THE ASSESSMENT AND MONITORING OF PRODUCTIVE PEDAGOGIES, INCORPORATING THE COMPILATION OF RICH TEACHING TASKS. TEAM MEMBERS - 2005 Leanne Anstee Jill Ridgwell Alan Ritter PURPOSE The purpose of this document is to examine: What we teach. How teachers teach it. How students show it. This document provides information and resources for teachers to monitor and assess the productive pedagogies that are happening in their classrooms. It also details rich teaching tasks that are linked to the Victorian Essential Learning Standards. PROGRAM What we teach. RICH TASKS How kids do it. PRODUCTIVE PEDAGOGIES How teachers teach it. The above triad is reflected in the three clusters and families of practices that are essential for survival in the worlds that students will live and work in. The table below describes the interactive requirements of new life worlds and futures orientation. Learn to do – Development of potential Learning to Learn – Development of life long learners Goal Setting Learning styles Emotional literacy Rubrics Negotiated curriculum Reflective Journals Portfolios Connectedness Learn to live together – Development of community Emotional intelligence Communication Social Skills Boys’ education Negotiated Curriculum Connectedness Communication Student engagement Explicit performance criteria Rich assessment tasks Reflections Higher Order Thinking Deep understandings Connectedness Learning to be – Development of self worth Communication Student engagement Explicit performance criteria Rich assessment tasks Reflections Portfolios Higher order Thinking Deep understanding Connectedness Productive Pedagogies Productive pedagogies are classroom strategies that teachers can use to focus instruction and improve student outcomes. Some strategies are more suited for teaching certain knowledge and skills than others. The following table identifies the four main dimensions of productive pedagogies and lists questions that provide a focus for teacher reflection. STRATEGY Recognition of Difference Cultural knowledge FOCUS QUESTIONS Are cultural knowledges brought into play? Are deliberate attempts made to increase the participation of students of different backgrounds? Inclusivity Narrative Is the style of teaching principally narrative or is it expository? Group Identity Does the teaching build a sense of community and identity? Are attempts made to foster active citizenship? Active Citizenship Social Support Student Control Do students have any say in the pace, direction or outcomes of the lesson? Is the classroom a socially supportive and positive environment? Social Support Engagement Are students engaged and on task? Explicit Criteria Are the criteria for judging student performance made explicit? Self Regulation Is the direction of student behaviour implicit and self- regulatory? STATEGY Connectedness Knowledge Integration FOCUS QUESTIONS Does the lesson range across diverse fields, disciplines and paradigms? Background Knowledge Is there an attempt to connect with students’ knowledge? Do the lessons and the assigned work have any resemblance or connections to real-life contexts? Connectedness to the World Problem Based Curriculum Is there a focus on identifying and solving intellectual / real world problems? Intellectual Quality Higher Order Thinking Are higher order thinking and critical analysis occurring? Does the lesson cover operational fields in any depth, detail or level of specificity? Do the work and response of the students provide evidence of depth of understanding of concepts and ideas? Does classroom talk break out of initiation/response/evaluation pattern and lead to sustained dialogue between students/teachers and students? Deep Knowledge Deep Understanding Substantive Conversation Knowledge as Problematic Are students critiquing and secondguessing texts, ideas and knowledge? Are aspects of language, grammar and technical vocabulary being foregrounded? Metalanguage PRODUCTIVE PEDAGOGY SUMMARY Recognition of Difference Cultural Knowledges – Cultural Knowledges are valued when more than one cultural group s present and given status within the curriculum. Cultural groups can be distinguished by gender, ethnicity, race, religion, economic status or youth. Inclusivity – Inclusivity is identified by the degree to which non-dominant groups are represented in classroom practices by participation. Narrative- Narrative in lessons is identified by as emphasis in teaching and in student responses on such things as the use of personal stories, biographies, historical accounts, literary and cultural texts. Group Identity- Group Identity is manifested when differences and group identities are both positively developed and recognised while at the same time a sense of community is created. This requires going beyond a simple politics of tolerance. Active Citizenship – Active Citizenship is developed when the teacher elaborates the rights and responsibilities of groups and individuals in a democratic society and facilities its practice both inside and outside the classroom. Connectedness Connectedness