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Comparative Performance of Information Hiding in Vector Quantized Codebooks using LBG, KPE, KMCG and KFCG

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Comparative Performance of Information Hiding in Vector Quantized Codebooks using LBG, KPE, KMCG and KFCG Powered By Docstoc
					                                                                (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                                                                                          Vol. 8, No. 2, 2010


                        Comparative Performance of Information
                       Hiding in Vector Quantized Codebooks using
                              LBG, KPE, KMCG and KFCG
                        Dr. H. B. Kekre              Archana Athawale                    Tanuja K. Sarode                Kalpana Sagvekar
                         Senior Professor,        Ph.D. Scholar, MPSTME,             Ph.D. Scholar, MPSTME,                   Lecturer,
                            MPSTME,                  NMIMS University,                  NMIMS University,              Fr. Conceicao Rodrigues
                       NMIMS University,          Vileparle(W), Mumbai-56            Vileparle(W), Mumbai-56               COE, Bandra(W),
                          Vile-parle(W),          Assistant Professor, TSEC,         Assistant Professor, TSEC,            Mumbai-50, India
                        Mumbai-56, India.          Bandra(W), Mumbai-50,              Bandra(W), Mumbai-50,           kalpanasagvekar@gmail.c
                       hbkekre@yahoo.com                     India.                             India.                           om


Abstract - In traditional VQ - data hiding schemes secret data is            appear on the picture to catch malicious attackers‟ attention.
hidden inside index based cover image resulting in limited embedding         Thereupon, the security of the secret information is ensured
capacity. To improve the embedding capacity as well as to have               against detection. As for the payload capacity limit, it
minimum distortion to carrier media, we have proposed one novel              evaluates the power of a data-hiding scheme by checking
method of hiding secret data into the codebook. In this paper we have        how big the maximum amount of the secret information is
used four different algorithms Linde Buzo and Gray (LBG), Kekre’s            that can be hidden in the cover media. Generally speaking,
Proportionate Error (KPE), Kekre’s Median Codebook Generation
                                                                             the larger the payload size is, the worse the stego-image
algorithm (KMCG) and Kekre’s Fast Codebook Generation Algorithm
(KFCG) to prepare codebooks. It is observed that KFCG gives                  visual quality will be. That is to say, in the world of data
minimum distortion.                                                          hiding, how to strike this balance and settle on an ideal
                                                                             robustness-capacity tradeoff is maybe the core problem to
                                                                             solve.
Keywords - Reversible (lossless) data hiding, VQ, LBG, KPE, KMCG,            The existing schemes of data hiding can roughly be classified
KFCG.                                                                        into the following three categories:

                                                                             Spatial domain data hiding [2],[3],[4]: Data hiding of this
                  I.       INTRODUCTION                                      type directly adjust image pixels in the spatial domain for
                                                                             data embedding. This technique is simple to implement,
Due to the digitalization of all kinds of data and the amazing               offering a relatively high hiding capacity. The quality of the
development of network communication, information security                   stego image can be easily controlled. Therefore, data hiding
over the Internet has become more and more important. The                    of this type has become a well known method for image
Internet is basically a giant open channel with security                     steganography.
problems like modifications and interceptions occurring at any
time in any place. Under such circumstances, quite some                      Frequency domain data hiding [5],[6]: In this method images
different approaches have been proposed in an attempt to make                are first transformed into frequency domain, and then data is
private communication secure. Researchers have developed                     embedded by modifying the transformed coefficients.
schemes where the secret message is protected by getting
transformed into the form of a stack of seemingly meaningless                Compressed domain data hiding [7],[8]: Data hiding is
data, which only the authorized user can retransform back to its             obtained by modifying the coefficients of the compressed
original form by way of some secret information. However, the                code of a cover image. Since most images transmitted over
appearance of a stack of seemingly meaningless data could be                 Internet are in compressed format, embedding secret data into
an irresistible attraction to an attacker with a desire to recover           the compressed domain would provoke little suspicion.
the original message. Another approach, called steganography,
hides the secret message in some cover material with a                       Due to the restricted bandwidth of networks, we cannot keep
common appearance to avoid suspicion. The data-hiding                        up with the growing sizes of various multimedia files. Many
efficacy can be judged according to two criteria: (1) visual                 popular image compression algorithms have been proposed
quality (2) payload capacity limit. The term “visual quality”                to respond this problem, such as VQ [15], side match VQ
here refers to the quality of the stego-image. That is to say, only          (SMVQ) [16], JPEG [17], JPEG2000 [18], and so on. One of
a limited number of distortions within limited areas are allowed             the most commonly studied image compression techniques is
in the stego-image so that no obvious traces of modification                 Vector Quantization (VQ) [19], which is an attractive choice



