The election of Barack Obama as president of the US has aroused expectations around the world, but nowhere as much as in Africa. Obama inherits a record of achievement on the continent from George W. Bush that will be hard to match, if not exceed. He will also be far more heavily engaged elsewhere in the world than in Africa, with wars in Iraq and Afghanistan, the nuclear threat from Iran, problems encompassing Russia and the worldwide economic crisis. Obama will face serious crises in Africa that the Bush administration was not able to resolve. Soaring food prices resulted in a global food crisis in 2008. Many countries experienced protests and even rioting. Numerous factors have been identified as having led to the shortage. In an effort to close the gap between rich and poor countries, world leaders convened in September 2000 to adopt the United Nations Millennium Declaration.