to the World- Connectedness to the world measures the extent to which the lesson has value and meaning beyond the instructional context, exhibiting a connection to the larger social context within which students live. Problem-based Curriculum- Problem-based curriculum is identified by lessons in which students are presented with a specific real, practical, or hypothetical problem (or set of problems) to solve. Knowledge integration- Knowledge integration is identifiable when knowledge is connected across subject boundaries do not exist. Background Knowledge- Background knowledge is valued when lessons provide explicit links with students’ prior experience. This may include community knowledge , local knowledge, personal experience, media and popular cultures sources. Intellectual Quality Higher Order Thinking- Higher order thinking requires students to manipulate information and ideas in ways that transform their meaning and implications. This transformation occurs when students combine facts and ideas in order to synthesise, generalise, explain, hypothesise or arrive at some conclusion or interpretation. Manipulation information and ideas through these processes allows students to solve and discover new (for them) meanings and understandings. Deep Knowledge- Deep knowledge concerns the central ideas of a topic or discipline. Knowledge is deep or thick because such knowledge is judged to be crucial to a topic or discipline Deep Understanding- Deep understanding is shown when students develop relatively complex understandings and demonstrate them by discovering relationships, solving problems, construction explanations and drawing conclusions. Substantive Conversation- Substantiative conversation is evident when there is considerable teacher- students and student-student interaction about the ideas of a substantive topic; the interaction is reciprocal, and it promotes coherent shared understanding. Knowledge as Problematic- Knowledge as problematic involves presenting and understanding of knowledge as being constructed, and hence subject to political, social and cultural influences and implications. Supportive Classroom Environment Student Direction- Student direction examines the degree of student influence on the nature of activities and the way they are implemented. Social Support – Social Support is present in classes when the teacher supports students by conveying high expectations for all students: these expectations include that it si necessary to take risks and try hard to master challenging academic work, that all members of the class can learn important knowledge and skills, and that a climate of mutual respect among all members of the class contributes to achievement by all. Academic Engagement- Academic engagement is identified by on-task behaviours that signal a serious investment in class work: these include attentiveness, doing the assigned work, and showing enthusiasm for this work by taking initiative to raise question, contribute to group tasks and help peers. Self- Regulation- Self-regulation by students is high when teachers are not making or not having to having to make statements that aim to discipline students’ behaviour or to regulate students’ movements and dispositions. Explicit quality Performance Criteria - Explicit quality performance criteria are frequent, detailed and specific statements about what it is students are to do in order to achieve. This may involve overall statements regarding tasks or assignments, or about performance at different stages in a lesson. RICH TASKS A rich task has the following characteristics: An integrated intellectual and linguistic, social and cultural practice. Represents an educational outcome of demonstratable and substantive intellectual substance and educational value. Is transdisciplinary. Draws on a range of operational fields of knowledge. Is problem-based. Connects to the world beyond the classroom. Has face value for educators, parents and community stakeholders. Has sufficient intellectual, cognitive and developmental depth and breadth to guide curriculum planning across a significant span of schooling. Enables flexibility for schools to address the local context. Has reasonable workload expectation for teachers. Cycle A - Belle Vue P.S C.S.F. LEVEL1 Learning To Learn Hawthorn West Unit You, Me & Us Rich Tasks: From Idea Bank Self Portrait. Designing a Name Tag. Other Resources http://www.stories togrowby.com./ http://www.nga.gov/kids/ (On line art for kids) C.S.F. LEVEL2 C.S.F. LEVEL 3 Learning To Learning To Learn Hawthorn West Unit of Learn Hawthorn West Unit of Work Work C.S.F. LEVEL 4 Learning To Learn Hawthorn West Unit of Work Earth & Beyond My Place In Space Rich Tasks: From Idea Bank Rich Tasks: C@W Sample Unit -Dynamic Space. Out of This World. In The News. Rich Tasks: VELS Sample Units http://vels.vcaa.vic. edu.au/support/level4/ outofthisworld.htm/ http:/vels.vcaa.vic.edu. au/support/level4/in thenews.htm/ From Idea Bank -Life In Other Solar Systems A Database of My Favourite Things. Other Resources http:/www.lissaex