                                                                        89                              http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/
                                                                                                        ISSN 1947-5500
                                                            (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                                                                                      Vol. 8, No. 2, 2010

because of its simplicity and cost-effective implementation.             decides the error ratio. Hereafter the procedure is same as
Indeed, a variety of VQ techniques have been successfully                that of LBG. While adding proportionate error a safe guard is
applied in real applications such as speech and image coding             also introduced so that neither v1 nor v2 go beyond the
[20], [22], VQ has faster encode/decode time along with                  training vector space. This removes the disadvantage of the
simpler framework compared to JPEG/JPEG2000. Vector                      LBG. Both LBG and KPE requires 2M number of Euclidean
Quantization requires limited information during decoding and            distance computations and 2M number of comparisons where
works best in applications in which the decoder has only                 M is the total number of training vectors in every iteration to
limited information [21].                                                generate clusters.

                                                                         c.   Kekre’s Median Codebook Generation Algorithm
There are two approaches for hiding data into VQ compressed              (KMCG) [13]
domain; either hides the covert data into index based cover
image or in codebook. In this paper we have proposed a method            In this algorithm image is divided in to blocks and blocks are
of hiding data into codebook which is not been explored. In              converted to the vectors of size k. The Fig. 2 below
section II we present codebook design algorithms. Section III            represents matrix T of size M x k consisting of M number of
explains proposed search algorithm followed by Section IV in             image training vectors of dimension k. Each row of the
which results and evaluation is given. Section V gives                   matrix is the image training vector of dimension k.
conclusion.
                                                                                              x1,1 x1,2 .... x1,k
          II.    VQ COMPRESSION TECHNIQUE                                                     x2,1 x2,2 .... x2,k
                                                                                        T       .    .   .     .
Vector Quantization (VQ) [9-14] is an efficient technique for                                   .    .   .     .
data compression [31-34] and is very popular in a variety of                                  xM,1 xM,2 .... xM,k
research fields such as data hiding techniques [7,8], image
segmentation [23-26], speech data compression [27], content
based image retrieval CBIR [28, 29] and face recognition [30].                              Fig. 2. Training Vectors

A.   Codebook Generation Algorithms                                      The training vectors are sorted with respect to the first
                                                                         member of all the vectors i.e. with respect to the first column
a.   Linde-Buzo-Gray (LBG) Algorithm [9], [10]                           of the matrix T and the entire matrix is considered as one
                                                                         single cluster. The median of the matrix T is chosen
In this algorithm centroid is calculated as the first codevector         (codevector) and is put into the codebook, and the size of the
for the training set. In Fig. 1 two vectors v1 & v2 are generated        codebook is set to one. The matrix is then divided into two
by using constant error addition to the codevector. Euclidean            equal parts and the each of the part is then again sorted with
distances of all the training vectors are computed with vectors          respect to the second member of all the training vectors i.e.
v1 & v2 and two clusters are formed based on nearest of v1 or            with respect to the second column of the matrix T and we
v2. This procedure is repeated for every cluster. The drawback           obtain two clusters both consisting of equal number of
of this algorithm is that the cluster elongation is       –45o to        training vectors. The median of both the parts is the picked
horizontal axis in two dimensional cases. Resulting in                   up and written to the codebook, now the size of the codebook
inefficient clustering.                                                  is increased to two consisting of two codevectors and again
                                                                         each part is further divided to half. Each of the above four
                                                                         parts obtained are sorted with respect to the third column of
                                                                         the matrix T and four clusters are obtained and accordingly
                                                                         four codevectors are obtained. The above process is repeated
                                                                         till we obtain the codebook of desired size. Here quick sort
                                                                         algorithm is used and from the results it is observed that this
                                                                         algorithm takes least time to generate codebook, since
                                                                         Euclidean distance computation is not required.

