History and Future of CSUF

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					                                     THE SENATE



Volume XIV, Number 1, Fall 1999
                                     forum  A publication of the Academic Senate, California State University, Fullerton


                                                                                       What Should the
Fullerton @ 40                                                                         Role of Faculty
                                                                                       Members be at the
                                                                                       End of the 20th
                                                                                       Century?
                                                                                       “In your work is your ulti-
                                                                                       mate seduction.” Pablo Picasso

                                                                                       Jane Hall
                                                                                                       hat the role of faculty

History and
Future of
                                                                                       W               should be at the end of
                                                                                                       the 20th Century
                                                                                                       might seem an odd
                                                                                       question. We do, after all, know what
                                                                                       we do, and we know how to do it. The
CSUF                                                                                   basic process has worked well since
                                                                                       Plato formally organized his Academy
                                                                                       in a suburban Athens garden nearly
                                                                                       2,500 years ago.
President Milton A. Gordon
                                                                                                     (Continued on page 26)
             s we celebrate 40 years of excellence at California State University,


A           Fullerton, and anticipate the next 40 years, our future will be built on
            the sound foundation created by the faculty, staff, administrators, and
            the thousands of students who have given this institution form and
substance over the past four decades, as well as by the commitment shown to this
institution by its alumni, support group members, corporate and business leaders,
                                                                                       Inside
                                                                                        Editorial Page ................................ 2
                                                                                        A Report Card for CSUF ................ 4
                                                                                        The Fullerton Way .......................... 5
and the townspeople of the communities we serve.                                        Society’sChanging Needs ............... 6
                                                                                        The Library of the Future ............. 7
We have a proud history of individuals who have stressed excellence in student          Merit Pay-Pro and Con .................. 9
                                                                                        SB645-Paycheck Theft? ............... 12
learning, in scholarship and in service to the community. Our high-quality
                                                                                        CMS-Benefit or Waste? ............. 15
undergraduate and graduate learning experiences have been provided in the               Classroom Behavior ..................... 15
context of the State of California and in a California State University System that     CSU and Doctoral Degrees? ........ 17
has emphasized access and affordability. This has created the environment for           Student Evaluations & Faculty
turning dreams into reality for generations of students.                                Opinions ....................................... 19
                                                                                        The Back Page ............................. 32
California State University, Fullerton, began in 1959 with 452 students in
facilities leased from the Fullerton High School District, with an initial offering
of 41 classes and with five full-time faculty members. This fall, we have over
27,000 students enrolled in more than 6,000 classes, 700 full-time faculty, and 800                                                       More
                                                                                                                                          Inside
                                                         (Continued on page 3)
Editorial
                                                                                        subject matter of the Forum beyond
              FromtheEditor                                                             our own incestuous campus committee
                                                                                        structures, I have included in this issue,
                                                                                        Yate’s paper, “Fredrick Taylor Comes
                                                                                        to College,” a treatise on faculty/
                                                                                        administration relations that I hope
                                                                                        will generate some interesting re-
                                                                                        sponses. As a side note, if you are
                                                                                        interested in subscribing to the source
                                                                                        of this paper, Z Magazine Network
                                                                                        (Znet for short), check out the Website
                                                                                        at www.zmag.org.

A Funny Thing Happened                                                                  ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○




on the Way to                                                                           This being the first Forum published in
                                                                                        our 40th Anniversary Year, I have
                                                                                        solicited submissions from many

the Forum.                                  The online Forum (see Page 31) will,
                                            in part, be a tool that can be used to
                                                                                        venues on campus, asking people to
                                                                                        briefly chronicle the history of their
                                                                                        school or department and to share with
                                            solicit in a more contemporary              us their visions of the future. I am
                                            fashion, your thoughts about “hot”          pleased to be able to include some of
Sorel Reisman
                                            campus matters. Also, the electronic        those visions in this issue, and con-
                                            version of the Forum will be linked to      gratulate the authors who have given
                                            a new Forum Website (http://                thought to our future. I am disap-
                                            faculty.fullerton.edu/senatenews) that      pointed that others who were invited
                 hen I became editor of     will contain more detailed information


W
                                                                                        did not. Does this reflect an absence
                 this publication earlier   of matters of concern to you. It will       of vision? Perhaps next time.
                 in the semester, my        have threaded discussion groups
                 intention was to make      related to those issues; it will contain    ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○ ○

it more aesthetically pleasing, more        instant reader survey tools to let you
readable, and to turn it into a positive    ‘vote’ on important matters in a very       A number of people have asked me,
vehicle for the CSUF community in           timely fashion; it will provide extended    now that I am editor of the Forum,
general and for faculty in particular to    links to related references on the Web;     whether or not Harriet Brown will be
express their views. To these ends, and     and it will contain full text of archived   writing articles for the Forum. Of
with the assistance of John Nworie of       issues of the Forum.                        course Harriet is no different than any
the Faculty Development Center, I                                                       other CSUF faculty member. She, like
have ‘reconfigured’ the print version of    As you can see from some of the             many of you (and you know who you
the Forum, and have also created an         articles in this issue, I have already      are), has promised me that she will be
electronic version that will be emailed     started the process that will accomplish    submitting material regarding her
to faculty and staff on a regularly         these goals. One of the articles            latest adventures. I think her commit-
erratic schedule.                           (Birnbaum’s) has been published in an       ment may be greater than others
                                            abbreviated form. The original and          because she has agreed to serve on the
It takes a long time to produce a           more thorough version is available at       Editorial Board as Editor at Large.
hardcopy version of the Forum. Much         the Forum Website. That article, as
of this results from needing a critical     well as some of the others really do beg
mass of submissions before it is cost       for additional commentary and reader
effective to begin the production           input (e.g., Mayes’ and Tigart’s). You
process. By the time that mass is           can go to the Website and indicate your     Sorel Reisman is Professor of
accumulated, many important campus          agreement or disagreement with these        Management Science and Informa-
issues have come and gone with              authors via the instant voting tool, via    tion Systems. He is a member of the
decisions having been made, all             the discussion group, or by emailing        Academic Senate and is editor of the
without our having a means to deter-        me or the author directly.                  Senate Forum
mine how the campus community
really feels about the issues.              Finally, in an attempt to extend the


                                                                                                                                2
(Continued from page 1)                      as we face increased retirements.              As we look to our second 40 years,
                                             Solving the growing problem of the lack        technology will play a major role in the
History and Future of                        of affordable housing is a challenge           teaching/learning process and in the
CSUF                                         that must be met. I am optimistic about        way we work. Computer-assisted
                                             the internal environment here at Cal           learning, multi-media, distance
full-time staff. Our academic programs       State Fullerton—our recently revised           learning, and the resources of the
include 100 undergraduate and gradu-         personnel policies, I believe, will help       Internet, are all transforming the way
ate degrees, credential and certificate      create an environment for nourishing           in which knowledge is generated,
programs offered in 19 permanent             professional development of new                distributed, manipulated, and commu-
buildings and four satellite centers.        faculty. Our training and development          nicated. The technology infrastructure
                                             programs contribute to an environment          we have estabilshed over the past few
During our short history, Cal State          where learning is preeminent for all           years has enabled us to be in the
Fullerton has developed a reputation         members in our community. I believe            forefront of applying technology to
for quality academic programs that           our history of collegiality and success-       create better learning environments for
combine the very best of teaching and        ful problem-solving also helps create an       our students and better working
research; these programs have joined         environment that is welcoming for the          environments for our faculty and staff.
with academic and student support            newcomers we must recruit to our
programs that integrate knowledge            workforce in the coming years.                 Cal State Fullerton has a proud history
with the development of values,                                                             of partnerships that have strengthened
professional ethics and the teamwork,                                                       the university and the communities of
leadership, and citizenship skills                                                          which we are a part. Similarly, we have
necessary for our graduates to make            Our success in the                           contributed our intellectual expertise
meaningful contributions to society.                                                        into helping address challenges facing
From this solid educational foundation,
                                               next 40 years also                           our community, often providing
                                                                                            learning and applied research opportu-
it is not surprising that we count
among our alumni those who are
                                              depends on our con-                           nities for our students and faculty at
serving in the U.S. Congress, the             tinued ability to re-                         the same time. Maintaining the extent
                                                                                            to which we are engaged in our
California legislature, an astronaut,
Broadway actors and musicians, noted           cruit and retain a                           communities will be of vital importance
authors, scientists, physicians, teach-                                                     to the university’s next 40 years.
ers, business and civic leaders, to name      high-quality faculty
                                                                                            California State University, Fullerton
but a few of our graduates’ profes-
sions. Maintaining our relationship
                                               and support staff.                           has evolved in ways that were probably
with our graduates and fostering their                                                      unimaginable to the small group of
success and involvement in university                                                       founding faculty who came together in
life will continue to be one of our                                                         the late 1950’s to begin what has
                                             From our inception, we have empha-             become a major public university. The
goals in the coming years.
                                             sized access, educational equity and           next 40 years holds much promise as we
                                             diversity. Cal State Fullerton’s success       continue our evolution.
As we look forward to our next 40
                                             at educating a richly diverse student
years, I believe our success will be built
                                             body has positioned us well as we
on maintaining a student-focused
                                             stand at the threshold of the 21st             Milton A.Gordon is the President of
learning environment, continuing, for
                                             Century. Sustaining the county’s,              CSUF
example, the close interactions among
                                             state’s, and nation’s prosperity will
students and faculty and staff, in the
                                             require making effective use of the
classrooms, laboratories, student work
                                             talents and abilities of all our citizens in
environments, and service-learning
                                             work settings that bring together
settings.
                                             individuals from diverse backgrounds
                                             and cultures. In addition to mirroring
Our success in the next 40 years also
                                             Orange County’s and the State of
depends on our continued ability to
                                             California’s changing communities, Cal
recruit and retain a high-quality faculty
                                             State Fullerton has been assuming an
and support staff. We need to continue
                                             increasingly important leadership role in
efforts in the CSU System to provide
                                             the international area with the prepara-
compensation packages that will allow
                                             tion of our students for leadership in a
us to hold on to intellectual talent we
                                             global society.
currently have, and to add new talent

                                                                                                                                  3
A Report Card                                                                             I propose that the Academic Senate is
                                                                                          the ideal group to take the lead in
                                                                                          developing an ongoing system to
for CSUF                                                                                  monitor the condition of our academic
                                                                                          environment. First, the Academic
– A Challenge to the Academic                                                             Senate is comprised of representatives
                                                                                          from multiple constituencies: faculty,
Senate
                                                                                          student, and administration. Its charge
Diana Wright Guerin                                                                       is to provide advice and consultation
                                                                                          on policies relating to student and
                                              carefully selected indicators. The          faculty life on campus. Furthermore,
            his is my tenth year as a full-


T           time faculty member at
            CSUF. Perhaps because I’ve
            been here a decade—or
perhaps in response to CSUF’s 40 th
Anniversary events—I have recently
                                              State’s status was updated in an annual
                                              report called “California: The State of
                                              Our Children Report Card.” Using the
                                              identified benchmarks, strengths could
                                              be recognized. When weaknesses
                                              were noted, it was also possible to
                                                                                          the Academic Senate has a wealth of
                                                                                          expertise and resources to draw upon
                                                                                          through its members and committee
                                                                                          structure. Finally, in my opinion, the
                                                                                          Academic Senate also has the respect
found myself pondering if the quality                                                     and trust of the campus community to
                                              determine whether or not progress was       lead such an effort.
of academic life for faculty and              being made in their amelioration.
students is improving, staying the            Some groups actually assign letter
same, or declining at CSUF. Given the                                                     By developing an annual report card,
                                              grades to the different categories          we can identify the multiple factors that
myriad changes that have occurred             assessed. For example, the nonprofit
during my short tenure, and the                                                           influence academic life at CSUF, and
                                              organization Zero Population Growth         chart our status on each. The report
multiple factors that impact our              (ZPG) gives the city of Fullerton an
academic environment, I find it                                                           card could be used to raise awareness
                                              overall “C+” on its “Kid Friendly           of changing conditions in our academy,
difficult to decide if CSUF’s trajectory      Cities” report card (www.zpg.org). The
is in the direction of a zenith or nadir. I                                               as a measure of accountability, to
                                              ZPG report card is based on the             identify specific areas of need, to
know I’m not alone in my reflections          following categories: population,
on “The State of CSUF,” as many                                                           develop an agenda of change, to
                                              health, education, public safety,           improve how we do what we do, and to
colleagues often comment with                 economics, environment, and transpor-
optimism or pessimism about their                                                         build consensus about and commitment
                                              tation. Fullerton’s highest grade (B+)      to change. A report card could also
perceptions of various trends on              was for health (using the indicators of
campus.                                                                                   help communicate to our various
                                              percent teen births, infant mortality       external constituencies, CSUF’s
                                              rate, percent low birth rate). Its lowest   accomplishments and concerns.
As we move into the new millennium,           grade (“D”) was for environment
I’d like to suggest that a concerted          (based on the number of bad air days).
effort be undertaken to develop a                                                         The aim of The Forum is to generate
systematic and comprehensive method                                                       discussion and debate about issues
                                              What categories and indicators would        addressed by the Academic Senate.
to monitor, on an annual basis, the           we use to characterize the quality of
condition of academic life at CSUF. I                                                     What are your thoughts on developing
                                              our academic life at CSUF? I’ve been        an annual report card to monitor the
suggest that the Academic Senate is           asking my faculty colleagues here and
the ideal group to take on this responsi-                                                 status of our academic environment?
                                              at other campuses what they consider        What are the important categories and
bility and that a “Report Card on             important reflections of the quality of
Academic Life at CSUF” would be a                                                         indicators that should be included?
                                              life in the academy. Suggestions given      Who should take the lead in authoring
significant contribution to assessing         to me included student characteristics
the overall direction of CSUF’s course.                                                   such a report? When should such a
                                              (average SAT of entering first-year         report be released to be most effective?
The “Report Card” is a tool used by           students, percent passing the EPT/
various advocacy groups to gauge and                                                      Please send your comments to me, to
                                              ELM), faculty characteristics (percent      the Executive Committee of the
encourage progress. An example from           full-time, percent part-time, percent
my field (Child and Adolescent                                                            Academic Senate, or visit this topic at
                                              with Ph.D., grants/research productiv-      the Senate Forum Website-http://
Development) is published by a non-           ity), student/faculty ratio, faculty
profit organization called Children Now.                                                  faculty.fullerton.edu/senatenews.
                                              salaries (CPEC data), availability of
For many years, Children Now graded           technology, quality of instructional
our state on several categories with                                                      Diana Wright Guerin is Professor
                                              space, quality of library resources,        and Head of the Department of Child
respect to meeting the needs of               retention/persistence of students…
children (education, health, safety, teen                                                 and Adolescent Studies. She served
                                              The list has been extensive, including      on the Academic Senate from 1993-
years, and family life) based on              even the availability of parking spaces!    1998.
                                                                                                                               4
                                                                                      the Senate, which carefully considered
                                                                                      them and then made its own recom-
                                                                                      mendation to the President. Interest-
                                                                                      ingly, the private consulting firm that
                                                                                      President Gordon then hired to provide
                                                                                      an outside-the-process evaluation of
                                                                                      the nursing program strongly validated
                                                                                      the campus’ collegial review, for the
                                                                                      consultants arrived at findings and
                                                                                      recommendations that were virtually
                                                                                      identical with those made by the
                                                                                      Senate and its committees.
                                          structure is now codified in a compre-
TheFullerton                              hensive series of detailed policy           However, just as our Nursing program
                                                                                      endured long term ordeals that called
Way                                       documents painstakingly created (and
                                          frequently revised) by the Academic         its viability into question, so the
– A Model of Shared                       Senate through its committees, in           Fullerton Way itself has faced constant
                                                                                      threats in recent years. Shared gover-
Governance                                dialogue with the President and also
                                                                                      nance is fragile and its health depends
                                          with the Vice President for Academic
                                          Affairs, both of whom participate in        on good faith and mutual respect
Vince Buck & Jane Hipolito                                                            among those sharing these functions.
                                          the Senate as ex officio members.
                                          Once signed by the President, and           Not all of those aspects are always
            he September 13 issue of                                                  present, and the price of maintaining