plains.com/ (Advice on webpage design for young children). The Quality Information Checklisthttp://www.quick.org.u k (For webpage design) Rich Task #1 -Webpage design The Beach Rich Tasks: From Idea Bank Sea Creatures The Beach –Its Natural Features A Day at the Beach. Marine Environments (Tooradin) Rich Tasks: C&W Sample Unit -Under The Sea Rich Task #1 -Multimedia Presentation of an Endangered Plant or Animal Endangered Animals (Zoo) Rich Tasks: UNEP World Conservation Monitoring Centrehttp://www.unepcmc.org/ (Endangered Species) http://www.ea.gov.au/bi odiversity/ threatened/ (Endangered Species) Rich Task #2 -Multimedia Presentation of an Introduced Plant or Animal. Marine Animals (Aquarium) Rich Tasks: From Idea Bank Aquatic Animals Database. Developing an Aquatic Animal Web Page. Should Sharks Be Protected? Debate:Should We Be Afraid Of Sharks? Life Cycle:Animation of an Aquatic Animal Wanted Dead or Alive:Introduced Marine Pests. Beaches Of Australia Design an Aquarium Exploring the Oceans Our Homes Rich Tasks: STEPS Programs- Homes Homes and Shelters Rich Tasks: STEPS ProgramsHomes and Shelters All That Glitters (Gold) Rich Tasks: VELS Sample Unit http//.vcaa.vic.edu.au/supp ort/ Democracy and Enterprise Rich Tasks: Making It Happen-An Introduction to Enterprise Education Pack level3/allthatglitters.htm/ Toys Rich Tasks: Toy unit in “Hands on Science’. Life Cycles Rich Tasks: C@W Sample Unit Plan -Life Cycles What’s Changing? Rich Tasks: VELS Sample Unit http//.vcaa.vic.edu.au/supp ort/ level3/whatschanging.htm/ Natural Resources and Energy Rich Tasks: C@W Sample Unit -NGR Transformations(Energy) Cycle B – Belle Vue P.S. C.S.F Level 1 Learning To Learn Rich Tasks: From Idea Bank Self Portrait. Designing a Name Tag. Hawthorn West Unit of Work. Other Resources http://www.stories togrowby.com./ http://www.nga.gov/kids/ (On line art for kids) C.S.F. Level 2 Learning To Learn Rich Tasks: From Idea Bank C.S.F. Level 3 Learning To Learn Rich Tasks: Hawthorn West Unit of Work. C.S.F. Level 4 Learning To Learn Rich Tasks: Hawthorn West Unit of Work. Winter Olympics/ Commonwealth /Olympic Games A Database of My Favourite Things. Hawthorn West Unit of Work. Other Resources http:/www.lissaex plains.com/ (Advice on webpage design for young children). The Quality Information Checklisthttp://www.quick.org.u k (For webpage design) Rich Task #1 -Design a webpage Winter Olympics/ Commonwealth /Olympic Games My Community (Culture) Multicultural Studies Rich Task: Kids Zone :Myths and Fables. http://www.afro.co m/ children/myths/html (Multicultural Stories) Winter Olympics/ Commonwealt h /Olympic Games Winter Olympics/ Commonwealth /Olympic Games Indigenous Cultures Rich Tasks: C@W Sample Unit PlanAustralian Aborigines. http://www.dream time. net.au/dreaming/ storylist.htm (Aboriginal Stories) International Festivals & Celebrations Rich Task #2 -A Celebratory, Festive or Artistic Event or Performance. From Idea Bank Food Gathering (Native). Pets Rich Tasks: PET PEP Kit From Idea Bank Graphing Pets Caring for Architecture Animals(Alterna Rich Tasks: te Farm and C@W Sample Unit -Have You Heard Zoo) Rich Tasks: C@W Sample Unit Plan -Feather, Fur and Fin About This Place? Life and Living Rich Tasks: C@W Sample Unit Plan Ecosystems :Preservation From Idea Bank Life Cycle Animation The Zoo, Endangered Species & the Internet. Environment - Fauna Transport Rich Tasks: “Travel On Kit’ Travelling To School Rich Tasks: VELS Sample Unit http;//vcaa.vic.edu.au/ support /level2/index.htm/ Pulling Strings Rich Tasks: VELS Sample Unit http;//vcaa.vic.edu.au /support /level2/index.htm/ The Right Moves Rich Tasks: VELS Sample Unit http//.vcaa.vic.edu.au/support/ level5/therightmoves.htm/ *A working document in progress MONITORING It is fundamental that teachers ensure that the elements of Productive Pedagogies are imbedded in their teaching practices. One method of monitoring the occurrence of rich tasks and Productive Pedagogies in programs is to incorporate the following Coding Sheets during moderation and planning with colleagues. These Coding Sheets can be used to examine a particular dimension or strategy within the Productive Pedagogies Framework during lesson or program reflection times. Productive Pedagogies Coding Sheets 1 Intellectual Quality Higher order thinking Student performance does not use any higher order thinking 2 3 4 5 Student performance demonstrates minimal amounts of higher order thinking as a minor diversion within the performance Some key contexts are mentioned in a superficial or trivialized level Deep Knowledge The lessons content does not deal with significant topics or ideas Student performance demonstrates moderate amounts of higher order thinking to hypothesise, argue, formulate answers to the problem set Knowledge is treated unevenly during instruction. At least one idea may be presented in depth, but focus is not sustained. As previous but with Two or more sustained exchanges Many students are engaged in higher order thinking during a substantial portion of the lesson. Almost all