                                                                         d.    Kekre’s Fast Codebook Generation (KFCG) Algorithm

                                                                         In [14], KFCG algorithm for image data compression is
                Fig.1 LBG for 2 dimensional case                         proposed. This algorithm reduces the time for codebook
                                                                         generation. It does not use Euclidian distance for codebook
b.     Proportionate Error Algorithm (KPE) [11], [12]                    generation. In this algorithm image is divided in to blocks
                                                                         and blocks are converted to the vectors of size k. Initially we
Here proportionate error is added to the centroid to generate            have one cluster with the entire training vectors and the
two vectors v1 & v2. Magnitude of elements of the centroid               codevector C1 which is centroid.


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                                                                                                     ISSN 1947-5500
                                                               (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                                                                                         Vol. 8, No. 2, 2010

In the first iteration of the algorithm, the clusters are formed by         A. Embedding Procedure
comparing first element of training vector with first element of
code vector C1. The vector Xi is grouped into the cluster 1 if
xi1< c11 otherwise vector Xi is grouped into cluster 2 as shown                   Divide the image into 2×2 block of pixels
in Figure. 3a. where codevector dimension space is 2.                             window

In second iteration, the cluster 1 is split into two by comparing                 Generate initial cluster of training set using the
second element xi2 of vector Xi belonging to cluster 1 with that                  rows of 12 values per pixel window
of the second element of the codevector which is centroid of
cluster 1. Cluster 2 is split into two by comparing the second
element xi2 of vector Xi belonging to cluster 2 with that of the
second element of the codevector which is centroid of cluster                     Apply codebook generation algorithm
2, as shown in Figure. 3b.                                                        LBG/KPE/KFCG/KMCG on initial cluster to
                                                                                  obtain codebook of size 2048 codevectors
This procedure is repeated till the codebook size is reached to
the size specified by user. It is observed that this algorithm
gives less error as compared to LBG and requires least time to
generate codebook as compared to other algorithms, as it does                     Embed every bit of each pixel in the LSB‟s of
not require computation of Euclidian distance.                                    (i.e. 1, 2, 3, 4, variable bit method) each element
                                                                                  of codevector belonging to CB



                                                                                                     Modified CB


                                                                                   Generate Index based cover image



                        3(a). First Iteration                               B. Extraction & Recovery Procedure

                                                                                          Modified CB
                                                                                                               Index based cover image




                                                                                  Extract secret           Reconstruct the original
                                                                                  data from                image by replacing
                                                                                  LSB of every             each index by
                       3(b) Second Iteration                                                               corresponding
                                                                                  element of CB
                                                                                                           codevector
                Fig. 3. KFCG algorithm for 2-D case

         III.       PROPOSED APPROACH                                        C. Variable Bit Hiding Algorithm
In this approach, we are hiding the secret data into codebook
                                                                             For variable bit hiding Kekre‟s algorithm [2] is used.
generated using various codebook generation algorithm such as
LBG[10][11], KPE[12][13], KMCG[14], KFCG[15]. There are                      1.    If the value of codebook vector element is in the range
various ways of hiding: 1bit, 2 bits, 3 bits, 4 bits & variable bits               240≤gi≤255 then we embed 4 bits of secret data into the
hiding.                                                                            4 LSB‟s codebook vector element. This can be done by
                                                                                   observing the 4 most significant bits (MSB‟s). If they are
                                                                                   all 1‟s then the remaining 4 LSB‟s can be used for
                                                                                   embedding data.
                                                                             2.    If the value of codebook vector element is in the range
                                                                                   224≤gi≤239 then we embed 3 bits of secret data. . This

