The UAT system is specifically designed for ADS-B operation. UAT has a lower cost and greater uplink capacity than 1,090ES. Although 978 MHz resides in the assigned portion of the aeronautical spectrum, in the United States 978 is used for transmission of airborne ADS-B reports and for broadcast of ground-based aeronautical information. UAT users have access to ground-based aeronautical data including traffic information services and flight information services including weather and NOTAMS.
Avionics Technology ADS-B The future of air trafﬁc control T he first attempts to provide a sem- The primary method of controlling the blance of ATC were based on sim- immediate airport environment is visual ple “rules of the road” established observation from the control tower. Tower by the European sponsored International controllers are responsible for the separa- Convention for Air Navigation in 1919 tion and efficient movement of aircraft and were implemented at London’s and vehicles operating on the taxiways Croydon Airport in 1921. In the United and runways of the airport itself, and States, Archie League, who controlled air- aircraft in the air near the airport, gener- craft using colored flags at what is today ally 2 to 5 nautical miles, depending on By Jim Sparks Lambert-St. Louis International Airport, the airport procedures. Radar displays is often considered the first air traffic con- are also available to controllers at some troller. Initial air traffic regulations were airports. They may use a radar system established in the United States by the including both primary surveillance and passage of the Air Commerce Act of 1926. secondary surveillance for airborne traf- Around 1930, radio-equipped control fic approaching and departing. These towers were established by some local displays include the position of various authorities, and instrument flying had aircraft and data tags that include aircraft recently begun. Within a few years several identification, speed, heading, altitude, airlines jointly established the first airway and position data. traffic control centers to safeguard their Project Capstone was an FAA undertak- aircraft against midair collisions. In 1936 ing in southeastern Alaska starting in the this preliminary effort was transferred to late 1990s. This initiative equipped general the federal government, and the first-gen- aviation aircraft and commercial carriers eration air traffic control system was born. with equipment capable of sending aircraft Several U.S. airlines using the Chicago, GPS position, speed, and heading along Cleveland, and Newark airports agreed with normal transponder i
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