students, all of the time, are engaged in higher order thinking Substantive Conversation Virtually no substantive conversation occurring. Lesson is mainly teacher monologue with little variation Dialogue and /or logical extension and synthesis occur briefly and involve at least one sustained exchange Most of the knowledge is relatively deep. Sustained focus is occasionally interrupted by thin knowledge coverage All features of sustained conversation occur over half orf the lesson Knowledge is very deep and almost all knowledge presented in the lesson sustains focus Knowledge as Problematic No knowledge is problematic. All knowledge is presented in an uncritical fashion Some knowledge is problematicinterpretations are linked to a given body of facts Approximately half the knowledge is problematic Student performance treats moderate amounts of knowledge as problematic. Metalanguage Low metalanguage; the teacher proceeds through the lesson, without stopping and commenting on own or students use of language Some metalanguage; the teacher proceeds through the lesson without providing any technical terminology, or constructive assistance and clarification Initial or periodic use of metalanguage: the teacher may stop and give a mini lesson on an aspect of language. Occasional use of metalanguage; the teacher sops when students are having difficulty with aspects of language. All features of sustained conversation occur over almost the entire lesson, with both teachers and students scaffolding the conversation. All knowledge is problematic. Knowledge is seen as socially constructed, with conflicting implications and social functions producing resolution and /or conflict Consistent use of metalanguage: the teacher provides ongoing and frequent commentary on language use. 1 Connectedness Knowledge Integration All knowledge is strictly restricted to a subject area. No intrusion of other contents is permitted. 2 Knowledge is mostly restricted to a subject area with minor intrusion s with one other selected discipline Students’ background knowledge and experiences are mentioned as motivational but are trivial and not connected to the lesson. Student performance makes minimal connections between their responses and the world beyond the classroom 3 Knowledge from multiple subject areas connected or related together, but still treated as separate and distinct subjects Initial reference is made. There is some connection to out of school background knowledge 4 Near complete integration of multiple subject areas 5 Complete integration of subject area knowledge to the degree that subject area boundaries are not recognisable Students’ background knowledge and experiences are consistently incorporated into the lesson. Background Knowledge No reference is made to background knowledge The teacher makes periodic reference. At least some connection to out of school background knowledge Students recognise the connection between classroom knowledge and the situations outside the classroom Connectedness to the world Lesson topic and activities have no clear connection to anything beyond itself Students make some connection s between their response and the world beyond. However there is no effort to actually influence a larger audience Problem based curriculum No problems are presented during the lesson Some minor and small problems are posed to the students but they require little knowledge constructed by students Some minor and small problems are posed to the students requiring substantial knowledge construction/ creativity from students A large problem is posed requiring engagement by students throughout a single lesson Students work on a topic, problem or issue that the teacher and students connect to their personal experiences. They recognise and explore these connections in a meaningful way. A large problem has been set requiring engagement by students over a number of lessons 1 2 Supportive classroom environment Student Direction No student direction Teacher makes initial selection of activity, but students exercise some control 3 Teacher makes initial selection of activity, but students exercise some control, through a choice of alternative activities prescribed by the teacher in addition to procedural choice Social support is neutral or mildly positive 4 Some deliberation/negotiation between teacher and students over the activity for the period, including the range of options and procedures 5 Students’ determination of their activity its appropriateness and context. This may be either independent of teacher regulation Social Support Social support is negative; actions/ comments by teacher or students result in ‘put downs” Social support is mixed. Both negative and positive behaviours or comments are observed Social support from the teacher is clearly positive and there is some evidence of social support among students for their peers Academic Engagement Explicit Quality Performance Criteria Disruptive disengagement: students are frequently off task as evidenced by gross inattention or serious disruptions by many