T           Compendium announced
            that, “After an in-depth
            evaluation, Cal State
Fullerton’s nursing program has earned
a maximum eight-year reaccredidation
                                          according to Board of Trustees policy,
                                          “Faculty recommendations are
                                          normally accepted, except in rare
                                          instances and for compelling reasons,”
                                          a policy document becomes a “Univer-
                                          sity Policy Statement” (UPS) and has
                                                                                      shared governance is eternal vigilance.
                                                                                      Key administrators do not always
                                                                                      understand its value. Indeed the term
                                                                                      “ The Fullerton Way” was coined by an
                                                                                      administrator who was frustrated by
from the National League for Nursing      the force of a contract between the         the degree of faculty influence in
Accrediting Committee.” What the          faculty and administration. It is by this   university decisions.
Compendium article did not say is that    process that the faculty determine
just three years ago, in 1996, our        what academic goals and values direct
nursing program which has just earned     our university. Without this process
this significant national accolade was    we do not have a university in any
in serious danger of being shut down      meaningful sense of the word
by our campus administration. It was      (except as in the phrase “University
saved by “The Fullerton Way.”             of Phoenix”).
Although the phrase “The Fullerton        The value of Fullerton’s traditional
Way” was apparently not coined until      commitment to shared governance
sometime in the 1980’s, the reality it    was strikingly demonstrated in the
describes, an active shared governance    case of the Nursing program. As
built on mutual respect, did indeed       soon as the program’s proposed
flourish on our campus from its           termination was announced, two
beginnings 40 years ago. From the         committees of the Academic Senate           Too often key administrators wish to
first, genuine shared governance was      engaged in a several months long, in-       make policy unrestrained by faculty
integral to CSUF’s character. Even        depth review of the nursing program,        views, and then attribute their inability
before the campus’ first buildings were   following the procedures specified in       to effectively implement these
ready for occupancy, a remarkable         the relevant UPS. This review turned        individual goals to faculty intransi-
governance structure, carefully           up compelling evidence that despite         gence. When this happens, contention
designed to foster and protect the        years of budgetary malnutrition and         and conflict are inevitable. Exclusive
spirit of learning, was systematically    administrative neglect, the Nursing         non-consultative governance is a bad
nurtured by CSUF’s founding Presi-        program retained astonishing quality,       management style in any organization.
dent, William B. Langsdorf, and by the    vitality, and importance to the entire      In an organization largely populated by
faculty, staff and administrators whom    region. The committees’ findings and        professionals it is foolhardy. In a
he recruited here. This governance        recommendations were forwarded to                        (Continued on page 6)
                                                                                                                     5
(Continued from page 5)
The Fullerton Way                           Meeting Society’s Changing Needs
higher education institution it can be
disastrous. And yet it is not uncommon      Diane Ross
for administrators to feel that their
individual judgment is more likely to
                                                       efore there was a student, a


                                            B
be correct than the collective wisdom
of the faculty.                                        curriculum, or a gym, there
                                                       was a faculty member. Dr.
The “Fullerton Way” is not unique. The                 Paul Pastor was hired in the
CSU has long recognized the value of        Spring of 1960 to be the acting chair
shared governance in university             of physical education which soon
decision making. Indeed, it is explic-      became the Department of Health
itly recognized in the Higher Educa-        Education, Physical Education,
                                            Recreation and Athletics. Next came         CSU to remain on a non-tenure track
tion Employer-Employee Relations
                                            Alex Omalev, who was hired as the           status or to meet the requirements for
Act (HEERA) passed in 1978 which
                                            men’s basketball coach, and in Fall,        a faculty tenure appointment in the
states, “The legislature recognizes that
                                            1963, Jean Barrett joined them as a         department. Coaches would no longer
joint decision-making and consultation
                                            full-time faculty member. The depart-       automatically teach in the academic
between administration and faculty or
                                            ment was off to an auspicious start.        program; they had to be invited. The
academic employees is the long-
                                            These three developed curriculum,           structure was a Division of Health
accepted manner of governing institu-
                                            taught classes and worked on plans for      Education, Physical Education,
tions of higher learning and is essential
                                            the physical education building,            Recreation and Athletics with Paul
to the performance of the educational
                                            swimming pools, and outdoor activity        Pastor as the Division Chair, Eula
missions of such institutions, and
                                            areas. These were exciting days. Events     Stovall as the Chair of the Department
declares that it is the purpose of this
                                            moved quickly. It is much to the credit     of Health Education, Physical Educa-
act to both preserve and encourage that
                                            of these folks who, with those who          tion & Recreation, and Neal Stoner as
process.”
                                            came in the next few years, identified      the Athletic Director. The decision to
                                            the philosophy, directions, goals, and      separate, established the independence
Historically and legally then, universi-
                                            standards that moved the department         of programs, budgets, faculty and staff.
ties in the CSU are run by shared
                                            forward. The core values established at     This independent structure still exists
governance. On most campuses this
                                            the beginning exist today and the           today. However, the academic pro-
works very well indeed. On a few,
                                            department continues to be student-         grams now report to the Dean of
where mutual respect is lacking, it
                                            centered.                                   HDCS while the recreation and athletic
does not work at all well. Only when
                                                                                        programs report to the office of
participants recognize and respect the      From the first, the department was to       Student Services.
legitimate role of other participants in    be completely coeducational. That is,
university governance can shared            all the major classes and the activity      Another change occurred in 1972. This
governance work effectively.                classes that were required of all college   was the year that the dance curriculum
                                            students would be coed. This was a          and faculty moved from physical
On our campus mutual respect has            departure from most institutions across     education across campus to the
been stronger than on most, most of         the country. Many of them not only          Theatre Department. This move was
the time, at most levels. Shared            had independent departments, they           considered fitting since the dance
governance is weakened on this              even had men’s and women’s gymna-           curriculum emphasis was on dance
campus not only by some administra-         sia. The coed decision was farsighted       performance and not on dance educa-
tors’ reluctance to consult, it is also     for it wasn’t until the 1970’s and early    tion.
weakened because of changes in the          80’s that physical education depart-        Academics, athletics and recreation to
faculty. The American Association of        ments across the country struggled to       this day continue to share the same
University Professors’ 1940 Statement       combine two very independent depart-        facilities, both the indoor and outdoor
of Principles on Academic Freedom           ments into one. Fullerton never had to      spaces. Clearly, scheduling these areas
and Tenure contains this statement:         go through that trauma.                     is a cooperative effort, which over time
“College and university teachers are
                                            The struggle for us came in 1972 when       has worked well.
citizens, members of a learned
profession, and officers of an educa-       the College re-structured the depart-       During the past 25 years our field of
tional institution.”                        ment so that athletics was recognized       study has changed greatly and we have
                                            as a separate all-college program. The      changed with it. Many of the “old
              (Continued on page 18)        coaches were given the option by the                        (Continued on page 7)
                                                                                                                             6
(Continued from page 6)                     have all been refurbished to provide
timers” know that physical education        the best possible learning experience
meant teaching in school. It still is the   for our students. The internationally
profession of teaching through physical     recognized program at the Wellness
activities and continues to be a            Clinic in the Ruby Gerontology Center
professional direction for a number of      was an outgrowth of the work that Dr.
our students. However, our academic         Roberta Rikli and Dr. Jessie Jones
program continually broadened and           established. When Dr. Debbie Rose
changed during these years to the study     joined the faculty she brought her
of human movement, kinesiology.             program of balance for the elderly with
Today, majors have the option of            her. This laboratory not only gives our
concentrating in the following focus        students a place to practice, but it
areas; sport psychology, exercise           provides an opportunity for many
physiology, athletic coaching, athletic     elderly community folks to get expert
training, sport and exercise manage-        instruction on keeping fit for daily        Planning for the
ment, older adult fitness, and liberal      living activities.
arts and humanities.
                                            In 40 years we have gone from a
                                                                                        Library of the
Faculty agreed to change the name of        department of three faculty to one of 21    Future
the department to better reflect the        full-time and 64 part-time; from a
academic curriculum we had been             single focus on public school teacher       Patricia Bril
teaching. But in changing the name,         preparation to a broad variety of                        s the year 2000 draws near,
what happened to recreation and health
education? We recognized that we
would never have a major in recreation
and so we officially dropped that
option. But the health issue was
different altogether; we had already
                                            professional opportunities in human
                                            movement; from a single exercise
                                            physiology laboratory to six labs; from
                                            primarily Anglo students to ethnically
                                            diverse students; from a single aca-
                                            demic major to two academic majors;
                                                                                        A            predictions about the future
                                                                                                     are especially prevalent.
                                                                                                     And predictions about
                                                                                        academic libraries in the 21st Century
                                                                                        are no exception to this trend. Such
                                                                                        futuristic thinking is undeniably
taken a divergent curricular direction.     from 60 students to 496 kinesiology         fraught with pitfalls—witness the
We were focusing on health science          undergraduates, 70 graduates, 125           earlier predictions of a “paperless
with possibilities in a variety of          health science majors and 33 credential     society”—but also can offer valuable
professional venues for our graduates       students.                                   insights. In an effort to articulate a
in the health area. Thus, in 1993 we
                                                                                        forward-looking plan, the CSU
became the Department of Kinesiology        What does the future hold? The most         Libraries are in the process of revising
and Health Promotion. With this             exciting event for us in the next year is   an earlier document that has guided
change the undergraduate and graduate       the new addition to our current             systemwide library planning for the
degrees in Physical Education were          building which will allow us to             last five years. Many CSUF faculty
realigned as degrees in Kinesiology,        continue to be programmatically             and students participated in focus
and the state officially approved a         futuristic, provide “indoor” offices for    group discussion of directions the
major in Health Science in 1997.            all faculty (yes, Terrace North will go),   revision should take. The new plan,
When HDCS was reorganized in the            new labs, and a new classroom. With         Working Together in the 21st Century:
mid-1990’s we became the Division of        our academic growth, a parallel growth      A Strategic Plan for the CSU Librar-
Kinesiology and Health Promotion.           has taken place in the Recreation           ies, sets forth core values of libraries in
                                            Program and in the Athletic Depart-         “the advancement of learning and
Clearly we have evolved as the
                                            ment, but we are all still using the        literacy; intellectual freedom and
University has evolved. We still believe
                                            same building which was built in 1965       freedom of inquiry; and unfettered
that we prepare people to be competent
                                            to serve a student body of 7,000. We        access to recorded knowledge and
in professions that deal with human
                                            are all looking forward to this expan-      information.” This plan also sets forth
movement and health. Over the years
                                            sion and the new learning opportuni-        a future vision in which the “campus
we have taken storage rooms in the
                                            ties it will provide for our students.      library will be the hub of a full-service
building and turned them into labora-
tories so that today our students have                                                  information and instruction network.”
experiences in six different labs. We                                                   What might this mean for the services,
shaped a movement analysis lab from         Diane Ross of the Department of             collections, and facilities of the Pollak
part of the old equipment room. The         Kinesiology & Health Promotion              Library of the future?
computer lab, athletic training lab,        served on many Senate committees
exercise physiology lab, and fitness lab    before FERPing.
                                                                                                     (Continued on page 8)
                                                                                                                        7
(continued from page 7)
                                             assessments. Certainly, there is an         for both the content and the techno-
Arguably the most important indicators       expectation that the proportion of          logical apparatus necessary for access.
of the viability of the Library today as     library resources available electroni-
well as in the future are the services       cally will increase along a continuum.      Some may find it surprising in an era
provided by Library faculty and staff.       This process is likely to be evolution-     of emphasis on remote access to
Pollak Library has made instruction          ary and, for the foreseeable future, the    information that the library as “place”
and instructional support its highest        print medium will continue to coexist       continues to be an important factor.
priority, undertaking a variety of           alongside digitized and other formats.      The idea of an “information commons”
programs to facilitate the learning                                                      is often invoked in this context: a place
connections made among library users         Some of the most challenging aspects        where faculty, students, and other
and the collections and the facilities.      in this process are intellectual property   members of the university community
In an era characterized by exponential       and copyright issues, important             congregate to seek information and
rates of growth in information, the          matters for faculty who publish as well     collaborate with one another in the
identification, evaluation, selection,       as serve in various editorial capacities.   learning process. CSUF is fortunate to
organization, and retrieval of those         Electronic journals have come into the      have gained a state-of-the-art library
resources that best support the              mainstream of publication, but the          building (North Wing) in 1996, thus
university’s academic programs is a          question of whether the future will         providing enhanced physical space and
critical challenge. These activities are     witness an unbundling of a volume           increased access to information
conducted in collaboration with faculty      into discrete articles challenges the       technology. Features such as “smart”
across the disciplines to assure that        current perception of journal “integ-       instruction rooms equipped with
appropriate collections and services are     rity.” The recent emergence of elec-        computer workstations, group study
provided. To this end, Library faculty       tronic books, or e-books, has captured      rooms, and laptop docking stations
have assumed a leadership role in the        considerable interest. The e-book, just     speak very much to the concept of an
integration of information technology        as the e-journal, brings with it ques-      interactive information hub.
in the learning environment and              tions of textual authority, pricing,
continue to explore creative approaches      distribution patterns, and standardiza-     As part of the campus’ 40th Anniver-
to facilitate the means by which faculty     tion of technology. Cost factors are        sary celebration, we delved back into
and students obtain information.             particularly important in the academic      archives to develop a timeline of key
                                             realm; in an environment where free         events. In this process, many of us
One of the more intriguing develop-          inquiry is valued, the notion of            were amazed as we reconstructed the
ments in this field is customization of      information “haves” and “have nots” is      number of technological changes
the ways by which an individual user                                                     experienced within the Library, e.g.,
gains access to electronic information.                                                  the movement from reliance on card
The CSU systemwide Pharos Internet           “.......most important                      catalogs and punched-card check-out
gateway project (with expected                                                           records to highly integrated Web-based
implementation in Spring 2000) is            indicators of the vi-                       systems and interactive instructional
incorporating aspects of this concept                                                    facilities. Each of these changes
by allowing each campus to customize
                                             ability of the Library                      reinforced the goal of facilitating
                                                                                         access to information and, by exten-
certain features to best meet local
preferences. This role in guiding
                                             today as well as in                         sion, knowledge. As we contemplate
users successfully through vast              the future are the ser-                     possible future directions, there will
                                                                                         undoubtedly be some surprising
quantities of information to relevant
materials is not a new one for the           vices provided by                           developments. However, the basic
Library, but rather is now being                                                         principle of serving as a transforma-
conducted in a dramatically different        Library faculty and                         tional force within the academic
milieu.                                                                                  community will remain central to our
                                             staff”                                      mission.
Today’s library collections consist of a
growing variety of formats, both             abhorrent. One of the more effective
physical and virtual. The revolution-        CSU systemwide efforts has been in the
ary impact of the Internet has been          area of leveraging the consortial           Patricia Bril, Associate University
reflected in an increasing reliance          purchasing power of 23 libraries to         Librarian, is a member of the Instruc-
upon electronic resources. However,          achieve more competitive pricing for        tional Facilities Committee, was a
the specious claim of some that “it’s all    electronic resources. Preservation of       Senator from 1992-98, and Chaired
on the Internet and it’s free” is one that   electronic information remains largely      the University Research Committee
must be countered with reasonable            unresolved, with an archival imperative     during1990-91
                                                                                                                                8
                                            professionalism.