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                                                                                                           ISSN 1947-5500
                                                                                                                                             (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
                                                                                                                                                                                                       Vol. 8, No. 2, 2010

      can be done by observing the 3 most significant bits
      (MSB‟s). If they are all 1‟s then the remaining 3 LSB‟s can
      be used for embedding data.
3.    If the value of codebook vector element is in the range
      192≤gi≤223 then we embed 2 bits of secret data. . This can
      be done by observing the 2 most significant bits (MSB‟s).
      If they are all 1‟s then the remaining 2 LSB‟s can be used                                                                                                 5 (a)                                     5 (b)                              5 (c)
      for embedding data.                                                                                                                                       Original                                  Secret                    Reconstructed image using
4.    If the value of codebook vector element is in the range                                                                                                 Cover image                                Message                     KFCG for Variable bits
                                                                                                                                                               Fern.bmp                                                                      Method
      0≤gi≤191 we embed 1 bit of secret data.
                                                                                                                                                              60
                                                                                                                                                              50
                                                                                                                                                              40
                        IV.                RESULTS & EVALUATIONS




                                                                                                                                                        MSE
                                                                                                                                                              30
                                                                                                                                                              20
In our proposed approach, we have generated codebook using                                                                                                    10
                                                                                                                                                               0
LBG, KPE, KMCG and KFCG for 24 bit color image of size




                                                                                                                                                                         KPE




                                                                                                                                                                                                   KPE




                                                                                                                                                                                                                             KPE




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       KPE




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 KPE
                                                                                                                                                                   LBG


                                                                                                                                                                               KMCG


                                                                                                                                                                                             LBG


                                                                                                                                                                                                         KMCG


                                                                                                                                                                                                                       LBG


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   KMCG


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 LBG


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             KMCG


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           LBG


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       KMCG
                                                                                                                                                                                      KFCG




                                                                                                                                                                                                                KFCG




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          KFCG




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    KFCG




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              KFCG
256×256 shown in Fig. 4 & 5. Codebook is of size 2048×12
(i.e. 2048 code vectors each contains 12 bytes - 4 pairs of                                                                                                              1 bit                     2 bits                    3 bits                    4 bits                variable
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               bits
RGB). We have hidden 32×32 gray image.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hiding Capacity


Fig. 4. to Fig. 8. Shows the results of 1bit, 2bits 3bits 4bits and                                                                                                       5 (d) plot of Hiding Capacity versus MSE
Variable bits using codebook obtained from LBG, KPE,                                                                                                   Fig. 5. Results of 1bit, 2bits 3bits 4bits and Variable bits on the cover image
KMCG and KFCG on the various cover images Bird, Fern,                                                                                                  Fern shown in Fig.5(a) and secrete image shown in Fig. 5(b).
Puppy, Cat and Temple hiding same secrete image for fair
comparison respectively.

Fig. 9. Shows the plot of Hiding Capacity versus average MSE
for various hiding methods 1bit, 2bits 3bits 4bits and Variable
bits on LBG, KPE, KMCG and KFCG VQ Codebooks
respectively.
                                                                                                                                                                 6 (a)                                     6 (b)                              6 (c)
                                                                                                                                                               Original                                   Secret                    Reconstructed image using
                                                                                                                                                              Cover image                                Message                     KFCG for Variable bits
                                                                                                                                                              Puppy.bmp                                                                      Method

                                                                                                                                                              30
                                                                                                                                                              25
                                                                                                                                                              20
                                                                                                                                                        MSE




                                                                                                                                                              15

          4 (a)                                    4 (b)                              4 (c)                                                                   10
                                                                                                                                                              5
        Original                                  Secret                    Reconstructed image using
                                                                                                                                                              0
      Cover image                                Message                     KFCG for Variable bits
                                                                                                                                                                         KPE