Teachers have not made any explicit statements of the expected learning outcomes Passive engagement: most students, most of the time, either appear lethargic or are only occasionally active Some procedural parameters, advanced organisers and aspects of the general direction of the lesson have been specified Sporadic engagement; most students either appear indifferent or occasionally active, but very few students are clearly off task Outcomes and criteria for some aspects of the quality of student performances are specified at least once during the lesson Engagement is widespread; most students most of the time are on task Social support is strong: the class is characterised by high expectation, challenging work, strong effort, mutual respect and assistance in achievement for all students Serious engagement; almost all students are deeply involved, all of the time, in pursuing the substance of the lesson Outcomes and criteria for student performances are specified in detailed and exact ways repeatedly throughout the lesson with a focus on the quality of outcomes being reinforced There is virtually no teacher talk that focuses on student behaviour or movement. The lesson proceeds without interruption Outcomes and criteria for the quality of student performances have been specified more than once in the lesson Self Regulation Teachers devote over half of their classroom talk issuing orders, commands and punishments to regulate student behaviour, movement and bodily disposition A substantial amount of the time is taken engaged in displinary and regulatory talk Teachers must regulate students’ behaviour several times during the lesson, however the lesson proceeds coherently Once or twice during the lesson the teacher must correct student behaviour or movement 1 Recognition of Difference Cultural knowledge No explicit recognition or valuing of other than the dominant culture in curriculum knowledge transmitted to students No participation of non dominant social groups At no point is narrative used in the lesson, all teaching and content remains expository 2 3 4 Others’ cultures explicitly valued in the content through equal inclusion and use of the knowledge/perspective of the group, alongside the dominant culture 5 Inclusivity Narrative Group Identity No evidence of community within the classroom Some inclusion of others’ cultures, with weak valuing, through simple reference to a particulars features of them or their existence One or two instances of non dominant social group participation Narrative is present in either the processes or content of the lesson, but the use of this narrative may only be only be on occasion or as minor deviation from the main portion of the lesson Limited evidence of community exists within the classroom Stronger valuing in curriculum knowledge, by acknowledgement and recognition of multiple cultural claims to knowledge Different cultures equally valued in all curriculum knowledge Several instances of non dominant social group participation Participation of non dominant social groups for at least half of the lesson Lesson processes and content primarily narrative in nature, but exposition is used on occasion or as a minor deviation from the main portion of the lesson The lesson processes and content are evenly split between narrative and expository forms Participation of non dominants social groups for all of nearly all of the lesson Almost all of the lesson processes, and almost all of the lesson content is narrative Some evidence of community exists within the classroom There is a strong sense of community within the classroom Citizenship The citizenship rights of students and teachers are neither discussed nor practised within the classroom There is limited talk about the practice of active citizenship within the classroom There is some evidence and some talk about the content of, and possible practices of, active citizenship for teachers and students There is evidence pf the practice of active citizenship within the class There is a strong sense of community within the classroom and a supportive environment for the production of difference and group The practice of active citizenship is obviously prevalent and evident in practices and in relationships between students and the teacher, and students and students, and in some instances, external school The above Coding Sheets have a numerical rating for each category that can be used in the following scoring sheets. These proformas can be used to target specific areas of Productive Pedagogies in order to highlight strengths and weaknesses of particular lessons or units of work. They are designed to assist teachers with self assessment of their own practices as well as a resource for reflection during moderation and planning sessions. Productive Pedagogies Scoring Sheets PRODUCTIVE PEDAGOGIES Classroom Observation Scoring Sheet 1 2 3 4 5 WOW Comment INTELLECTUAL QUALITY Higher order thinking Deep knowledge Deep understanding Substantive conversation Knowledge as problematic Metalanguage CONNECTEDNESS Knowledge integration