Optimization of solid fat content and crystal properties of a trans-free structured lipid by blending with palm midfraction by ProQuest


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									                                                                                              174          inform March 2009, Vol. 20 (3)

             A method for determination of free and    of the blends, SL40/PMF (70:30, w/w), did       23 ± 11 and 22 ± 10 g/d, respectively. After
       glucuronide-conjugated female steroid hor-      not improve crystal polymorphism but had        control for potential confounders, women
       mones in urine at the pg mL−1 level is here     significant effects on crystal morphology.      in the highest quintile of PHVO intake had
       presented. For this purpose, a dual approach    The emulsifiers significantly delayed crystal   higher plasma concentrations of C-reactive
       with or without β-glucuronidase hydrolysis      growth, resulting in smaller crystal sizes      protein (CRP; percentage difference from
       has been developed to succeed in this analy-    as compared with the control. They were         lowest quintile: 45%; P for trend: <0.01),
       sis. The target analytes were two progesto-     unable to inhibit the formation of granular     tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α; 66%; P
       gens—progesterone and pregnenolone—and          crystals (30−140 μm), which are undesir-        for trend: <0.01), interleukin-6 (72%; P
       three endogenous estrogens—estradiol,           able in margarine, after 4 weeks of storage     for trend: <0.05), and soluble intercellular
       estriol, and estrone. Separation and detec-     at 0°C. Blends treated with S-170 and STS       adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1; 22%; P for
       tion were carried out by liquid chromatog-      showed many small evenly distributed crys-      trend: <0.01) than did women in the lowest
       raphy, electrospray ionization, and tandem      tals interspersed with large crystal aggre-     quintile. In contrast, higher consumption of
       mass spectrometry (LC–ESI–MS–MS)                gates (after 4 weeks of storage), whereas       non-HVOs was associated with lower cir-
       with a triple quadrupole (qQq) mass detec-      the blend treated with DMG and the control      culating concentrations of CRP (percentage
       tor. The determination step was optimized       showed irregularly shaped globular crystals,    difference between top and bottom quintiles:
       by multiple reaction monitoring for highly      also interspersed with large crystal aggre-     –23%; P for trend: 0.05), TNF-α (–29%; P
       selective identification and sensitive quan-    gates. However, these crystal aggregates        for trend: <0.01), serum amyloid A (–24%;
       tification of female hormones in a complex      were not observed upon visual and physical      P for trend: <0.01), and sICAM-1 (–19%; P
       sample such as human urine.                     examination and may therefore not affect        for trend: <0.05). Adjustment for body mass
             As these compounds are present in         the sensory properties of the finished prod-    index, fasting plasma glucose, and lipid pro-
       urine at very low concentration (ng mL −1       ucts negatively.                                files slightly attenuated the associations in
       level), a preconcentration and cleanup step                                                     some cases. Higher intakes of PHVOs are
       by solid-phase extraction was automati-         Home use of vegetable oils,                     associated with elevated concentrations of
       cally carried out prior to the chromato-                                                        inflammatory biomarkers, whereas higher
       graphic step to improve the sensitivity of      markers of systemic                             intakes of non-HVOs are associated with
       the method. This sample pretreatment was        inflammation, and endothelial                   lower plasma concentrations of these bio-
       performed using a lab-on-valve (LOV)            dysfunction among women                         markers.
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