

Address for correspondence: Anne O’Bryan, 206 Ross Hall, Iowa State University,
Ames, IA, USA 50011. Email: obryan.anne@gmail.com.

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RCLA • CJAL                                                                  12.1

Cohen, 1998), which highlights the complex nature of strategy use among lan-
guage learners. More recently, a number of publications in the areas of applied
linguistic
								
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