                                                                                                                                                                                                   KPE




                                                                                                                                                                                                                             KPE




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       KPE




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 KPE
                                                                                                                                                                   LBG


                                                                                                                                                                               KMCG


                                                                                                                                                                                             LBG


                                                                                                                                                                                                         KMCG


                                                                                                                                                                                                                       LBG


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   KMCG


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 LBG


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             KMCG


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           LBG


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       KMCG
                                                                                                                                                                                      KFCG




                                                                                                                                                                                                                KFCG




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          KFCG




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    KFCG




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              KFCG
       Birds.bmp                                                                     Method
                                                                                                                                                                         1 bit                     2 bits                    3 bits                    4 bits                variable
      80                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       bits
      70
      60                                                                                                                                                                                                          Hiding Capacity
      50
MSE




      40                                                                                                                                                                  6 (d) plot of Hiding Capacity versus MSE
      30                                                                                                                                               Fig. 6. Results of 1bit, 2bits 3bits 4bits and Variable bits on the cover image
      20
      10                                                                                                                                               Puppy shown in Fig.6(a) and secrete image shown in Fig. 6(b).
       0
                 KPE




                                           KPE




                                                                     KPE




                                                                                               KPE




                                                                                                                         KPE
           LBG


                       KMCG


                                     LBG


                                                 KMCG


                                                               LBG


                                                                           KMCG


                                                                                         LBG


                                                                                                     KMCG


                                                                                                                   LBG


                                                                                                                               KMCG
                              KFCG




                                                        KFCG




                                                                                  KFCG




                                                                                                            KFCG




                                                                                                                                      KFCG




                 1 bit                     2 bits                    3 bits                    4 bits                variable
                                                                                                                       bits

                                                          Hiding Capacity

                   4 (d) plot of Hiding Capacity versus MSE
Fig. 4. Results of 1bit, 2bits 3bits 4bits and Variable bits on the cover image
bird and secrete image shown in Fig. 4(b).
                                                                                                                                                                 7 (a)                                     7 (b)                              7 (c)
                                                                                                                                                               Original                                   Secret                    Reconstructed image using
                                                                                                                                                              Cover image                                Message                     KFCG for Variable bits
                                                                                                                                                               Cat.bmp                                                                       Method




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                                                                                                                                                                                                                             ISSN 1947-5500
                                                                                                                                              (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security,
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       60                                                                                                                                                          60
       50                                                                                                                                                          50




                                                                                                                                                        Avg. MSE
       40                                                                                                                                                          40
MSE




       30                                                                                                                                                          30
       20                                                                                                                                                          20
       10                                                                                                                                                          10
       0                                                                                                                                                           0
                  KPE




                                            KPE




                                                                      KPE




                                                                                                KPE




                                                                                                                          KPE




                                                                                                                                                                              KPE




                                                                                                                                                                                                        KPE




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  KPE




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            KPE




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      KPE
            LBG


                        KMCG


                                      LBG


                                                  KMCG


                                                                LBG


                                                                            KMCG


                                                                                          LBG


                                                                                                      KMCG


                                                                                                                    LBG


                                                                                                                                KMCG




                                                                                                                                                                        LBG


                                                                                                                                                                                    KMCG


                                                                                                                                                                                                  LBG


                                                                                                                                                                                                              KMCG


                                                                                                                                                                                                                            LBG


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        KMCG


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      LBG


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  KMCG


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                LBG


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            KMCG
                               KFCG




                                                         KFCG




                                                                                   KFCG




                                                                                                             KFCG




                                                                                                                                       KFCG




                                                                                                                                                                                           KFCG




                                                                                                                                                                                                                     KFCG




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               KFCG




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         KFCG




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   KFCG
                  1 bit                     2 bits                    3 bits                    4 bits                variable                                                1 bit                     2 bits                    3 bits                    4 bits                variable
                                                                                                                        bits                                                                                                                                                        bits

                                                           Hiding Capacity                                                                                                                                             Hiding Capacity

                   7 (d) plot of Hiding Capacity versus MSE                                                                                                                                Plot of Hiding Capacity versus Avg. MSE
Fig. 7. Results of 1bit, 2bits 3bits 4bits and Variable bits on the cover image
Cat shown in Fig.7(a) and secrete image shown in Fig. 7(b).                                                                                             Fig. 9. Plot of Hiding Capacity versus average MSE for various hiding
                                                                                                                                                        methods 1bit, 2bits 3bits 4bits and Variable bits on LBG, KPE, KMCG and
                                                                                                                                                        KFCG VQ Codebooks respectively.