                                            We want concrete recognition for our
                                            individual contributions, and when we
                                            are rewarded, we feel satisfied. When
                                            everyone is rewarded equally, we are
                                            not recognized as individuals. A
                                            department head’s comment, “Good
                                            job,” goes a long way. But money
                                            speaks much louder than words. You
                                            object, “How can this be true for


The Case for
                                            talented individuals who are intrinsi-
                                            cally motivated to be great teachers        Against
                                            and researchers?” Perhaps there is no

Merit Pay                                   perfect answer to this question. But
                                            why would conflict over money
                                                                                        Merit Pay
                                            destroy the collegiality of intrinsically
                                            motivated individuals?
                                                                                        Vince Buck & John Olmsted
Mark Stohs

                                                                                        W
                                            A well-designed system of merit                          e are currently in the throes
        t is apparently “common                                                                     of a new pay for perfor-


I
                                            should enhance collegiality. If you
        knowledge” that merit pay in        know that your colleagues will                          mance process, even though
        business simply does not work.      “reward” you for performing at a            nearly everyone, including the
        Why then should we succumb          higher level (of teaching, for example),    Chancellor’s Office staff, agrees that
to, much less embrace, a new system         then you may improve your teaching.         the pay-for-performance of the past
of merit? I believe that our challenge      Your professional peers and colleagues      three years has been a failure. An
is not to accept a system of merit pay,                                                 appropriate response to this apparent
but to set up meaningful and achiev-                                                    failure might have been to do away
able criteria for merit so that our                                                     with pay-for-performance. Instead, the
incentive system enhances humanity                                                      Chancellor and Trustees decided to try
and leads to an even more fruitful and                                                  a slightly different approach.
rewarding academic environment for
all. I leave that challenge to individual                                               The most significant difference of this
departments, and concentrate instead                                                    new process is that awards are to go to
on why we should give merit a chance.                                                   a much larger percentage of the faculty
                                                                                        than under the previous scheme.
Our merit system should not be an                                                       Chancellor Munitz wanted to award
annual performance-review charade, in       demonstrate in concrete terms that you      the meritorious few, implying that the
which managers and managed play an          have earned their respect. I’m not sure     remaining faculty were something less
uncomfortable, closed-door game that        that one could construct a much better      than meritorious. Chancellor Reed has
no one wins. It was not a charade this      system of recognition. And our              made it clear that he expects to see
year. Our actual academic FMI               respect for colleagues who do not           “merit pay” distributed to up to 80% of
process allowed us to evaluate our          apply for merit (because they recog-        the faculty. While this will make it less
peers in a non-hierarchical process         nize that they don’t deserve it) will       onerous for the vast majority of the
according to standards that we created.     also increase, in comparison to a           faculty, it makes it even more negative
                                            system in which all receive the same        for the remainder. Worse, it ignores
If we construct our systems (one for        increase no matter what.                    the other fundamental flaws in this
each department) of merit properly,                                                     system.
we can; (1) increase our satisfaction,      A merit system rewards differences in
(2) enhance our collegiality, (3)           contribution dramatically over time         Pay-for-performance —euphemisti-
provide for distinctions in levels of       and allows for individuals to pursue        cally referred to as “merit pay,” was
contribution, (4) allow for individuals     their own interests. For example, if        introduced into the CSU three years
to create their own paths to self-          Kim earns just 2% more than Lee             ago under then-Chancellor Barry
fulfillment, (5) offer a higher quality     because of merit each year, it will take    Munitz. Munitz said that the CSU
of education across the university, and     only 35 years for Kim’s salary to be        needed to demonstrate that it was
(6) reinforce the principles of
                                                       (Continued on page 10)                       (Continued on page 10)
                                                                                                                        9
(Continued from page 9)                      The very nature of the professionalism,     (Continued from page 9)
The Case for Merit Pay                       whether academic or not, is peer            Against Merit Pay
double that of Lee’s. That sounds like       evaluation. From this perspective, our      “accountable,” because influential
a long time. But note that our salary        system is not hierarchical, and de-         business leaders and legislators
differences carry over into retirement,      mands that we treat one another fairly      thought that the faculty, protected by
and that the current CALPERS system          and with respect. We now have the           tenure, were lazy underperformers.
includes cost-of-living adjustments.         freedom and responsibility to create        Rather than educate business leaders
Any new faculty member who is 30             our own departmental specific criteria      about what faculty actually do and how
years old today may expect to have 50        for merit.                                  much they work (surveys indicate that
or more years for merit to affect their                                                  full time faculty in systems like the
standard of living. Such differences         Why then are many departments               CSU work between 50 and 60 hours
provide serious and real motivation for      opposed to the new merit system?            per week), Munitz advocated such
faculty to enhance their contribution to     They may believe that the administra-       managerial techniques borrowed from
the educational process at CSUF.             tion just wants to work us that much        private industry, as pay-for-perfor-
                                             harder, and it is time to resist. Junior    mance and outcomes assessment, to
Why might Kim consistently “outper-          faculty who hear the tenure clock           motivate and direct faculty in their
form” Lee? Suppose that Lee freely           ticking may feel this most strongly.        work.
chooses to perform at the minimum            [For a stronger perspective in this vein,
satisfactory level, receive cost-of-living   see Karl Marx, Capital, Vol. I, Part I,     The pay-for-performance scheme of
increases, but does not seek merit           Chapter X, Section 3.]                      Chancellor Munitz angered faculty
increases. Lee is not actually penal-                                                    more than it otherwise might have
ized, especially if Lee pursues other        In response, consider the following. At     because of its timing. It came on the
avenues of enjoyment and/or income.          the moment, our tenure “hurdles” are        heels of several years with low or no
Kim, who does contributes at a high          often set by the stars or “gate-keepers”    pay raises. Previously, when the faculty
level consistently, will not resent Lee      in our departments. The hurdles are         had gone without pay increases for
for “under-performing.” This ap-             high because when some of us get            several years in the 1970s, they were
proach allows for multiple means of          through the tenure process we feel used     compensated with sizeable raises when
satisfaction, both across individuals’       and worn out, and we may stop               good economic conditions returned in
and across one’s own lifetime.               producing (one needs a rest after all).     the early 1980s. In spite of today’s
                                             The stars want to ensure that those         boom times, hoped-for pay raises have
Consider a simple example of Univer-         who earn tenure will continue to            yet to materialize. Indeed, faculty
sity T which claims to value only            produce.                                    salaries in the CSU trail by more than
teaching, but rewards all teachers                                                       11% by comparison with institutions
equally, year by year. The free-rider        A merit system may transform this           that the State uses to judge the ad-
problem suggests that University T           approach (which tends to be self-           equacy of salaries.
does not promote its mission. The            defeating). Once we realize that we
public knows all too well that a small       must contribute throughout our              Perhaps the most serious shortcoming
number of our colleagues do not              lifetime in order to earn merit, there      of the current scheme is its failure to
contribute. By direct analogy, free-         may be less motivation to make our          address this salary gap. At Wayne
riders also plague student groups.           junior faculty burn themselves out. If      State University, the school on which
Several faculty in our department            we receive merit for service, for           the scheme supposedly is based,
require students to evaluate their team      example, senior faculty may share in        “merit” pay was not put in place until
members (but not themselves) more            advising those student associations! In     after the faculty had received across-
than once. With this process students        effect, we extend the tenure clock, but     the-board raises that made their
tend to resolve the free-rider problem       do so sensibly. When we realize that        salaries commensurate with faculty
by themselves.                               Kim and Lee are able to coexist with        salaries at comparable institutions.
                                             respect, we have a better university.       The present CSU scheme totally
A strong advantage of our current FMI        Perhaps we will even create a good          ignores our substantial pay gap. Even
system is that we decide merit within        system for recognizing those lecturers      worse, the amount of money provided
the department (although within some         and part-timers who contribute              for across-the-board and “merit”
departments there is still such diversity    immensely to our university.                increases is so small that the pay gap
that establishing common criteria is a                                                   will increase further.
challenge). This approach allows us to       Mark Hoven Stohs, Associate Profes-
ignore cross-departmental evaluation.        sor of Finance, is a member of SBAE’s       Because of faculty opposition to any
More importantly, it enhances and            Academic Senate and Chair of SBAE’s         pay-for-performance scheme, Chan-
emphasizes our role as professionals.        Graduate Committee                                     (Continued on page 11)
                                                                                                                      10
(continued from page 10)
                                           received her Ph.D. there: “What I           faculty insist on being assigned to
Against Merit Pay                          observed there was a professional           classes in which they think that they
cellor Munitz and current Chancellor       nightmare. Faculty who had been             will get higher scores. To the extent
Charlie Reed have accused the faculty      collegial became petty and angry when       that faculty believe that they can
of being opposed to having our work        forced to vie for scarce merit resources.   influence the scores by giving lighter
evaluated. Nothing could be further        My advisor encouraged me to apply to        workloads or higher grades (and many
from the truth. We are not opposed to      similar institutions. I didn’t … based      faculty do believe that), this approach
merit evaluations. Most of us have         on my observation that I didn’t want to     will undermine the quality of our
gained our positions by having passed      be treated as she had been.”                education. (Editor: See Birnbaum’s
through one of the most rigorous                                                       article in this issue of the Forum).
evaluations of merit that exists in        Our university is a collegial enterprise.
today’s workplace; the academic tenure     It depends on faculty working together      • Merit pay does not work. When it
and promotion system. Tenure is            to achieve educational goals. These         was apparent that the Munitz process
generally granted only in the sixth year   awards emphasize competitive indi-          was an abysmal failure, the CSU
of employment and only when peers          vidual accomplishment, thereby              Academic Senate established a task
judge that their colleague has achieved    undermining teamwork, cooperation           force to look into merit pay. The task
excellence in the areas of teaching,       and collaboration.                          force discovered that the vast majority
research, and service, and is likely to                                                of research into pay-for- performance
continue performing at that level.         • The scheme may not even reward            concludes that it simply does not work.
Advancement to full professor comes        merit. Early decisions in this process      The task force reported that only 100
at least six years later and is based on   will be made by faculty committees          of the over 3000 studies of merit pay
the same judgments. Further, while         which will contain faculty who              claim positive results. (This report can
junior professors may at times doubt it,   themselves are hoping to get pay            be found on the Web at http://
most colleagues are highly supportive.     raises. Final decisions will be made by     www.calstate.edu/acsenate/97-11-
We invest a tremendous amount in our       administrators who may seek to award        5_mptf_report.html.)
junior faculty and sincerely wish – and    behavior that has nothing to do with
expect – them all to succeed.              merit. Thus it could serve simply as a      Merit pay is particularly ineffectual
                                           patronage system or a system to             among professionals in educational
What we are opposed to is the imposi-      achieve administration goals. A recent      institutions. That is because educa-
tion of a parallel competitive pay-for-    suit against Kaiser Permanente alleges      tional professionals are motivated by
performance scheme. The problems           that doctors got bonuses for reaching       many things other than money; a
with this scheme are several:              profit goals at the expense of care.        desire to do meaningful work, a desire
                                           Similar goals might be imposed in the       to help others, a desire to see students
• The process is time consuming.           CSU that would be destructive of            succeed, institutional loyalty, peer
Every faculty member is eligible for       professional performance and damage         pressure, socialization, recognition, or
merit pay every year. That is a large      the learning experience of our students.    a supportive work environment. After
number of files to be prepared by                                                      working 12 years to be fully admitted
individual faculty and evaluated by        • It demoralizes the faculty. We are        into the culture of quality, an indi-
faculty committees and several             forced to compete against friends and       vidual is not likely to lie back and take
administrators. It took one of us 27       colleagues, to fill out endless bureau-     it easy. Self-motivation, self-respect
hours to prepare his successful            cratic forms, and to participate in a       and peer pressure will see to that.
application two years ago. This is time    system that makes no sense and seems
that could have been spent more            patently unfair. All this is demoraliz-      Jeffrey Pfeffer wrote in the Harvard
productively on class preparation,         ing in the extreme.                         Business Review (May-June 1998):
student advisement, or research.                                                       “Most merit pay systems share two
                                                                                       attributes: they absorb vast amounts of
                                           • It may be used in ways that under-        management time and they make
• The process is competitive. The          mine quality education and experimen-       everybody unhappy.” He added,
process will not award everyone who is     tation. At least one department is          “[Merit pay] undermines teamwork,
deserving, as is the case with the         proposing that only faculty who receive     encourages employees to focus on the
tenure and promotion process. I can        70% As and Bs on student opinion            short term, and leads people to link
only get my pay raise if you do not get    forms be recommended for awards.            compensation to political skills and
yours. Chancellor Reed comes from          This will certainly make faculty            ingratiating personalities rather than to
Florida where he imposed similar           reluctant to take chances and try new       performance.” Further, he observed,
policies. Here’s a description of the      approaches with their classes. It will
Florida system from a colleague who        cause disruptions in departments when
                                                                                                  (Continued on page 12)
                                                                                                                    11
(Continued from page 11)                    If the Trustees want to change the
Against Merit Pay                           present reward system, they must first
                                            make clear what they see as the
“Pay cannot substitute for a working        problem. This they have never done.
environment high on trust, fun and          Then they should examine the empiri-
meaningful work.” This may not              cal evidence to see how the reward and
describe everyone, but it certainly         incentive system can be changed to
describes us.                               eliminate that problem and motivate
                                            the faculty to provide the highest
The Trustees’ and Chancellor’s              quality educational experience
approach to “merit pay” has been            possible. Such a process could gain the
particularly distressing. The culture of
the university values empirical
                                            confidence of the faculty and lead to a          Fair Share or
evidence, and the faculty is open to
                                            new reward system that would be
                                            embraced.
                                                                                             Paycheck Theft?
being persuaded by reason. There has
been no attempt by the Trustees and         What the Trustees and the Chancellor             B. Thomas Mayes
Chancellor to examine the empirical         should be doing is trying to provide
evidence, nor to persuade the faculty                                                                 am opposed to the so called “fair
that pay-for-performance will some-
how contribute to a more efficient
operation or provide a higher quality
educational experience. To the
contrary, attempts to draw Trustees or
                                            the most supportive working environ-
                                            ment, and the resources that will allow
                                            and encourage dedicated professionals
                                            to extend themselves beyond what a
                                            union contract requires. Thus we could
                                            provide the quality educational
                                                                                             I      share” bill, SB645, recently
                                                                                                    passed by the California legisla-
                                                                                                    ture and signed by the Governor. I
                                                                                             am not, however, a free-loader. I
                                                                                             customarily pay a reasonable price for
the Chancellor into a dialogue con-         experience that our students deserve.            services received or expected. In fact, I
cerning the research results have been      That is what creates a successful                paid CFA dues for several years when I
like talking to a blank wall. They do not   experience everywhere, from Kinder-              felt that the union was representing my
want to deal with it.                       garten to graduate school.                       interests in collective bargaining. One
                                                                                             of the problems we face in the School
Nor have the Trustees ever made clear       Indeed the Trustees and the CFA                  of Business Administration and
why they believe “merit pay” is             should be working together on this.              Economics is competing in a national
essential. The reasons most often           The intensity of feeling in the bargain-         labor market to hire new faculty
given for the necessity of pay-for-         ing process in the CSU has always                members. Starting salaries for new
performance are that of accountability      perplexed us. After all, there is only           Ph.D.’s in the business disciplines are
and that everybody else does it (an         the limited pot of money that the                approximately $60,000 to $90,000 per
argument most common with nine-             legislature gives the CSU to deal with.          year. Given the salary structure “won”
year olds).                                 Shareholders will not be richer if the           by the CFA, we are facing a situation
                                            Chancellor and Trustees hold tough.              where new Ph.D.’s must be hired at
The Merit Pay Task Force was told that      The Trustees and the CFA should not              advanced rank in order to pay them a
the Trustees “…never had a detailed         be bickering over the arrangement of             competitive wage. This creates severe
discussion of the value of or the           the deck chairs. Rather they should              inequity within the school when
rationale for merit pay… they were          jointly be trying to find a way to               current Assistant or Associate Profes-
told that merit pay leads to more           distribute these limited funds that will         sors, with more experience, see new
positive than negative consequences         create the most supportive environ-              hires with no experience receiving
and that it did motivate enhanced           ment for faculty to pursue their natural         equal or higher rank.
performance.” This information is           desire to provide a quality educational
inaccurate, but it appears that the         experience.                                      In the past, salary supplements were
Trustees, with this information in hand                                                      available for faculty in hard-to-hire
and with little thought or discussion,      Editors Note: What do you think? Visit http://   disciplines. This salary structure
endorsed a simplistic — if intuitively      faculty.fullerton.edu/senatenews and cast your
                                                                                             permitted the professional schools to
                                            “instant” vote pro or con Merit Pay.
satisfying — “solution” to an unde-                                                          pay a competitive wage at appropriate
fined “problem” - a “solution” that         John Olmsted is Professor of Chemistry,          ranks for new faculty members. When
destroys faculty morale and the culture     and is a member of the Executive                 it became clear that the CFA was
that has long sustained the CSU. If this    Committee of the Academic Senate.                planning to bargain away this supple-
is so, then the Trustees have not acted     Vince Buck, Professor of Political               ment, I told our campus CFA president
responsibly and have violated the trust     Science, is a CSU Academic Senator and           that such a move was not in the best
placed in them by the taxpayers of          member of the Executive Committee of the         interests of my school and that if the
California.                                 systemwide Academic Senate.                                 (Continued on page 13)
                                                                                                                           12
(Continued from page 12)                   experiment with new approaches to          taxation without representation.
Fair Share or                              teaching, to maintain involvement with     Indeed, based on my conversations
                                           students, and to master constantly         with faculty colleagues, this bill was
Paycheck Theft?                            changing technologies. The existing        passed without the full knowledge of
supplement was lost, I would resign        pay system does not reward this level      the CSU faculty.
from the CFA. Immediately after the        of effort. Merit pay is an equitable
announcement that the market supple-       way to make sure that faculty who are      Second, the way the bill is worded, it
ment was eliminated, I resigned from       contributing the most to the quality of    will be nearly impossible for the CSU
the CFA.                                   education at CSUF are differentially       faculty to rescind the requirement to
                                           rewarded compared to those who             pay the union’s fees. To start the
Another point of departure between the     perform at minimum standards. But          process, 30% of the bargaining unit
CFA’s objectives and my professional       this concept is outside the mindset of     employees must sign a petition to
values is in the arena of merit pay.       the CFA.                                   rescind the fee, and then a majority of
There is no doubt that in organizations,                                              the bargaining unit employees must
you get the behavior you reward. I                                                    vote to do so in an election. The
cherish an organizational climate that     “Merit pay is an equitable                 expense of this effort must be borne by
supports a high degree of professional     way to make sure that fac-                 the individuals sponsoring the action.
activity among colleagues who can                                                     If the bargaining unit is defined as the
stimulate and partner with each other
                                           ulty who are contributing the
                                                                                      whole CSU system, this means a
on research projects. The CFA-             most to the quality of educa-              coordinated effort to remove the fee
supported pay system, based on             tion at CSUF are differen-                 must involve all of the campuses in the
seniority, rewards faculty members for                                                system. This is a formidable hurdle,
survival (in itself sometimes difficult)
                                           tially rewarded compared to
                                                                                      especially if the effort must be self-
instead of professional activity. Of       those who perform at mini-                 financed.
course, the tenure and promotion           mum standards”
system provides an incentive for                                                      Third, approximately 25% of the
professional activity up to the time one                                              current CSU faculty members are CFA
is promoted to Full Professor, but not     It is clear that the CFA does not          members. The 75% majority have
after that. This has serious implica-      represent my interests with respect to     elected not to join. While the CFA
tions for the quality of our university.   pay levels or pay administration. The      posits that the 75% are free-loaders,
If accreditation is a goal of the          only real voice I had in union matters     the fact is that many of these faculty
university, continued scholarly activity   was to pay dues or not pay dues. Of        members have not had the opportunity
is required of all ranks. Those who        course I could vote on union matters       to vote in a union certification election,
have been involved in trying to meet       when they were presented to the            and many would not choose to be
accreditation requirements know that       members, but I had little influence on     represented by the CFA. The CFA was
faculty research productivity is a major   the content of the contracts that were     the designated bargaining agent for the
threat to our continued accreditation.     negotiated. Now the CFA has been able      system before most of us were hired
A merit pay system would go a long         to propel legislation (SB 645) through     and we had no say in the matter. The
way towards correcting this situation.     the California Senate and Assembly to      only way we can protest some of the
                                           force faculty members to pay dues, or      union’s actions is to refuse to join.
Merit pay can also be used to encour-      a so-called fair share fee, as a condi-    Forcing us to pay dues is unfair.
age high quality teaching. Faculty         tion of employment. Governor Davis         “Paycheck theft” seems to me a more
members who really try to excel in the     signed the bill so I am now being          accurate term for SB645 than “fair
classroom should be rewarded well          forced to pay for services I do not        share.”
above those who do just enough to get      receive.
by. We all know that our official                                                     Fortunately for us, the National Right
teaching load in the CSU is very high      There are other aspects of this legisla-   to Work Legal Defense Foundation
relative to comparable universities.       tion that I find highly objectionable.     (RTW) is supporting a group of CSU
This overload makes it difficult to        First, this bill was designed by the CFA   faculty members in their efforts to
keep up with our disciplines, to           and pushed through the legislative         prevent the implementation of Pay-
                                           process by their lobbyists. The faculty    check Theft SB 645. The position of
                                           who will be affected by this bill were     the RTW is that a number of the bill’s
                                           not consulted about the provisions of      provisions are unconstitutional. I urge
                                           the bill, nor were we given any oppor-     my fellow faculty members to support
                                           tunity to propose revisions. This bill     our colleagues’ efforts to stop the
                                           circumvents the collective bargaining
                                           process and amounts to a form of                      (Continued on page 14)
                                                                                                                           13
(Continued from page 13)                                                               other campus programs. Hence, while
Fair Share or                                                                          there may be significant long-term
Paycheck Theft?                                                                        savings from CMS, in the short-run,
                                                                                       other campus programs may be
implementation of this bill. For                                                       shortchanged for a campus to pay for
additional information you should                                                      the work that needs to be accom-
contact Professor Charles Baird, CSU                                                   plished in order to implement CMS.
Hayward, who coined the term                                                           Many faculty members feel that it will
“paycheck theft.” His e-mail address is                                                be the academic program that will have
cbaird@bay.csuhayward.edu.                                                             to make the sacrifice to pay for the
                                           Barry Pasternack                            CMS implementation.
If efforts to stop the implementation of   puses on the same software platform.
SB645 fail, one further recourse is to     Additional ancillary units such as          With this said, one may ask why the
call for an election to decertify the      foundations and associated students         Chancellor’s Office undertook this
CFA. I have mixed feelings about this      may be added to this system in the          project. A major impetus is the
action. While the union is clearly         future.                                     external as well as internal factors that
ineffective in bargaining for a work-                                                  will necessitate a change in how the
able pay system, the CFA does serve as     After reviewing proposals from several      CSU does its administrative functions.
a potential buffer to protect its mem-     software companies that offer enter-        For example, the State Controller’s
bers from unfair treatment by adminis-     prise resource planning (ERP) sys-          Office is revising its payroll system
trators. The important question is just    tems, The company PeopleSoft was            and this will require a change in the
how often is this protection necessary?    selected as the vendor. This decision       information system the CSU uses to
In my experience with the CSU, I have      has not been without controversy given      report salaries (including faculty
not known anyone who has found it          the fact that many of the universities      salaries) in order for employees to be
necessary to seek CFA representation       which have implemented PeopleSoft           paid.
for a bona fide grievance against the      systems similar to the one planned by
administration. So, I conclude that I      the CSU have encountered substantial        Another reason for the project is that
have much better use of my pay than to     overruns and found that some of the         the existing software on campuses for
support the CFA. Maybe you do too.         software did not work as advertised         doing the administrative functions will
                                           ( “Delays, Bugs, and Cost Overruns          eventually need replacement due to
                                           Plague PeopleSoft’s Services,”              obsolescence. In some cases the
Dr. B. Thomas Mayes, Professor of          Chronicle of Higher Education,              features that the CSU will need to
Management, is a member of the CBE         September 24, 1999).                        offer may not be available from
assessment committee, Vice chair of                                                    existing vendors, thus necessitating a
the CBE Senate, and was a member of        One of the reasons that implementing        change in such systems. Having each
the University ad-hoc assessment           software such as the PeopleSoft ERP         campus procure administrative
committee                                  system will be so expensive is the need     systems on its own will result in a loss
                                           to use high -priced consultants to do       of economy of scale and may mean
                                           readiness assessments on each               additional expense in coordinating the
CMS – A Top Down                           campus, and the necessary retraining        information at a System level. Also,
Information Technol-                       of staff on the new system. Some            having separate systems for doing
                                           faculty have felt that signing an           human resources, financial administra-
ogy Mandate                                exclusive software arrangement will         tion, and student services will mean a
                                           leave the CSU at PeopleSoft’s mercy         duplication of data entry and loss of
Barry Pasternack
                                           in terms of pricing for needed services     reporting features. One major advan-
                                           that were not part of the original          tage of an ERP system such as that