Background knowledge Connectedness to the world Problem based curriculum SUPPORTIVE CLASSROOM ENVIRONMENT Student direction Social support Academic engagement Explicit quality performance criteria Self regulation RECOGNITION OF DIFFERENCE Cultural knowledge Inclusivity Narrative Group identity Active citizenship Skills and Qualities for Life Long Learning The list below includes key skills and qualities needed to develop a comprehensive integrated inquiry approach. When planning units of work, teachers should identify and record the skills and qualities that will be targeted for teaching and assessment. Skills and Qualities for life long learners include: Social / Collaborative skills Communication skills Inquiry / research skills Reflection and self management skills Taking responsibility Working independently / self regulation Seeing / valuing / respecting other perspectives Becoming resilient Being flexible Asking effective questions Communicating in a range of ways Formulation, sharing and justifying a point of view Hypothesizing Asking Questions Gathering information from a range of sources Analysing and synthesising information range of ways Thinking critically Reflecting Self and peer assessment Setting personal goals Risk taking Taking responsibility Transferring learning to new situations Decision making Organising Being part of a team Solving problems Being adaptable Making positive contributions (to their own and the lives of others) Thinking and working creatively Forming generalisation Continua of Practice for Monitoring Teacher Practices Teacher –centred practice I develop my planning and assessment separately. Continua Student –centred practice I develop my assessment in conjunction with my planning and with a focus on student outcomes. I always share learning goals with my students. Strategies I rarely share learning goals with my students. I rarely provide my students with standards to aim for. I rarely give my students opportunities to self assess I only provide feedback to my students in the form of grades, places, marks etc. I always provide explicit expectations, including standards for students I always involve my students in selfassessment I always provide feedback to my students so they can identify the next steps in their learning. I usually tell students how to improve their work. I rarely review and reflect on assessment data with my students I always provide opportunities for students to tell me how they will improve their work. I always review and reflect on assessment data with my students *Walk and Talk; How can I embed student centred strategies into my assessment practices? ASSESSMENT Assessment can be considered as a subset of evaluation. It involves the gathering of information about student’s abilities and progress. This information allows for more informed judgements to be made about the effectiveness of teaching and learning. As a result, assessment should be purposeful and continuous. Teachers will need to use a variety of assessment techniques to cater for the different learning needs of students, the range of teaching approaches used and purposes – diagnostic, formative and summative. Assessment techniques used by teachers include observation, consultation and focused analysis. These techniques can also be used most effectively by students through self and peer assessment. The purpose of assessment should be: To promote, assist and improve students’ learning. To develop programs that is reflective of the current teaching and learning. To provide data that can be communicated to a range of people about the progress and achievements of individual students or groups of students. Rich Tasks and Productive Assessment The assessment process should include the concept of Rich Tasks that are specific activities student s ‘do’ that have real world value and use. Rich Tasks should draw on: Repertoires of practice: the cognitive and cultural, linguistic and social skills that need to be acquired developmentally in order to complete the Rich Tasks. Operational Fields: Productive Pedagogies and other disciplinary fields of knowledge that need to be utilised in order to complete a tasks. In order for an assessment piece to promote productive performance it should: Expect students to perform work of high intellectual quality: Enable students to demonstrate a connectedness between their work in class and the world beyond them; Provide the support necessary for them to achieve these outcomes: Give students opportunities to demonstrate recognition of difference. School Tasks School Tasks should be informed by the Rich Tasks. They need to be designed by class teachers and presented to peers for feedback. Tasks need to be moderated at school level. Formative Assessment This is defined as assessment that helps students learn. Teachers should undertake formative assessment in order to: Inform planning. Provide feedback to students. Identify students with learning difficulties. Rich and School Tasks should be considered as formative assessment because they: Imbedded in the