                                                                                                                                                        It is observed from Fig. 4 to Fig. 9. that KFCG codebook
                                                                                                                                                        gives less MSE in all the data hiding methods 1bit, 2bits,
                                                                                                                                                        3bits, 4bits and varible bits as compared to LBG, KPE, and
                                                                                                                                                        KMCG codebook. Further it is observed that varible bit
          8 (a)                                     8 (b)                              8 (c)                                                            method using KFCG gives the best performance.
         Original                                  Secret                    Reconstructed image using
       Cover image                                Message                     KFCG for Variable bits
       Temple.bmp                                                                     Method
                                                                                                                                                        Table 1. Shows the hiding Capacity in bits using 1 bit, 2 bits,
       60                                                                                                                                               3 bits 4 bits, and variable bits method on LBG, KPE, KMCG
       50
       40
                                                                                                                                                        and KFCG codebook of size 2048.
 MSE




       30
       20
       10
       0
                  KPE




                                            KPE




                                                                      KPE




                                                                                                KPE




                                                                                                                          KPE
            LBG


                        KMCG


                                      LBG


                                                  KMCG


                                                                LBG


                                                                            KMCG


                                                                                          LBG


                                                                                                      KMCG


                                                                                                                    LBG


                                                                                                                                KMCG
                               KFCG




                                                         KFCG




                                                                                   KFCG




                                                                                                             KFCG




                                                                                                                                       KFCG




                  1 bit                     2 bits                    3 bits                    4 bits                variable
                                                                                                                        bits

                                                          Hiding Capacity

                   8 (d) plot of Hiding Capacity versus MSE
Fig. 8. Results of 1bit, 2bits 3bits 4bits and Variable bits on the cover image
Temple shown in Fig.8(a) and secrete image shown in Fig. 8(b).

                   TABLE I. HIDING CAPACITY IN BITS USING 1 BIT, 2 BITS, 3 BITS, 4 BITS, AND VARIABLE BITS METHOD ON LBG, KPE,
                                                   KMCG AND KFCG CODEBOOK OF SIZE 2048
                                                                  Hiding Capacity in bits
                   Cover
                                                                                                Variable bits
                  Images     1 bit    2 bits      3 bits        4 bits
                                                                                LBG           KPE         KMCG      KFCG
                   Birds                                                       28488         27202          26881   27751
                   Fern                                                        27561         23891          27646   27965
                  Puppy     24576    49152        73728        98304           39181         38899          39962   38362
                    Cat                                                        38076         37891          36364   33940
                  Temple                                                       26595         26207          25545   26034

             From table I it is observed that variable bits give high hiding capacity as compared to 1 bit, 2 bits, 3 bits and 4 bits
             embedding methods.

                                            V.            CONCLUSION                                                                                 using MSE as a parameter. It has been observed that
                                                                                                                                                     KFCG with variable bits for hiding information gives the
In this proposed approach the information is hidden in a                                                                                             best performance giving mse equivalent to 2.2 bits per
vector quantized codebook by using 1,2,3,4 LSBs of the                                                                                               byte of codevectors. In addition KMCG has very low
codevectors. Further a variable bit embedding is also                                                                                                computational complexity.
considered which gives better embedding capacity
coupled with low distortion. For preparing codebooks
four different algorithms namely LBG, KPE, KMCG,
KFCG are considered & their performance is considered


                                                                                                                                                   93                                                                             http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  ISSN 1947-5500
                                                                          (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information
                                                                                                                 Security, Vol. 8, No. 2, 2010