M
            any faculty have not yet       contract (such as e-commerce) or            being offered by PeopleSoft is the
           heard of CMS, but for those     necessary upgrades after the contract       reduction of data entry expense and a
           who have, there is a feeling    term expires.                               better coordination of information.
of concern, and some may even say,                                                     The CSU Information Technology staff
distrust. CMS, or Collaborative            Perhaps the greatest area of concern        estimates that there will be more than a
Management System, is a several            on the part of the faculty deals with the   300 million dollar savings to the
hundred million dollar project being       funding of CMS. As there is inad-           system over a 16 year period by
orchestrated by the Chancellor’s           equate funding for information              moving to a coordinated ERP environ-
Office in order to put the human           technology in general, the funding of       ment.
resources, financial and student           CMS must come at the expense of
administrative systems for all cam-                                                              (Continued on page 15)
                                                                                                                   14
(Continued from page 14)
                                                                                          while you are delivering a lecture;
                                                                                          the student who loudly and
Another substantial benefit of CMS is                                                     frequently interrupts the flow of
the better student information it will                                                    class with questions or interjec-
offer. Students will be able to get                                                       tions; or
more timely information on admis-                                                         the student who becomes belliger-
sions requirements and be able to                                                         ent when you confront his or her
check admission applications on-line,                                                     inappropriate behavior in class.
obtain electronic access to financial
aid information, and even view grades                                                 It is important to differentiate disrup-
on-line. Faculty will be able to use the                                              tive classroom behavior (that which
student information provided by CMS                                                   directly interferes with the ability of
to provide better advising information.                                               the instructor to teach or the ability of
Class lists will be available on-line,
and faculty will be able to submit
                                           DISRUPTIVE                                 other students to benefit from the
                                                                                      classroom experience) from behavior
grades electronically. An additional
benefit of CMS to faculty is that
                                           CLASSROOM                                  that is merely rude or uncivil. While
                                                                                      the latter may become disruptive when
faculty will be able to view their own     BEHAVIOR                                   it is repetitive or persistent, it usually
human resource information online.                                                    is best addressed by example and
This will include information such as                                                 influence.
leave credits and year-to-date deduc-      Sandra Rhoten
tions.                                                                                Disruptive student behavior is detri-
                                                                                      mental to the academic community,
Given the benefits of CMS, you may                    aculty members on many