teaching and learning process. Involve the sharing of learning goals with students. Help students recognise the standards which they are aiming towards. Provide feedback. Involve students in self assessment. Underpinned by the belief that every student can improve. Involve teachers and students reflecting on the assessment. Students with Special Needs The assessment process should acknowledge different abilities, styles and rates of learning. Assessment Evidence Sources of Evidence Annotated drawings Choreographic outlined Compositions Computer generated presentations Concept maps Debates Design brief and plans Excursions Explanations Feedback sheets Folios Games Individual and group performances Individual and group practical activities involving development and practical; application of skills or processes Installed spaces or displays Instructions Interviews led by teacher or student Investigations Journals Monologues Observation of work in progress Oral, written and visual evaluations of own learning Peer and self assessment sheets Program notes Progress charts Questioning led by teacher or student Assessment techniques Observation involves teachers observing students as they participate in planned activities. Teacher observation occurs continually as a natural part of the learning process and can be used to gather a board range of information about learning outcomes. Teacher observations can also be structured to gather particular kinds of information in relation to learning outcomes. Consultation involves teachers discussing student work with students, colleagues, parents or carers. The varying perspectives of participants can help enrich the evidence gathered about students’ demonstrations of learning outcomes. Consultation can be used to verify the evidence gathered using other techniques. Some consultations may reveal a need for more detailed assessment. Focused analysis involves teachers in examining in detail student responses to tasks on activities (e.g. group discussions, texts, projects, dramatic presentations, responses to stimulus). This technique provides detailed evidence about Recording instruments Anecdotal records Annotated work samples Audio and visual recordings Digital Portfolios. Bar graphs. Checklists Feedback sheets Observation notes Peer and self assessment sheets. Portfolios* Scrap books. Student folios. Teacher/Student journals* Visual folios Worksheets Rubrics* Research projects Reviews Role descriptions Role plays Short and extended written response Student explanations of works in progress. DVD/Video production Whole and small group instruction. students’ demonstrations of learning. Peer and selfassessment involves students using techniques to assess their own work and the work of their peers. Peer and self-assessments allow teachers to take account of students’ perceptions when gathering evidence. Observation Consultation Focused Analysis Analysis Student Portfolios Portfolios are an effective communication between school and home. They involve students, teachers and parents in their preparation and are an authentic performance- based assessment of a student’s work. Beyond this, they are a celebration of learning for the student. Portfolios are an excellent way of producing evidence of Rich Tasks happening within the curriculum. EXAMPLE Reflective Teacher and Student Journals Reflective Journals are a documented way of allowing both students and teacher to have input and ownership into the future direction of program planning. This covers many aspects of the Productive Pedagogies such as Connectiveness, Recognition of Difference and Supportive Classroom Environment. EXAMPLE Rubrics A rubric is one form of evaluation or assessment with an indication of achievement and areas for enhancement. It indicates a breakdown of the tasks required or it can be used in conjunction with criteria cards. A rubric is a concrete form of evidence that shows some element of the productive pedagogies occurring in lessons. EXAMPLE Name: Key Learning Area: English Strand: Reading-Recount Level 2 Grade 1 Date: November 2005 Teacher: Duration: 4 hours Task: Immediately after the excursion to A.C.M.I where the students were involved in participating and making the movie ‘Brewing Up A Fairy Tale, they were asked to complete a story map. This involved drawing 6 main parts of the movie in correct sequence. After this, the students were asked to explain what was happening in their pictures. These responses were typed up and later matched to their pictures. EVALUATIO N Oral retell of the story. Comments Recalls some events in the story. Illustrations depict some of the scenes from the movie. Teacher prompting and assistance was required to complete story map. Recalls main events in the story. Illustrations match the information in the sentences. Most of the story map was completed independently. Recalls main events in the story, in sequence and with detail. Illustrations match sentences and give additional information. The story map was completed independently. Illustrations. Story map of movie.