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                                                                            94                                    http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/
                                                                                                                  ISSN 1947-5500
                                                                             (IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information
                                                                                                                    Security, Vol. 8, No. 2, 2010

     G. H. Raisoni College of Engineering, Nagpur on 16-18 December              of ISTE and also a member of International Association of Engineers
     2009, this paper will be uploaded online at IEEE Xplore.                    (IAENG). Her area of interest is Image Processing, Signal Processing
                                                                                 and Computer Graphics. She has about 30 papers in National
                                                                                 /International Conferences/Journals to her credit.
                      AUTHORS PROFILE
                                                                                 Tanuja K. Sarode has Received Bsc.(Mathematics) from Mumbai
Dr. H. B. Kekre has received B.E. (Hons.) in Telecomm. Engineering.                                     University     in   1996,     Bsc.Tech.(Computer
                       from Jabalpur University in 1958, M.Tech                                         Technology) from Mumbai University in 1999,
                       (Industrial Electronics) from IIT Bombay in 1960,                                M.E. (Computer Engineering) from Mumbai
                       M.S.Engg. (Electrical Engg.) from University of                                  University in 2004, currently Pursuing Ph.D. from
                       Ottawa in 1965 and Ph.D. (System Identification)                                 Mukesh      Patel    School     of    Technology,
                       from IIT Bombay in 1970 He has worked as                                         Management and Engineering, SVKM‟s NMIMS
                       Faculty of Electrical Engg. and then HOD                                         University, Vile-Parle (W), Mumbai, INDIA. She
                       Computer Science and Engg. at IIT Bombay. For             has more than 10 years of experience in teaching. Currently working as
13 years he was working as a professor and head in the Department of             Assistant Professor in Dept. of Computer Engineering at Thadomal
Computer Engg. at Thadomal Shahani Engineering. College, Mumbai.                 Shahani Engineering College, Mumbai. She is life member of IETE,
Now he is Senior Professor at MPSTME, SVKM‟s NMIMS University.                   member International Association of Engineers (IAENG) and
He has guided 17 Ph.Ds, more than 100 M.E./M.Tech and several B.E./              International Association of Computer Science and Information
B.Tech projects. His areas of interest are Digital Signal processing,            Technology (IACSIT), Singapore. Her areas of interest are Image
Image Processing and Computer Networking. He has more than 250                   Processing, Signal Processing and Computer Graphics. She has 60
papers in National / International Conferences and Journals to his credit.       papers in National /International Conferences/journal to her credit.
He was Senior Member of IEEE. Presently He is Fellow of IETE and
Life Member of ISTE Recently six students working under his guidance             Kalpana R. Sagvekar has received B.E.(Computer) degree from
have received best paper awards. Currently 10 research scholars are                                     Mumbai University with first class in 2001.
pursuing Ph.D. program under his guidance.                                                              Currently Perusing M.E. in Computer Engineering
                                                                                                        from University of Mumbai. She has more than 08
Ms. Archana A. Athawale has Received B.E.(Computer Engineering)                                         years of experience in teaching. Currently
                    degree from Walchand College of Engineering,                                        working as Lecturer in Computer Engineering at
                    Sangli,    Shivaji     University    in    1996,                                    Fr. Conceicao Rodrigues College of Engineering,
                    M.E.(Computer       Engineering) degree from                                        Bandra(w), Mumbai. Her areas of interest are
                    V.J.T.I., Mumbai University in 1999, currently                                      Image Processing, Data Structure, Analysis of
                    pursuing Ph.D. from NMIMS University,                        Algorithms, and Theoretical Computer Science. She has about 2 papers
                    Mumbai. She has more than 10 years of                        in National /International Conferences/Journals to her credit.
                    experience in teaching. Presently working as - an
Assistant Professor in Department of Computer Engineering at
Thadomal Shahani Engineering College, Mumbai. She is a Life member




                                                                               95                                    http://sites.google.com/site/ijcsis/
                                                                                                                     ISSN 1947-5500

				
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