                                           F
                                                                                      both faculty and students, because it
wonder why many faculty members are                   campuses today are con-         interferes with the learning process for
leery about this project. Some of this                cerned about disruptive         other students, inhibits the ability of
unease may come from some skepti-                     classroom behavior that         instructors to teach most effectively,
cism felt by faculty towards the           interferes with the process of teaching    diverts university energy and resources
Information Technology staff in the        and learning.                              away from the educational mission,
Chancellor’s Office as a result of the                                                and may indicate a significant level of
CETI project. Some may be due to a         In an article in The Chronicle of          personal problems or distress on the
distrust of software companies in          Higher Education in 1998, the author       part of the disrupter.
general, and PeopleSoft in particular.     reminded us that conflicts between
For example, it is not uncommon for        faculty and students are not new. In the
software companies to miss deadlines       13th Century, professors at the Univer-
for getting software releases com-         sity of Bologna were terrorized by
pleted or to fail to deliver on promised   their students and physically assaulted
features (the term “vaporware” comes       if the students did not like their
to mind).                                  grades. In the 1820’s at Yale Univer-
                                           sity, students threw plates at their
As with any project as complex and         professors in the dining room, and
costly as CMS there are a lot of           rolled cannonballs through the
potential pitfalls that may mitigate the   professors’ living quarters at night.
planned benefits. Faculty should be
diligent in monitoring the progress of     While there are no current
this project in order to ensure that       reports of such actions by
such benefits exceed the costs.            students at CSUF, many faculty
                                           members are distressed at inappropri-
                                           ate behavior by some of their students.
Barry Pasternack is Chair & Profes-
sor of Management Science &                Disruptive behavior can assume many
Information Systems. He is a member        forms. It may be;
of the CMS Board, Statewide Aca-               the student in your class who
demic Senate, and Chair of the CSU             persistently arrives late or leaves
CSIS Discipline Council.                       early;
                                               the student who talks incessantly
                                                                                                 (Continued on page 16)
                                                                                                                            15
(Continued from page 15)                      resolution of the problem,                 Remain calm. This may be
                                              and may be reported to the                 difficult if the student is agitated
DISRUPTIVE CLASS-                             Dean of Students Office,                   or confrontational, but your calm
ROOM BEHAVIOR                                 Judicial Affairs for further               and reasoned response will best
                                              action.”                                   control the meeting.
Here are some strategies for handling                                                    Do not take behavior or remarks
descriptive behavior:                       If unacceptable behavior occurs,             personally, even though they may
                                            respond immediately. This may mean           be directed at you. Disruptive
Initial Class Meeting. Clarifying           employing informal action, reminding         behavior usually results from
expectations at the beginning of a          the class of the agreed standards for        other life problems or a general
course and agreeing on standards for        behavior, or directing specific com-         academic frustration.
classroom conduct can assist students       ments to the involved student.               Be specific about the inappropri-
in abiding by those standards. Other                                                     ate behavior the student has
positive benefits include fostering an      If the behavior continues, notify the        exhibited. Describe the behavior,
expectation among student peers             student that he or she must leave the        don’t focus on the person. Explain
concerning appropriate behavior, and        classroom if the behavior does not           why the behavior is a problem.
having a concrete and agreed-upon           cease immediately, and that disciplin-       Ask questions and summarize what
reference point should inappropriate        ary action may result. If the student        you hear the student saying.
behavior occur later.                       does not respond appropriately, ask          Respectful concern may enable
                                            him or her to leave and to arrange to        you, the educator, to help the
When you are establishing and               see you during office hours before the       student be successful both in your
promoting guidelines for behavior in        next class meeting. You may wish to          class and in his or her general
your course, it is important not to         consult with the Department Chairper-        university experience.
articulate standards you are unwilling      son or the Associate Dean of Students,       Focus on areas of agreement
to enforce. Likewise, standards for         Judicial Affairs, prior to the meeting.      between you and the student.
classroom behavior should be fairly                                                      Conclude by summarizing any
and consistently applied, otherwise         If a student refuses to leave, notify him    resolution and articulating
confusion and resentment may result.        or her that University Police (Ext.          expectations for the future. Be
                                            2515) will be contacted to remove the        clear that the result of continued
Class Syllabus. It is best for behavioral   student and that disciplinary action will    inappropriate behavior will be a
standards to be published in the course     result from this.                            referral to the Dean of Students
syllabus and discussed the first day of                                                  Office, Judicial Affairs for
class. Information should specify the       It is appropriate to call upon University    disciplinary action (and the
behaviors that are prohibited, how you      Police any time a disruptive behavior        possible loss of the opportunity to
will manage behavioral issues, and the      situation escalates, or when it is           attend class).
consequences that may result. Explain-      reasonable to interpret behavior             Maintain written documentation of
ing why your behavioral standards are       (including oral statements) as threaten-     the interaction and any agreed
important for the course and benefit        ing or harassing to you or other             course of action. This may include
students can help students understand       members of the class.                        a formal letter to the student
and abide by established expectations.                                                   briefly summarizing the meeting
A statement in the course syllabus          Private Meeting. It is appropriate to        and the resolution.
might include:                              meet privately with a disruptive student     Terminate the conversation if it
                                            following a confrontation or removal         becomes apparent that the student
  “Behavior that persistently               from class. As an educator, you may          is unwilling or unable to listen to
  or grossly interferes with                wish to request a meeting with a             your concerns and requests.
  classroom activities is                   student who has displayed unaccept-          Consult with staff in Counseling
  considered disruptive                     able behavior even when a confronta-         and Psychological Services if you
  behavior and may be subject               tion has not resulted. In either case, the   have concerns about the emotional
  to disciplinary action. Such              meeting is an opportunity for the            or psychological well being of the
  behavior inhibits other                   student to understand the inappropri-        student.
  students’ ability to learn and            ateness of his or her behavior and to        Contact University Police
  instructor’s ability to teach.            develop strategies for successfully          immediately if the student appears
  A student responsible for                 continuing in the class.                     to threaten harm to others (e.g., if
  disruptive behavior may be                                                             the student makes threats of
  required to leave class                   In that meeting:                             physical harm toward you or
  pending discussion and
                                                                                               (Continued on page 17)
                                                                                                                 16
(Continued from page 16)
                                            class (a student may not be removed
DISRUPTIVE CLASS-                           from class permanently without a
ROOM BEHAVIOR                               discipline hearing).

                                            Following consultation with the
    others, has a weapon, or behaves in
                                            instructor, the student will be required
    a manner that causes you to fear
                                            to meet with the Associate Dean,
    for your own or another’s safety).
                                            Judicial Affairs to discuss the behavior.
                                            It is possible that the matter can be
These recommendations are based on
                                            resolved administratively without
the expectation that students can and
                                            further involvement by the instructor. In
will be reasonable if they have ad-
                                            some cases, it is necessary to convene a
equate information, clearly understand
parameters, and are treated with
                                            formal hearing in the matter, and the
                                            instructor may be called as a witness.
                                                                                         A Brief For
respect.
                                                                                         CSU Granting
                                            Faculty members are sometimes
The expectation is that students can
change their behavior. However, if the
                                            hesitant to confront students because        Doctoral Degrees
                                            they are concerned about possible legal
student demonstrates unwillingness or                                                    By Clarence E. Tygart
                                            action. Faculty are best protected
an inability to change, than additional
                                            against charges of misconduct if they
interventions including removal from
                                            articulate clear and consistent expecta-                  he Master Plan for Califor-


                                                                                         T
the class, may be necessary.
                                            tions for the class, initiate actions                     nia post secondary education
                                            against students in good faith in                         allows only the University of
Reporting Complaints. When less
                                            carrying out their assigned academic                      California (UC) System the
formal interventions prove inadequate
                                            duties, and follow appropriate univer-         privilege of granting doctoral degrees.
or ineffective, it is appropriate for the
                                            sity procedures                                Conventional wisdom is that the
instructor to initiate formal disciplin-
ary action. Intervention by University                                                     Master Plan is good for California
                                            However, faculty are reminded that             State University (CSU) along with the
Police results in the report being
                                            students have a measure of academic            rest of California. The uniqueness and
                                            freedom in the classroom. University           superiority of the California Master
                                            policies cannot be used to punish lawful Plan compared to other states is
                                            classroom dissent. The lawful expres-          proclaimed by California decision
                                            sion of a disagreement with the profes- makers. Is this an example of an
                                            sor or other students is not in itself         enlightened trend setting California
                                            “disruptive” behavior.                         being ahead of the other states? Let us
                                                                                           unconventionally look at this conven-
                                            Important Telephone Numbers                    tional wisdom, i.e., examine the
                                                                                           evidence.
                                            Dean of Students Office,
                                                         Judicial Affairs 278-3211         Other states haven’t adopted the
forwarded to the Dean of Students           University Police                              California Master Plan because of the
Office, Judicial Affairs. When Univer-                  Emergency            911           advantages of having Ph.D. degrees
sity Police have not been involved, the                  Non-emergency 278-2515            granted in more than one university
instructor may forward a report             Counseling and Psychological Services system. Many state universities
directly to Judicial Affairs.                          278-3040                            resulted from the sale of congressional
                                                                                           land grants. The state universities
                                            Editor’s Comment                               sometimes were established after a
When disruptive behavior is reported
                                            If you would like to discuss issues of         university for that state was created.
to Judicial Affairs, the reporting          disruptive behavior with your colleagues, go
instructor will be contacted concern-                                                      Such universities usually started with
                                            to http://faculty.fullerton.edu/senatenews and
ing the desired outcome. Remedies           participate in the discussion group concerning
                                                                                           an emphasis on agriculture, and
include disciplinary probation, a           this matter.                                   initially were labelled “agricultural
behavior contract concerning the class,                                                    colleges.” Most such universities then
anger management counseling, or             Sandra Rhotten is Associate Dean of            developed core liberal arts programs.
other educational interventions, or, in     Students, Judicial Affairs. She is also the    The concept of agriculture was
more severe cases, removal from the         coordinator of University Student
                                            Discipline.                                                (Continued on page 18)
                                                                                                                              17
(Continued from page 17)                    private sector management. The                           (Continued from page 6)
CSU Granting Doctoral                       distinguished UC scholars, of course,
                                            are deserving of their enhanced high       The Fullerton Way
Degrees
                                            salaries.
expanded to include such departments                                                   The first generation of faculty took
as agricultural economics, rural                                                       this statement seriously. Far fewer
                                            The CSU System faculty salaries must
sociology and agricultural related                                                     faculty now — pushed and pulled by
                                            be at the median of the publicity
engineering. The relationship between                                                  competing responsibilities and an
                                            disclosed salaries at comparable
the state universities and the communi-                                                increasing workload — see themselves
                                            universities. The UC System can pay
ties they serve, along with their states,                                              as officers of an educational institu-
                                            whatever is needed to attract and keep
remains amicable.                                                                      tion or even as citizens of the univer-
                                            desired faculty. The UC is competing
                                            with the richest universities and they     sity with all the rights and responsibili-
Colleges of education experienced                                                      ties that implies. It is more difficult to
                                            pay top, not median comparative
similar developments as agricultural                                                   get individuals to serve on committees
                                            salaries. CSU salaries are kept
colleges. Urban universities have a                                                    or be otherwise involved in university
                                            artificially low because it is virtually
more recent development, but have                                                      governance. There is less knowledge
                                            impossible for distinguished senior
continued the trend. The state of                                                      of both issues and procedures. Many
                                            CSU faculty to move to UC or other
Michigan has Ph.D. programs at four                                                    faculty do not understand the impor-
                                            outstanding Ph.D. institutions. CSU
levels of universities; the University of                                              tance of shared governance nor how to
                                            professors, therefore, can’t use a
Michigan, Michigan State University,                                                   make it work. It is not clear where the
                                            competitive labor market to establish
Wayne State University and some of                                                     next generation of leaders will come
                                            their salaries. New flexible CSU salary
the regional universities.                                                             from or who will socialize them.
                                            structures can help disguise the
                                            artificially low salaries. Higher          Administrators come and go. Some
                                            maximum salaries can be reported           will be more supportive of shared
                                            even if they are unrepresentative of       governance than others. Interestingly,
                                            faculty. CSU faculty teaching load is      at this point the top administrators in
                                            state mandated and can’t be deter-         the Chancellor’s Office seem very
                                            mined by free market forces. Since         aware of the importance of shared
                                            California is such a dominant state,       governance, even to the point of
                                            CSU faculty salaries and workload          intervening in one campus dispute.
                                            have effects nationally. The same is       This may bode well for shared gover-
                                            true for UC, but it works to the UC        nance throughout the CSU in the near
                                            faculty’s advantage.                       future since local administrators are
The California Master Plan does                                                        always sensitive to the concerns of the
benefit the UC System. The CSU                                                         Chancellor and his top administrators.
                                            The segregation of the UC and CSU
System is walled out of competition
                                            Systems has some parallels with the
with the UC System. Monopolists                                                        However, unless the faculty under-
                                            former legalized racial segregation of
usually try to hold on to their monopo-                                                stand and appreciate the importance of
                                            Black Americans. The two segregated
lies, and the UC monopoly even has                                                     shared governance for a quality
                                            schools were called “separate but
state guarantees and enforcements.                                                     educational environment, and put forth
                                            equal.” As Black Americans often
Because of this monopoly, the state of                                                 the effort to make it work, it will fail.
                                            observed, the separate part was
California can easily and lavishly give                                                Administrators will willingly take on
                                            vigorously enforced. Almost without
tax support to the UC System. The                                                      those tasks that faculty do not perform.
                                            exception, the equal aspect was
financial support barely begins with the                                               Indeed they must, but the institution
                                            ignored. The contributions of willing
generous public support; UC has                                                        will be the weaker for it.
                                            Blacks to American society were
enormous endowments and continuing
                                            minimized, even in the military during
private donations. The UC administra-
                                            war. Black salaries were depressed
tion uses this money to augment
                                            because of limited opportunities           Vince Buck, Professor of Political
faculty salaries. Public disclosure of
                                            resulting from segregation.                Science, is a CSU Academic Senator
salaries from private sources are not
                                                                                       and member of Executive Committee
required. A governor, after examining
                                            The California Master Plan was             of the systemwide Academic Senate.
the nonpublic salary augmentations,
                                            devised by elites who were personally
reported that the amounts were
                                            outstanding and civic minded. Similar      Jane Hipolito, Professor of English &
staggering in their enormity. Such
                                            characteristics aptly describe those       Comparative Lit., was a member of the
concealed salary practices are com-
                                            who continue to implement and              Academic Senate and of the Faculty
mon for other universities and for
                                                                                       Personnel Committee from 1996 -
                                                      (Continued on page 19)           1999
                                                                                                                             18
(continued from page 18)                   perts.” It is doubtful that the total cost   restless pioneering spirit of California
                                           for universities will be greater than        requires our best effort. We guardians
CSU Granting                                                                            of the people’s university can renew
                                           current costs relative to percentage of
Doctoral Degrees                           tax revenue or state income. Because         our commitment each time we look at
administer the program. The Master         of the loosening of the UC doctoral          our students and see the descendants
Plan, indeed, was visionary and            degree monopolies, costs could be            of the poor, minorities, and the
generous at its inception. Higher          lower. Competition tends to lower            oppressed. We need a vision that
educational opportunities were             prices for commodities and services.         reaches beyond the status quo if we
extended to those who were striving,       We don’t know about state support            are going to leave a legacy. Future
by means of a higher education, to         until we ask. If we don’t, less worth-       generations, then, can remember us as
become part of the middle class. In        while projects instead will be legis-        a faculty who helped make a difference
this noble process, astounding oppor-      lated and funded. With the Chancellor,       that was worth remembering.
tunities were afforded ambitious           faculty, and all other university            Editor’s Comment
aspirants to the upper level professions   constitutions, our efforts can bring us      What are your thoughts? Go to http://
due to a rapidly expanding CSU faculty.    together as we focus on this common          faculty.fullerton.edu/senatenews and
This occupational mobility was even        objective. Ideal times and circum-           register your concern in the discussion group
more unbelievable for those of us          stances never will be. The time is now,      “PhD or Not for CSU.”
faculty of humble family origins.          the place is here and the goal is right.
                                                                                        C.E. Tygart, is a Professor of Sociol-
No matter how much we delude               Leaving succeeding generations with          ogy and a member of the IRB Commit-
ourselves, our current efforts only        opportunities equal to what we had in        tee. He was a member of the Univer-
maintain a status quo. The Master Plan     the pioneering years of the Master           sity Research Committee in 1972,
no longer benefits CSU and deprives        Plan poses great difficulties. The           when IRB was established.
California of the fullest potential from
CSU. No stampede to adopt doctoral
programs will occur. Only some
departments and universities will award
                                           A Survey of Faculty Opinions Con-
doctoral degrees. The UC System will       cerning Student Evaluations of
continue with the older professions
such as medicine and law. The CSU          Teaching
campuses would emphasize more
recent or applied disciplines such as
education and business. An increase in     Michael H. Birnbaum
total doctoral degrees granted is
unlikely. Some doctoral candidates, for              tudent evaluations of teaching
example, might attend CSU rather than
private universities.

