Targeting 101: Emerging Targeting Doctrine

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					                      Targeting 101:
              emerging targeting Doctrine
         hat constitutes a target? Is it a                                                            requires coordinated interaction among
         motorized rifle company repo-           By LTC David N. Propes, FA                           many groups.”
         sitioning as part of a combined                                                                The draft version of FM 3-60 retains
arms reserve, whose potential effect          and Associated Terms, a target is de-                   Decide, Detect, Deliver and Assess
on the battlefield places it squarely on      fined as a geographical area, complex                   (D3A) as the Army’s targeting process.
the brigade combat team (BCT) com-            or installation planned for capture or                  This decision keeps in place a proven
mander’s high-payoff target list? Could       destruction by military forces. Targets                 doctrinal methodology that has been
it be a dug-in infantry strongpoint, posi-    also include the wide array of mobile                   successful for numerous years in exer-
tioned in such a way that it can delay a      and stationary forces, equipment, ca-                   cises and actual combat situations, and
much larger unit’s movement indefinitely      pabilities and functions that an enemy                  continues to be relevant in the current
along an axis of advance? Perhaps it is       commander can use to conduct opera-                     OE. D3A has demonstrated its flexibility
an improvised explosive device produc-        tions. In JP 3-0 Joint Operations, the                  and is recognized in JP 3-60 Joint Target-
tion cell operating among an otherwise        term “targeting” is defined as the process              ing as the land component commander’s
passive local populace with a notable         of selecting and prioritizing targets and               interface with the joint targeting cycle
insurgent leader at its head, coordinating    matching the appropriate response to                    by incorporating the same fundamental
an effective, widespread campaign bent        them, considering operational require-                  functions as that process.
on fostering unrest and instability. Is it    ments and capabilities. While joint                       With that being said, the Fires CoE
a single 60-mm mortar, mounted in the         doctrine is not fundamentally wrong                     doctrine writers, as well as a number of
trunk of a sedan, occasionally firing a       in its approach on defining targeting, it               knowledgeable, experienced targeting
couple of rounds into an adjacent forward     does leave the end user, the Soldier in                 experts from a variety of specialized
operating base and then quickly melting       today’s operational environment (OE),                   fields, recognized the fact that D3A can
back into an indigenous population?           lacking a really descriptive, useful                    and should be improved. Giving the
  If you answer yes to all of the above,      doctrinal solution.                                     D3A process more flexibility and spe-
you almost certainly have an apprecia-          Field Manual (FM) 3-60 The Target-                    cific targeting methodology additions
tion for the diverse set of targets at all    ing Process. The current Army and Fires                 in FM 3-60 ensures targeting doctrine
levels of warfare that have probably pre-     Center of Excellence (CoE), Fort Sill,                  relevancy in any spectrum of conflict
sented themselves to a targeting officer      Oklahoma, effort to clarify this perceived              for the foreseeable future.
during the last few years. It is important    targeting doctrine shortfall is FM 3-60 The               Incorporating Specialized Targeting
to keep in mind that the examples listed      Targeting Process (Initial Draft). FM 3-60              Methodologies. In April 2008, the De-
above, in all likelihood, call for the use    states that “successful targeting enables               partment of the Army tasked Fires CoE to
of lethal targeting to address them, and      the commander to synchronize intel-                     take the lead and examine the Find, Fix,
that there is also an equally diverse array   ligence, maneuver, fire support systems,                Finish, Exploit, Analyze and Dissemi-
of scenarios which lend themselves to         nonlethal systems and special operations                nate (F3EAD) targeting methodology
nonlethal targeting.                          forces by attacking the right target with the           and determine if it was valid, emerging
  In Joint Publication (JP) 1-02 Depart-      best system at the right time. Targeting is             doctrine or simply useful tactics, tech-
ment of Defense Dictionary of Military        a complex and multidiscipline effort that               niques and procedures (TTP)—perhaps

                                                                                  An example of lethal targeting, Precision Attack Missile
                                                                                  (PAM) closes in on its target during a recent test flight at
                                                                                  White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico. (Photo courtesy
                                                                                  of Netfires, LLC)
          target Number                           DP0019                                                         establishing HQ      ————————
                                                                           Tier 1
         target category                       Terrorist AQI             Tier 2                                     effective DtG       10 1500 MAR09
                                                                        Tier 3
             tier I II III                     Tier 1 Target                                                            POc Dat
Description: Is it a motorized rifle company repositioning as part of a combined arms reserve, whose potential effect on the battlefield places it squarely on the brigade combat team (BCT) commander's high-payoff target list? FM 3-60 states that successful targeting enables the commander to synchronize intelligence, maneuver, fire support systems, nonlethal systems and special operations forcesby attacking the righttarget withthe best system at the right time.
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