"Mix-Ups, Messes, Confinements, and Double-Dealings": Transgendered Performances in Three Novels by Louise Erdrich by ProQuest


Originating as a term for contemporary Native American gays and lesbians as well as people who have been referred to as "berdache" by anthropologists and other scholars, "two-spirit" has come to refer to a number of Native American roles and identities past and present, including Native American/First Nations gays and lesbians, Native American gender categories, traditions of gender diversity, transvestites, transsexuals, transgendered people, drag queens, and butches (Jacobs, Thomas, and Lang 2). [...] the term was not one chosen by Native American cultures themselves but was applied to them by their European colonizers.\n While Damien's performances of gender do reiterate several significant aspects of the "berdache" role, they also greatly exceed them through his occupation of multiple spaces of performance.

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