A CSU doctorate should and would
have standards as rigorous as UC; we
CSU faculty would ensure that. No
                                           S         were originally intended to
                                                     help improve instruction, but
                                                     they may be doing more harm
                                           than good. Because retention, tenure,
                                           promotion, and merit salary raises are
                                           influenced by student evaluations,
knowledgeable person would suggest         faculty members make changes in their
that the academic standards, for           courses that they believe will improve
example, of Ohio State University are      their evaluations. This article explores
less rigorous than the University of                                                    these improvements would hurt their
                                           beliefs held by members of the faculty       evaluations. The majority judged that
Ohio. The CSU tradition of teaching        concerning how changes in grading
excellence would not diminish. Faculty                                                  the current system of tenure and
                                           standards and content of courses would       promotion discourages raising stan-
still would be required, for promotion     affect student evaluations and student
and tenure, to run the same grueling                                                    dards, encourages lowering of stan-
                                           learning.                                    dards, and promotes “watering down”
gauntlet about their teaching effective-
ness. Faculty, we would hope, would no                                                  of course content. Most said that
                                           A majority of CSUF faculty who were          ratings are hurt by changes that would
longer feel the need to apologize for      surveyed judged that student learning
being a scholar at CSU.                                                                 improve learning, and that the use of
                                           can be improved by increasing course         student evaluations of teaching is
                                           content and by raising standards for
Cost estimates largely reflect the         grading. However, they also stated that
ideologies of the pronouncing “ex-                                                                  (Continued on page 20)
                                                                                                                                 19
(continued from page 19)                  evaluations, most figure out how to       responded that students are biased
                                          get better evaluations. Do their          against certain groups.
A Survey of Faculty Opin-
                                          adjustments promote student learning?
ions Concerning Student                   No, according to a survey of CSUF         (The questionnaire defined student
Evaluations of Teaching                   faculty.                                  learning as “knowledge of the subject
                                                                                    matter, as might be measured by
harmful to the quality of education. In   Two hundred and eight CSUF faculty        objective, standardized exams...the
another survey of 142 CSUF students,      responded to an email survey. Seventy     sum of knowledge and skills that the
the majority gave highest ratings to      six faculty members had less than 12      student retains from the class and will
courses with the least content and the    years experience (68 were untenured),     be able to use in the future.”)
lowest standards; thus, the faculty       66 had 12 to 24 years, and 64 had
understands student opinion.              more than 24 years. Following are            How would increasing the content
                                          some of the results:                      covered in class and in assigned
A recent issue of American Psycholo-                                                readings affect student learning?
gist featured the controversy on             If you were to RAISE standards         45.2%* said that increasing content
validity and biases of student evalua-    for grades in your class, would it        would increase student learning
tions of teaching. Meta-analysis of       affect your student evaluations?          compared to 27.9% who thought the
studies concluded that less than one-     Nearly two-thirds of those surveyed       opposite.
sixth of the variance of evaluations is   (65.4%* or 136) reported that higher
                                               standards would result in lower         How would raising standards for
                                               evaluations, and only 3.4% (7)       grading affect student learning?
                                               thought the opposite would occur;    57.2%* responded that raising
                                               the others stated no difference.     standards would increase student
                                               (*Asterisks designate that split     learning against only 7.7% who
                                               are statistically significant        indicated the opposite. The theory
                                               throughout this paper.)              most often expressed was that students
                                                                                    will work to achieve a certain grade. If
                                                    If you were to INCREASE         less is required to pass, students ease
                                               the amount of CONTENT                off in their studies, so they learn and
                                               (material) in your classes, would    retain less.
                                               it affect student evaluations?
                                               About two-thirds (65.9%*)               Does the current system of promo-
                                               responded that increasing content    tion and tenure give incentives to
                                          would decrease student evaluations,       RAISE standards for grading? A
associated with educational perfor-       against only 4.8% who stated the
mance. Some authors warned that                                                     surprisingly high 92.3%* stated “no”
                                          opposite. The theory proposed is that     compared to only 5.8% who said “yes.”
ratings are so complicated that anyone    with less content, the student believes
using them for practical purposes must    that the instructor was very successful
understand nonlinear, nonadditive,                                                     Does the current system of promo-
                                          in teaching the subject. Because
multidimensional modeling of con-                                                   tion and tenure encourage faculty to
                                          students do not know what content
founded judgment data.                                                              LOWER their standards? 70.2%*
                                          should have been included in the
                                                                                    said “yes” against 28.8% who said
                                          course, they will not know that
My field of research is human judg-                                                 “no.”
                                          important material has been omitted
ment. With the same methods used in       until later, long after the evaluations
student evaluations, I found that the     are done.                                    Does the use of student evaluations
number 9 is judged to be significantly                                              encourage faculty to “WATER
“bigger” than 221. Since 9 < 221, we                                                DOWN” content in their courses?
                                             Are student evaluations influenced
should be careful not to evaluate                                                   72.1%* said “yes” against 26.9% who
                                          by such variables as the teacher’s
faculty by the same methods that lead                                               said “no.”
                                          personality, attractiveness, gender,
to wrong conclusions.
                                          race, dress, religion, ethnicity,
                                                                                    Thus, the majority opinion of the
                                          sexual orientation, or disability
Apart from the actual validity of                                                   faculty is that the incentive system for
                                          status? In response to this question,
student evaluations is a potentially                                                tenure and promotion causes faculty to
                                          only 16.8% responded that student
more important question, namely, their                                              lower standards and water down
                                          ratings are “unbiased”; 52,4%*
perceived validity. Although some
                                          responded that students are biased in
teachers are fired because of student
                                          favor of certain groups; 26%*                        (Continued on page 21)
                                                                                                                  20
(continued from page 20)                    this problem. Based on data published
A Survey of Faculty Opin-                   each semester at CSUF, students who
                                            plan to be teachers have some of the
ions Concerning Student                     highest grade point averages (GPAs) on
Evaluations of Teaching                     the campus. When asked if students
courses, which most faculty members         with the highest GPAs are indeed the
believe will decrease student learning.     best students, only 12.7%* thought
Apparently, the majority of faculty         these “future teachers” are our best
believe that the incentive system has       students; about twice as many rated
the opposite effect of what a citizen in    these students as below average on the
favor of quality education would            campus, and 55.8% judged them
support.                                    average.                                   100 pages to read in a semester, and
                                                                                       nothing else to do outside of class)
   Over the years, have you changed            What percentage of undergradu-          than to a course with “heavy” content
the amount of material presented in         ates who want to be teachers do you        (800 pages to read and homework
your classes? 48.6%* said that they         think should become teachers?              assignments); only 9 gave highest
now present less material against           Nearly two thirds (63%*) of respon-        ratings to courses with the most
14.9% who said that they present more       dents said that less than half should      content. Only 16.9% (24) rated a
material, and the rest indicated no         become teachers.                           “medium” level of content as better
change.                                                                                than the “light” level, although the
                                               What percentage of graduates in         “medium” course was described as
   Over the years, have you changed         your department possess the general        having “300 pages of medium level
the standards required to get a             education, specific skills, and            reading” to do in the semester, and the
passing grade in your classes?              knowledge base that should be              course might require some study to
32.2%* said that they now use lower         required of a graduate? The median         master the material.
standards against 7.2% who said that        response was 60%. Thus, the average        • 97.9% (139* of 142) gave higher
they now use higher standards.              faculty member believes that two out       ratings to a course with “very easy”
Since the majority opinion is that          of every five of our graduates are not     standards than to a course with “very
reductions in content and standards are     qualified to receive the degrees we        hard” standards. Only 14 (9.8%)
harmful to student learning, it seems       confer upon them.                          students gave their highest ratings to a
sad that so many faculty concede                                                       course with “medium-easy” or “me-
having made changes that they believe       A sample of 142 lower division             dium-hard” standards.
reduced the quality of education.           students evaluated 89 hypothetical
                                            classes, based on combinations of          The “very easy” standards course was
   Please assess the preparation of         three variables: instructor’s individual   described as follows: “This instructor
students who are now enrolled in your       characteristics (personality), standards   gives most students As and Bs, even
college or university, compared to          for grading in the course, and the         those who are struggling with the
previous years. The majority (67.3%*        amount of content. The students            material or who have not been diligent
or 140) reported that students are not      represented 29 different majors; there     in attendance and study. Only the most
as well prepared now, compared to           were also 26 with undeclared majors. I     clueless student will get a C in this
only 2.4% (5) who said the opposite.        anticipated that this heterogeneous mix    class. If a person has half a brain and
When asked what percentage of lower         of students would hold a variety of        attends some of the time, (they get) an
division students possess the study         different views of what would be the       A or a B.” In the “medium-easy” course
skills one should expect of the top 1/3     optimal class. However, to my              most students get As and Bs. “Me-
of high school graduates, the median        surprise, the students were remarkably     dium-hard” was a class with 30% As
response was 40%, with 85 responses         homogeneous in their evaluations of        and Bs, 50% Cs, and 20% Ds and Fs.
below 30% and 134 (64%*) less than          courses:                                   The “very hard” course assigned 7%
or equal to 50%. Apparently, about          • 94.4% (134* of 142) gave higher          As, 13% Bs, 40% Cs, 25% Ds, and
two-thirds of the faculty think that half   evaluations to an “attractive, well-       15% Fail.
or more of our students do not qualify      dressed, 36 year old female with a nice
under the State’s concept for admis-        personality” than to a “62 year old        Students gave the highest rating to the
sion.                                       male with a slight tremor (due to a        course in which the teacher is attrac-
                                            previous stroke) who doesn’t smile in      tive, where the standards for grading
One theory is that declining standards      class.”
for recent new teachers is a cause of       • 92.3% (131*) gave higher ratings to
                                            a class with “light” content (less than                (continued on page 22)
                                                                                                                     21
(continued from page 21)
                                           exams). Therefore, is it reasonable to      required by various education deci-
A Survey of Faculty Opin-                  assume that these same students are         sions in both the United States
                                           accurate when they give evaluative          Supreme Court and the California
ions Concerning Student                    descriptions anonymously with no            Supreme Court.
Evaluations of Teaching                    incentive to be accurate and no penalty
are lowest, and where the content is       for libel?                                  Recently, a personnel committee
least. Apparently, the majority of                                                     member repeated, in writing, a remark
faculty are correct in their understand-   Our incentive system has produced a         he read in a student evaluation. The
ing of what students like.                 decline in standards that diminishes        student comment was false, could have
                                           education. Students are motivated to        been harmful to a professional
What are the conclusions we may draw       get good grades, and faculty are            reputation, and was seen in a perfor-
from this? According to the majority       motivated to get good evaluations.          mance evaluation by several other
of faculty members, the incentive          Unfortunately, both of these interests      parties. The reader will recognize
system (using student evaluations for      can be satisfied by reductions in           these markers as the tests of libelous
promotion and tenure decisions) puts       content and grading standards, which        accusations, libel on the part of the
teachers in a conflict of interest         diminish education. The finding that        student and the professor who repeated
between making changes that would          the average member of our faculty           the false statement.
improve student learning and making        thinks that only 60% of our graduates
changes that would improve student         have educations to match their degrees      Validity is another important issue.
evaluations. An implicit assumption in     is a sign that our institution is in        Students may feel free to falsely
the use of student evaluations is that     trouble. We should begin to study how       accuse a professor when classroom
the average student is more likely right   our incentive system can be changed to      standards are high and, as a result,
than the professor. However, it is         align the interests of students, faculty,   grades are lower. Research shows
dubious if a professor should redesign     and the people of the State.                little correlation between learning and
a course to suit anonymous comments                                                    high evaluations; indeed, some studies
by students who have not yet finished      Editor’s Comment                            show an inverse relationship. That is
one class on the subject. It seems         A more complete version of this paper may   to say, the higher the evaluation, the
doubtful that students who have not yet    be found at http://faculty.fullerton.edu/   less learning—as measured by test
taken the next course in a sequence can    senatenews.                                 scores—has taken place. What does
judge if they were adequately prepared                                                 correlate consistently is
                                           Michael H.Birnbaum, Professor of
in the first course.                                                                   story telling: Profes-
                                           Psychology, is Director of the Decision
                                           Research Center, member of the Publica-     sors
Many students are inaccurate in            tions Committee, Society for Judgement
describing what the teacher said in        and Decision-Making, and on the
class when they are motivated to be as     Executive board of the Society for          who entertain
accurate as possible (when taking          Mathematical Psychology.                    with funny stories
                                                                                       rank higher.

                                                                                       A colleague, new
Reply to Michael Birnbaum’s “Survey of Fac-                                            in her department
ulty Opinions Concerning Student Evaluations                                           and unfamiliar
of Teaching”                                                                           with the evaluation
                                                                                       game, whose stan-
                                                                                       dards were exception-
                                           Gayle H. Vogt                               ally high and whose
                                                                                       course content was
                                                                                       extremely rigorous,


                                           M
                                                      ichael Birnbaum’s article, “A    was placed on
                                                      Survey of Faculty Opinions       probation because
                                                      Concerning Student Evalua-       of low student evaluations. When she
                                           tions of Teaching,” again raises the        learned to manipulate her course, her
                                           issues of fairness and validity in the      evaluations went up, thus increasing
                                           personality contests called “evalua-        the probability for retention. There are
                                           tions.” Fairness is an issue because of     exceptions to these anecdotes,
                                           student anonymity, a direct violation of
                                           procedural due process, a process                      (Continued on page 23)
                                                                                                                     22
(Continued from page 22)
                                                                                     Instructions for completing the page
Reply to Michael Birnbaum’s                                                          read: “Please state your opinion of the
“Survey of Faculty Opinions                                                          instruction in the class. Your state-
Concerning Student Evalua-                                                           ment is significant, for it will be
tions of Teaching”                                                                   placed in the instructor’s Professional
                                                                                     Review File.” A large blank space
certainly, but the truth of them abounds                                             follows and then, at the bottom of the
in and out of academic research                                                      page, students are asked to put a
literature.                                                                          number to their opinion of the instruc-
                                                                                     tion: 5 = excellent; 4 = above average;
Where a professor with a difficult                                                   3 = average; 2 = below average; 1 =
course and demanding standards also                                                  poor.
enjoys high evaluations, a little
investigation often reveals that                                                     What these directions tell students
students’ shopping for an easy class                                                 more or less is this: “We want your
avoid that professor or drop the class                                               opinion, not your evaluation of
                                                                                     instruction. Say what you wish, and
after reading the syllabus. This           Reply to Michael                          whatever you say will be significant to
routine, then, eliminates low-achieving
students who might write disparaging
                                           Birnbaum’s “Survey of                     this instructor’s evaluation by fellow
comments or bubble in low rankings.        Faculty Opinions                          professionals.” Nowhere is there a
Some professors deliberately sound                                                   place for students to comment on their
                                           Concerning Student                        responsibility to the course: “Did you
tough on the first day or two in order
to reduce class size, leaving student      Evaluations of                            attend class regularly? Did you do all
                                                                                     the work expected of you?” No
scholars who value high standards and      Teaching”                                 statement says, “Describe your own
an increased level of learning.
                                                                                     contribution to and involvement in this
                                           Mary Kay Crouch                           class.” As Birnbaum comments,
Those of us who believe, as I do, that
student evaluations of teachers are                                                  students can “give evaluative descrip-
                                                                                     tions anonymously with no incentive

                                           M
invalid, unfair, and thus harmful to                  ichael Birnbaum asked
education also understand that admin-                  faculty questions about       to be accurate and no penalty for
istrators have few alternatives. The                   student evaluations; our      libel” (emphases mine). We put the
disadvantages, though, far outweigh        answers indicate the negative impact      burden for the course solely on the
the advantages. Anonymous evalua-          we believe those evaluations have on      instructor and encourage our students
tions create an exercise of power over a   our teaching. Because my responses to     to do the same. Are we surprised then,
precious faculty liberty, that of due      the survey generally reflect the          at the power students take when they
process. If the university community       majority opinion, in this reply to his    fill out evaluations?
retains this performance measure,          findings, I want to bring up a related
student anonymity should be elimi-         issue which he doesn’t discuss specifi-   When I read some of my student
nated so that faculty members can face     cally. Yet it seems implicit in the       evaluations—and I am one of those
their accusers and even sue for libel      chemistry of faculty evaluation which     who does read them every
where warranted. If students were held     Dr. Birnbaum does discuss: the
to the same standards in their evalua-     design of student evaluations. For
tions as are faculty members in their      the way in which we ask our
grading practices, the entire system       students to evaluate us is no doubt
would be improved.                         mirrored in their responses that we
                                           then have to defend and/or explain
                                           during RTP processes.
Gayle Vogt is a member of the
Marketing/Business Writing Depart-         In my department, for example,
ment. She currently serves on the          students are given a sheet of nearly
Faculty Affairs Committee as well as       blank paper which is titled STU-
the University Board on Writing            DENT OPINION FORM (note the
Proficiency. Gayle was elected to the      word opinion as opposed to
Academic Senate in 1990-93 and             “evaluation”).
again from 1995-97.
                                                                                                (continued on page 24)
                                                                                                                    23
(continued from page 23)                   In the language course I’ve discussed
Reply to Michael                           here, student evaluations tend to run
                                           below the department average for those
Birnbaum-Mary Kay
                                           of us who teach it because most
Crouch                                     students entering credential programs
term—I wonder at times if the students     must receive at least a C, some a B, or
and I took part in the same class. Let     they will have to retake it. Since the
me give an example. I regularly teach      course represents very high stakes for
an upper division course which studies     them, students often vent their frustra-
t h e structure of the English             tions about it and their grades through
                                           the end of term evaluation. Therefore,
                                           when I sit on our Department Person-
                                           nel Committee, I pay attention to the
                                           classification of the courses for which
                                           instructors are being evaluated,
                                           especially in high stakes situations for
                                                                                      Reply to Michael
                                           faculty, e.g., RTP decisions or reten-     Birnbaum’s
                                           tion decisions for part time lecturers     “Survey of Faculty
                                           who teach writing. Teaching certain
                                           courses can be hazardous to one’s          Opinions Concerning
                                           future at the university.                  Student Evaluations of
                                           Michael Birnbaum’s survey reveals the
                                                                                      Teaching”
                                           divide that exists between what we
                                           believe in as teachers and what our        D. V. Ramsamooj
language. This course is required          students believe about themselves as
of students majoring in English and in     learners. I hope in the future Dr.



