Subarea Tree Routing (STR) in Multi-hop Wireless Ad hoc Networks by ProQuest


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									Wireless Sensor Network, 2009, 1, 1-60
Published Online April 2009 in SciRes (

        Subarea Tree Routing (STR) in Multi-hop Wireless
                       Ad hoc Networks

                            Guikai LIU, Chunli SHAN, Gang WEI, Hongjiang WANG
      School of Electronic & Information Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, China
                   Received February 28, 2009; revised March 15, 2009; accepted March 17, 2009

Subarea Tree Routing (STR), a new routing protocol for multi-hop wireless ad hoc networks, is proposed.
The novelty of the STR protocol is to divide the whole network into many subareas constructed as a result of
establishing subarea trees. Its main idea is to identify root nodes by manual configuration or auto-discovery
process firstly, then the root nodes originate the process of establishing subarea trees, and finally each node
either joins in a subarea tree or become an interconnect node. STR belongs to hierarchical routing protocol
and does not attempt to consistently maintain routing information in every node. Furthermore, through the
use of tree’s intrinsic routing function, the STR protocol exhibits hybrid behavior of proactive and on-
demand routing protocols. We prove the correctness of STR, and our simulation results show that the pro-
posed scheme achieves lower route discovery delays, lower route discovery load and better performance of
normalized routing load in large, mobile, ad hoc networks as compared with AODV.

Keywords: Wireless Ad Hoc Networks, Hierarchical Routing Protocol, Proactive Routing Protocol, On-
          Demand Routing Protocol, Subarea Tree Routing

1. Introduction                                                    width. In order to support multi-hop routing, much work
                                                                   has been done in this area and many protocols have been
Multi-hop wireless ad hoc network, also called multi-hop           proposed. There are different standards to categorize
wireless self-organizing network, does not rely on a fixed         these routing protocols: proactive routing versus on-
infrastructure and the network structure changes dynami-           demand routing, or flat routing versus hierarchical rout-
cally due to member mobility. Wireless ad hoc networks             ing and so on.
are very attractive for tactical communication in military            In proactive protocols [1-6], routes between every two
and also expected to play an important role in many                nodes are established in advance even if no data transmis-
fields without the presence or use of a fixed infrastructure       sion is on demand. This is implemented by a node peri-
such as disaster search-and-rescue operations, data acqui-         odically updating its routing information and every node
sition in remote areas, conference and convention centers          eventually has consistent and up-to-date global routing
etc. Each node in this network not only as a host but also         information for the entire network. This approach has the
as a router discovers and maintains routes to other nodes          advantages of timely exchanging network information
that may not be within direct wireless transmission range.         such as available bandwidth, delay, topology etc. and sup-
To provide communications throughout the network, a                porting real-time services. But it is not suitable for large-
sequence of neighbor nodes from a source to a destina-             scale networks since many unused routes still need to be
                                                                   maintained and the periodic updating may incur over-
tion form a multi-hop path and intermediate hosts relay
                                                                   whelming processing and communication overhead. The
packets in a store-and-forward mode.
                                                                   on-demand protocol (e.g. [7-10]) is more efficient be-
   The major challenges for multi-hop routing in wireless
                                                                   cause each node tries to reduce routing overhead by only
ad hoc networks are continuously changing network to-
                                                                   sending routing packets when needed for data transmis-
pology, low transmission power, and low available band-
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