                                                                                      I
Liberal Studies who intend to go into      Birnbaum will look into the design of              want to share the experience of
teaching. Students often find the          student evaluations, because the                  the Department of Civil Engi-
course very difficult because they have                           manner in which            neering, over a period of eight
little background in this area. Last                              the questions or           years, of the relationship between
spring, one student opined: “[Dr.                                statements on        student evaluations and student
Crouch] makes us feel guilty, incom-                               evaluation forms   learning in different sections of the
petent, and ignorant for the things that                                are pre-      same class with common final exami-
we don’t know rather than praise us or                                  sented        nations. A comparison of student
reinforce what we do know.” I won’t                                   certainly       evaluations with final examination test
give credence to that “opinion of                                      lends          scores showed that the best student
instruction” by defending myself, but I                                    credence   evaluations were obtained by the
can say that guilt, incompetence, and                                      (or not)   professor whose students learned the
ignorance are not my goals for the                                       to student   least.
course.                                                              responses.
                                           Perhaps faculty need to do a better job    In September 1988, my department
And note what else this comment            of educating our students about            instituted common examinations in
implies, again something which the         standards by designing evaluations         Statics and Dynamics. There were as
survey brings out. The student is not      which ask students to comment on the       many as seven sections of each class at
concerned about what s/he doesn’t          things we believe make up good             the peak enrollment period in the
know. Instead, the student expects         teaching and learning in our disci-        School of Engineering, with an
praise and warm fuzzies for whatever       plines.                                    average of about three to four sections
knowledge he or she has. As a female                                                  per semester. Generally, the number
instructor, I can’t miss the implied                                                  of students in each section did not
mothering/nurturing expectations that                                                 exceed 30, but occasionally a few
lurk behind this comment: “You’re a                                                   faculty members taught double
woman. Be a good mother to us,                                                        sections. The final examinations were
                                           Mary Kay Crouch is Associate               prepared by all of the instructors. The
praise us, and then you’ll be a good       Professor of English & Comparative
teacher.” I teach students; I mother my                                               student test papers were also graded by
                                           Literature
daughter.                                                                                           (Continued on page 25)
                                                                                                                           24
(Continued from page 24)
                                            ment. On the other hand, one
Reply to Michael                            professor whose students’
                                            performance was almost
Birnbaum’                                   always the best, received
all of the instructors; the same instruc-   only average student evalua-
tor graded each test question for all       tions.
sections. Students also evaluated each
instructor and class section by means       It is generally accepted that
of student ratings.                         common examinations are
                                            the most objective means of
There was a great disparity in the          assessing the quality of
average test scores of individual           education. They are used
sections —some sections did much            nationally and internationally to
better on the average than others.          judge student learning. Accordingly, it    the accreditation process, knows that it
Often there was a difference of two         must be concluded that there was an        cannot guarantee adequate academic
letter grades between the average test      inverse correlation between student        standards, as do, for example, the
scores of the highest and lowest            evaluations and teaching effectiveness.    Engineer-in-Training (EIT) and
sections of the same class. However,                                                   Professional License (PE) examina-
the average final grades assigned to        Student evaluation is important, as the    tions. One way of ensuring adequate
each class, using the same grading          students may have valuable informa-        academic standards is to have the final
scales for all classes, were adjusted       tion about their teachers. However, in     examination in each course prepared
because of political reasons and social     a university where there is only a         by an external agency. The test papers
promotion. This meant that students         personal or professorial standard, the     may be graded by the course instruc-
who would have failed if common             academic standards vary greatly. In        tors for economy and other practical
standards were used, were allowed to        such a system, the penetration into the    purposes, but they should be open to
pass the course.                            subject and the academic standards         review by authorized personnel. In this
                                            may suffer. In such a system, high         way, low performing classes may be
The most interesting point is that there    evaluations may represent lower            identified and the educational process
was one professor whose students’           standards rather than higher learning.     improved.
performance in both courses was
always the lowest. But this professor       There are those teachers who students      Without common examinations we
consistently obtained the highest           take when they really want to learn, and   would not have learned that the
student evaluation in the Depart-                  there are those who students        professor who obtained the highest
                                                       take when they merely wish      evaluations also taught the students the
                                                       to pass the course. Low-        least. With common examinations, the
                                                        performing students enjoy      self-interests of students, the teachers,
                                                        lower academic standards       and society are aligned.
                                                        and tend to evaluate such
                                                        easy teachers highly.
                                                                                       Editor’s Comment
                                                       Whatever the level of
                                                                                       If you wish to add your own replies to
                                                       preparation the students        Birnbaun’s thesis and/or to the replies, please
                                                       have for college, their         go to the discussion group at http://
                                                       level of performance at the     faculty.fullerton.edu/senatenews.
                                                       time of graduation should
                                                       be adequate in order to
                                                                                       D. V. Ramsamooj is a Professor of
                                                       protect the public from
                                                                                       Civil and Environmental Engineering
                                                       malpractice or sub-
                                                       professional work. As in
                                                       any system, there ought to
                                                       be a sufficient number of
                                                       checks and balances.
                                                       Professional accreditation
                                                       helps to establish some
                                                       minimum standard, but
                                                        anyone who understands

                                                                                                                                   25
(Continued from page 1)                   one of disseminator and creator of         about our work.
                                          knowledge to include, first, gover-
What Should the Role                      nance, and second, quasi-administra-       Here, then, a modest proposal. First,
of Faculty Members be                     tive tasks, including provision of data    we know, and must be ever vigilant in
                                          and various reports in support of public   informing the wider community -
at the End of the 20th                    relations. And this occurred without       including campus (but they really know
Century?                                  any diminution of teaching loads. In       this) and systemwide administrators -
                                          fact student faculty ratios have risen     that faculty at CSUF provide excep-
                                          significantly since CSUF was founded,      tional value and quality in education,
                                          and this is not atypical.                  often to students whose dreams would
                                                                                     never be realized without our efforts.
                                          Plato had it easier in several ways.       We should all quote Tracy Caldwell to
                                          Starting out with substantial gifts to     someone every day! This is essential if
                                          found his Academy and continuing on        what we believe our primary role -
                                          generous bequests, it seems that he        teaching and creating - is not to become
                                          was not asked whether he was doing         secondary. Is this a plea to jump on the
                                          much worthwhile; his public saw that as    accountability bandwagon? No. It is a
                                          self-evident. And his students, while      plea to make a greater individual effort
                                          they were diverse for the time - women     to help non-academics with whom we
                                          were included - came to the Academy        have daily contact understand that we
                                          with good educations (entering             are not locked in an ivory tower with
                                          students were required to be proficient    every summer free. That we care about
Jane Hall                                 in geometry, for example - no remedial     and engage actively with our students,
                                          math) and no need to work or to            and are committed to continue to do
                                          maintain a family. So, the faculty role    this. This does not mean detailing how
Neither the basic objectives - creating   was clear - teach and create knowledge,    hard we work, or how far faculty
and imparting knowledge - nor the basic   with a ready and willing group of          salaries have lagged. Tell stories about
methods - inquiry and interaction         students with freedom from what, in        students who “catch on,” the ones who
among groups of learners with an expert   the modern state university, are           come back 10years later with flourish-
faculty member in the lead - has          increasingly burdensome requirements       ing careers, the ones who write notes
changed. Arguably, the basic nature of    for multiple and often detailed reports    saying that you were a monster at the
humans, and of human interaction, has     that bear no direct relationship to the    time, but they now realize how much
not changed either. So the obvious        faculty member’s primary role.             they learned by your insistence on
answer would seem to be that we create                                               their making more effort. We are
and disseminate knowledge, and that       Having whinged and
we do this by means of close interac-     whined and harkened
tion with our students, and exchanges     back to a dead philoso-
of various kinds with our professional    pher (always a good
peers. The modern university being        refuge for an academic),
somewhat more complex than a small        what should we do about
suburban university named for a local     this? How do we define
demigod, we also engage in collegial      our role? What weight
processes of governance and interac-      should we give to
tion with administrators and policy-      different aspects of the
makers on the campus and beyond.          multi-faceted work that
The modern state university, depending    we do? How do we set
as it does on taxpayer support and        and protect boundaries
offering access to a broad spectrum of    so that our primary role
students, also demands that we            is not further dimin-
respond to the public’s reasonable wish   ished? Presumably we wish to
to know what we are doing with their      maintain that role, or we would not be     small bits in a vast system. If that
money.                                    faculty members. Picasso was               system is not going to squeeze us out
                                          speaking of artists, but his words are     of teaching and into paperwork, we
Notice in the preceding paragraph how     no less true of us. Seduced as we are      need to let the public know, on an
smoothly the faculty role expanded        by the prospect of learning, and of        individual basis, what goes on in our
from the time-honored and primary         passing knowledge on, we do care
                                                                                                   (Continued on page 27)
                                                                                                                        26
(continued from page 26)                  faculty in it. If we abrogate these
                                          responsibilities, we lose the right to            they will be replaced whenever
What Should the Role of                   define who we are. In an age where the            possible with cheaper and less secure
Faculty Members be at the                 state university system faces competi-            people. For example, it makes no sense
End of the 20th Century?                  tion from the University of Phoenix               to managers that I teach two sections
                                          and its ilk, as well as demands to                of Introduction to Economics, a course
                                          provide access to increasing numbers              that, from their point of view, can be
classrooms and offices. Our students
                                          of sometimes ill-prepared students,               taught by anyone minimally qualified.
must have faces and not just be
                                          without increasing costs, it would be             So when I leave my university, I will
incomprehensible numbers in the
                                          all too easy for a faculty member’s               likely be replaced with part-time
public mind.
                                          primary role in the next millennium to            faculty. The other courses I teach can
                                          become mediator of electronic                     either be dropped, or if needed, taught
Second, it seems that I hear daily from
                                          learning.                                         by other part-timers or shifted to the
faculty, department chairs, deans, and
                                                                                            remaining teachers on an overload
up, that we are required to produce too
                                          If we are committed to providing                  basis.
much paper. No sooner is one report
sent on than a demand for another flies   opportunities to learn that are appro-
                                          priate and effective for our students,            Systematic hiring fits in nicely with
in over the transom. Frankly, the best
                                          and to advancing knowledge in other               the Babbage principle. The idea is to
we can do on
                                          ways, it is incumbent on us to insist             hire people who can be easily con-
                                          that this is our primary role. To do              trolled. Of course, most new teachers
                                          otherwise is to concede the battle to             do not have to be controlled since they
                                          the likes of Spencer Tracy in Desk Set.           have already learned that they must
                                          If we are to have a say in defining our           behave themselves if they want to get
                                          primary role, it is then incumbent on             tenure (this, in turn, is partly a
                                          us to continue to engage in collegial             function of the glut of new teachers
                                          governance, and to do this effectively.           brought about by the use of part-timers,
                                                                                            temporaries, etc.). Over the past 20
                                                                                            years at my campus, not a single new
                                          Editor’s Comment
                                          If you would like to begin chronicling your
                                                                                            faculty member has become an active
this one
                                          own classroom “success stories,” go to            dissident; few have been willing to
is to continue
                                          http://faculty.fullerton.edu/senatenews           take even the smallest risk. The part-
requesting (as the Academic Senate
                                          and help us all to begin telling our stories to   timers and other contingent teachers
just has, in our response to the
                                          those who will listen.                            are, almost by definition, so insecure
systemwide draft accountability
                                                                                            that they will seldom rock the boat, no
document) that reports be consolidated    Jane Hall is a Professor of Economics,            matter what an administration does.
and integrated with timetables for        and Chair of the Academic Senate
reports that we already produce, and
                                                                                            The two most important control
that the purpose and use of required
                                                                                            mechanisms, in my view, are the stress
reports be made clear. We can also
                                          (Continued from the Back Page)                    now being placed on our system and
politely inquire as to the need for
                                                                                            mechanization in the form of comput-
reports, when their objective is truly    Frederick Taylor                                  ers. On an automobile assembly line,
obscure or they promise to absorb
resources essential to another task       Comes to College                                  stress is delivered by speeding up the
                                                                                            line, reducing the amount of materials
more central to our primary role.
                                          Japanese call “kaizen” or constant                available to workers, or taking a
                                          improvement), and mechanization. The              person off the line. Sooner or later, a
Finally, while it does take time,
                                          use of the division of labor is based on          bottleneck appears along the line,
collegial governance is an essential
                                          the “Babbage principle” after the                 indicated by flashing lights. Then
part of maintaining the primacy of our
                                          mathematician and entrepreneur,                   management focuses attention on the
central role of teaching and creating.
                                          Charles Babbage (inventor of the first            trouble spot and the workers, usually
Curricular development and standards,
                                          computer). The idea is to substitute              grouped into teams, are expected to
recruiting and evaluating our peers,
                                          lesser skilled (cheaper) labor for                solve the problem, but without the
advising on budget allocations (and
                                          skilled (more expensive) labor when-              stress being removed. When they solve
myriad other important tasks) must be
                                          ever possible. This we see being done             the problem (by working faster, for
undertaken by faculty because the
                                          with a vengeance with the proliferation           example), management has gained a
decisions and policies that result from
                                          of part-time, temporary, non-tenure,              reduction in unit cost. In the colleges
these processes determine the future
                                          and graduate student instructors. As
of the institution and the role of
                                          more expensive faculty retire or leave,                    (Continued on page 28)
                                                                                                                               27
(Continued from page 27)                   which includes the detailed study of         of “differential teaching” in which
                                           what professors do, breaking the             those who don’t publish enough or
Frederick Taylor                                                                        bring in enough grants will be punished
                                           faculty job down in classic Tayloristic
Comes to College                           fashion into discrete tasks, and             by being forced to teach more. If it
and universities, the stress takes the     determining what parts can be auto-          cared, it would not allow professors to
form of recurring budget cuts (these       mated or outsourced. Educom believes         “buy back” their courses by hiring part-
are usually blamed by our employers        that course design, lectures, and even       timers to teach them. (I was once hired
on outside forces, such as state           evaluation can all be standardized,          to teach a course at the central campus
legislatures, but they are really the      mechanized, and consigned to outside         by a professor who literally begged me
result of their own plans). We are then    commercial vendors. ‘Today you’re            to do it and who had never previously
expected to continue to teach an           looking at a highly personal human           met me and knew nothing about my
increasing number of students with         mediated environment,’ Educom                background.)
fewer resources. We are encouraged to      president Robert Heterich observed.
believe that we must all pull together     “The potential to remove the human           Undergraduates are a major source of
to get through the crisis, though a        mediation in some areas and replace it       the large sums of money needed to
minute’s reflection would tell us that     with automation-smart, computer-             convert the university from a school
the crisis is permanent and has already    based, network-based systems is              into a business. These expenses are the
consumed most of our work lives and        tremendous. It’s gotta happen.”              main reason why tuitions have risen by
that we suffer (as do all of the other                                                  a much greater percentage than have
workers in academe, such as secretar-      It is reasonable to ask why all of this is   prices for so many years. Now that
ies, maintenance and custodial, and        happening. The proliferation of              further tuition increases are getting
food service employees) dispropor-         administrative staff, the extraordinarily    difficult to sustain, the universities are
tionately to the top administrators who    high salaries paid to top administrators     coming after us, ruthlessly cutting the
continue to draw the largest salaries      and research faculty, the tremendous         cost of instruction and pressuring us to
and whose staffs continue to grow. We      expansion of buildings, laboratories,        work harder. (I should note that some
“alleviate” the stress by teaching more    and computing equipment at universi-         money has to be spent on students,
overloads, doing more class prepara-       ties around the country suggest that it      mainly to entertain them. In addition,
tion, agreeing to larger class sizes,      is not a true financial crisis which is to   students must be led to believe that
foregoing sabbaticals, never asking for    blame. Rather, I think that the universi-    their “education” is the reason why
release time, paying for our own           ties have become centers of accumula-        their wages will be higher after
conference trips, making fewer copies      tion, or, to put it more bluntly, places     graduation than they would have been
of articles, concurring with the hiring    in which a lot of money can be made.         had they not gone to college. It       re-
of more part-timers and temporary          Universities today are more concerned
instructors, and so forth.                 about generating patentable research,
                                           often the basis for spin-off businesses
The electronic revolution confronts us     owned by researchers and administra-
with the most extreme assault on our       tors, and the corresponding alliance
traditional patterns of work. The future   with private corporations (which
will see more and more distance            supply computer software and hard-
education, the cloning of lectures         ware, purchase the patentable research,
captured on video and sent out over the    form partnerships with researchers and
web, the forcing of faculty to put their   administrators, and supply employment
courses online, increased electronic       for the higher ups in the academy when
monitoring of faculty effort, and other    they leave academe) than with anything
such methods of substituting capital       else.
for labor. Teaching as traditionally
practiced is labor intensive and the       It may seem heretical to say it, but         ally makes no             difference to
labor is not especially cheap. These       most universities have no sincere            the university and, sad to say, to many
facts are inimical to sound business       commitment whatever to the education         students, whether they learn anything
practice, so the obvious remedy is to      of undergraduates. If they did, they         or not.)
replace us with machines, the prices of    would not be employing the lean
which have been falling for quite          production techniques outlined above,        In the face of what is essentially an
awhile. As David Noble puts it:            all of which are harmful to the “pro-        attack on the craft of teaching, the
“Educom, the academic-corporate            duction” of educated human beings. If,       reactions of the teachers have been
consortium, has recently established       for example, my university cared, it
their Learning Infrastructure Initiative   would not be implementing a system                      (Continued on page 29)
                                                                                                                                28
(continued from page 28)                   unimaginable. No matter how odious          will be accompanied with a lot of hype
                                           our administrators might think a            about how electronic education allows
Frederick Taylor                           particular university decision is they      the schools to tailor schooling to the
                                           always go along. They know who
Comes to College                           butters their bread. The university has
                                                                                       exact needs of individual students and
                                                                                       to serve constituencies who otherwise
remarkably passive. Some of us keep        decided to try to break the union of        could not go to school. But this will be
our heads firmly in the sand; a few of     maintenance and custodial workers at        propaganda masking the true motive:
us have actually become cheerleaders       my campus over pathetically small           raising large revenues with minimum
for lean production. A friend of mine      sums of money (to the university,           costs.
and I gave a talk at a conference on       though not to the financially strapped
education and technology. In it, we        and hardworking employees), a truly         In the end, our only hope is to organize
pointed out the potential downside of      rotten thing to do, but not so awful that   ourselves, both at our workplaces and
things such as distance learning. Our      any of our administrators would take a      with teachers around the world. Some
presentation was met with derisive         public stand against it.                    teachers, including graduate students,
attacks from academics that believed                                                   have done this, but the resulting unions
that the electronic revolution was, by     Probably the most common faculty            have been rather tepid examples of
definition, a good thing. They could       response is cynicism. We distance           what is needed, namely militant
not grasp that technology is always        ourselves from our colleges and refuse      organizations aimed at taking control
embedded in a system of social             to participate much in their affairs.       of the schools so that they can serve the
relationships and that, in a capitalist    This is an understandable response;         majority of people, creatively and
society, technology can and will be        after all, the crisis forced on us causes   equally. Unfortunately, for most
used to control workers. There are         a lot of pain and anguish. But even as      faculty, any type of formal organizing
even teachers who argue that tenure        we are cynical, we do continue to solve     is too big a step to take immediately.
may not be a good thing, or that the       the pressures created by the continued      So, in the short term, perhaps we can
downsizing of the universities may be a    stressing of our system. We do give up      do some things to show our employers
blessing in disguise because it will       our sabbaticals; we do teach larger         that we know what is going on and that
give us a chance to weed out superflu-     classes; we do pile on the overtime; we     we do not like it. First, we can begin to
ous departments and programs.              do not challenge our employers when
                                           they tell us there is no money for
At my college, many teachers seem to       anything; we act as if it is impossible
believe that there are good and bad        to do anything about the shrinking of       We can challenge ad-
administrators; if we could just get rid   the tenure stream faculty. We could
of the bad ones, our problems would        resist but we do not.
                                                                                       ministrative policies
disappear. They fail to understand that                                                with speeches, with
all administrators are firmly positioned   What is worse, the very accommoda-
in the corporate hierarchies that are      tions we now make to lean production        letters, with petitions,
implementing all of these policies.        prepare our work for its final mecha-       with emails, to them, to
They do not act in our interests           nized degradation. There are plenty of
because they cannot do so and keep         studies purporting to show that, in         the media, to politi-
their jobs. If our administrators were     terms of narrowly defined competen-
really on our side, they would under-      cies, distance learning yields the same
                                                                                       cians, to board mem-
stand that in a war, the generals have     results as classroom teaching. As we        bers, any way we can.
to do more than make private pleas.        allow our work to be stressed, we
They have to rouse the troops to action.   inevitably begin to take shortcuts (less
                                           writing, more “objective” tests, less       speak out in meetings and in private
If our branch campus wanted more           rigor, greater willingness to agree to      conversations. When administrators
money from the central university, our     the elimination of low enrollment           say something ridiculous or simple-
administrators would try to put enough     programs in difficult subjects, etc.) to    minded, we must challenge them. We
pressure on the university to get it.      ease the stress. But as we do this, we      can challenge administrative policies
They would mobilize faculty, staff, and    make the learning experience more           with speeches, with letters, with
students to write letters, send emails,    amenable to replication through             petitions, with emails, to them, to the
march and demonstrate in Pittsburgh        electronic means. Administrators will       media, to politicians, to board mem-
and the state capitol, Harrisburg, raise   then say, with some truth, that we          bers, any way we can.
a fuss in public meetings, and other       might as well put our product on the
such direct actions until the university   Internet. It is a lot cheaper and the       Second, we can refuse to participate in
capitulated. But, of course, this is       results are the same. Of course, this
                                                                                                 (Continued on page 30)
                                                                                                                    29
(Continued from page 29)
Frederick Taylor                            We would like to hear from you. Send your com-
Comes to College                            ments, articles, photographs of special events, car-
our own demise. We can insist on our
                                            toons, or suggestions to the editor, Sorel Reisman.
leaves and let the university turn us
down. (At my college, we just received      Phone: X4861
a memo canceling all sabbaticals for        Email: AcademicSenateNews@Exchange.fullerton.edu
next year. So much for collegiality on
this matter.) We can appeal the
decision and make it public. We can
refuse to teach overload. We can            Of 40 Memories
refuse to give up our syllabi and to put
our courses on line. We can resist any      -- unspoken
                                                                                      Compliments
administrative prying into our class-
rooms. We can, at least if we are
                                                      n order of priority
                                                                                      of the Season
tenured, refuse to give student evalua-
tions; if we do give them, we can
refuse to show them to any administra-
tor. These can only be used against us,
as is also the case for the teaching and
research dossiers teachers are now
                                            I         In step like sheep we walk
                                                      Since summoned by authority
                                                      (To celebrate diversity?)
                                            Donned in black - we talk
                                            Our voices hushed by music loud
                                                                                          from the Forum


                                            Ready is the circus crowd.
commonly required to furnish each
                                            On narrow chairs, seated neatly row by
year to their supervisors. We can
                                            row,
refuse to serve on committees,                                                       THE SENATE
                                            We hear our leader tout
including those that hire new faculty
                                            Of excellence, achievements great;
members, unless these are going to be
given real authority. Third, we can offer
our support to any group on campus,
                                            Our tall leader has it made:
                                            All achievements, great or small
                                                                                     forum
                                            We owe to leadership - so say all.
such as students or other employees,                                                 The Forum is a publication of the
                                            For three hours we sit and listen
who are resisting being sacrificial                                                  Academic Senate of California State
                                            Wondering if something missing:
lambs. If we are going to protest what                                               University, Fullerton
                                            Full time faculty - now 655
is happening to us, we had better
                                            Remedial students by the thousands
realize that we will need the support of                                             Editorial/Production Team
                                            Student achievement takes a dive.
others and to get this, we must give
                                            Excellence in what we ask?
unconditional encouragement and aid                                                  Editor - Sorel Reisman, Management
                                            Part-time faculty to the task.           Science/Information Systems
to working people on and off the
                                            Their load as high as 21                 Design and Production: John Nworie –
campus.
                                            Who has lost and who has won?            Faculty Development Center
Perhaps the cynics are right and            While heavy load is on our back,         Production Director : Arlene Ehrenburger –
nothing will come of any efforts            Peter’s Principle is well on track:      Senate Staff
we make on our own behalf. I do             With more Directors being floated,       Editor at Large: Harriet Brown
not believe this, and the history of        Administration now is fully bloated.
resistance movements tells me               While they are boasting                  Editorial Board Members,
that it is not true. But even if we         We are roasting.
accomplish little, at least we will                                                  Jane Hall : Editorial Confidante - Econom-
                                            Considered as a stimulant,
stop living on our knees.                                                            ics
                                            Remember, learning is now imminent.      Ed Trotter: Editor Without Portfolio -
                                            A million dollars for more sport!        Communications
                                            Who’s in charge, who holds the fort?     Vince Buck: Editorial Critic - Political
                                            With ignorance and gullibility galore,   Science
Michael D. Yates is Professor of
                                            Soft money unaccounted for,              Sandra Sutphen: Shadow Secretary -
Economics at the University of
                                            What will our future hold in store?      Political Science
Pittsburg at Johnstown and a labor
                                            To walk in silence like some sheep,
educator.
                                            To acquiesce and stay asleep.

                                            Anonymous
                                                                                                                            30
             forum   THE

                     BACK PAGE
THE SENATE




   Volume XIV, Number 1, Fall 1999             A publication of the Academic Senate, California State University, Fullerton

                                                                                      The most comprehensive system of
                                                                                      managerial control has been pioneered
                                                                                      by Japanese automobile manufacturers
                                                                                      and is known to its critics as “lean
                                                                                      production.” It is based on the twin
                                                                                      ideas that every aspect of work must be
                                                                                      controlled to the greatest degree
                                                                                      possible and that the employees must
                                                                                      be led to believe not only that this is
                                                                                      good for them but that they have some
                                                                                      real say in directing their enterprise.
                                                                                      With our faculty senates and their
                                                                                      ideology of shared governance, many
                                                                                      of us have already absorbed the second

Frederick Taylor                                                                      idea. The first idea is more radical, and
                                                                                      poorly understood by most of us.


Comes to College                                                                      The control over work is necessary if
                                                                                      management is to contain costs and
                                                                                      enlarge the organization’s surplus.
Breaking faculty jobs into discrete tasks                                             There are many aspects to lean
                                                                                      production, some of which need not
                                                                                      concern us, at least yet, because they
By Michael D. Yates                                                                   are impossible, at least so far, to apply
                                                                                      to teachers. For example, the job of
Reprinted with permission of the author and Z magazine Network                        teaching college students is not as
                                                                                      susceptible as are most other jobs to
                                                                                      Tayloristic time and motion studies.

I
      do not think that many faculty members would challenge the notion that
     their universities are run by people who are primarily managers and not          (See historian David Noble’s article,
     academics. At the University of Pittsburgh at Johnstown, where I work, our       “Digital Diploma Mills,” Monthly
administrators have never been scholars and no more so than at present when the       Review, February 1998, for evidence
very titles so common to academe have been changed to reflect the managerial          that this is being considered.) Nor is
and business like role those who hold these titles are expected to play. We do not    the utilization of “just-in-time”
go to the Dean’s office but to that of the Vice President for Academic Affairs.       inventory, an innovation in which a firm
                                                                                      keeps no stock on hand but rather has it
As any management expert will tell you, the essence of management is control,         delivered just as needed, usually by an
control over every aspect of the enterprise. In most workplaces, the one element      outside contractor. (Here again, the use
that can impede the ability of management to control its domain is the human          of part-time teachers called on just as
element. That is why managerial control is essentially a matter of controlling the    needed, i.e., without advance notice,
organization’s employees, or to use a word that college teachers don’t like to        can be considered a form of just-in-
hear, its workers. Over the past 150 years or so, managers have devised a number      time.)
of techniques for managing (controlling) their employees. These techniques have
been theorized and systematized, first by Frederick Taylor, and many times since      Those features of lean production
by his disciples. It is possible to learn these techniques and the theory behind      which are applicable to teaching are the
                                                                                                                             More
them in business schools, seminars, and journals. We must have no doubt that our      detailed division of labor, systematic
administrators have studied the theory and practice of managerial control and that    hiring, stressing the system (what the Inside
they are busy applying what they have learned.
                                                                                                 (Continued on page 27)