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					EASYPRINT TRANSCRIPTS                                                                        08/08/06

This week: recycling sewage; are all eggs the same, and Australia's National Census. Hi I'm Krista Eleftheriou.
Also on the program today, helping indigenous communities and what cloning is all about.
Those items later, but first to our top story this week...

We all need water to live. But in some parts of Australia there's a water shortage.
All sorts of alternatives are being looked at, but the one that's getting lots of attention at the moment is recycling...
that is turning sewage into safe drinking water.
Sarah looks at the controversy.

Water recycling
Water (H2O) a vital life force. But have you ever stopped to think where it comes from and what's in it?

Australia is the driest inhabited continent. So Australia stores about as much as three Olympic swimming pools for
every Aussie, the highest for any country. Some parts of Australia are currently experiencing the worst drought on
record. So we need alternative water sources.

It might be raining here in Toowoomba, but this inland Queensland city is very thirsty. Like most Australians, the
people here are high water users, on average using 350 litres each a day. That's about an average family fridge full
of water! But the dams are only 20% full, and the city is running out of water. Solution: drink recycled water.

This is a sewage treatment plant, they're all over Australia, and this is what's known as effluent. The stuff you see
floating on top is fat from frying pans and dinner plates. But 99% of it is water, only 1% of it is well, you know,
solid waste. Because of breakthroughs in science, its possible for water like this to be treated, filtered and purified
so its perfectly safe to drink.

New homes in this Adelaide suburb use recycled water to fill toilets and water gardens. It hasn't been through all of
the processes to make it safe to drink or bathe in. So, the recycled water taps are a different colour. Treated
sewage is also used to water some market gardens and crops.

But the idea in Toowoomba was that after the sewage water had been purified and treated, it would be safe to
drink, actually safer than this tap water!

The council held a vote and 61% of Toowoomba residents said no to recycled drinking water. For them, the idea
was just too hard to swallow.

MAN: We forcing the people to drink toilet water doesn't matter if the water is safe, its coming from toilet!

WOMAN: Every second person you speak to says oh who would want to drink that?

MAN: You know there's already been rumours of names, that Towoomba is being called Poo City and Poowoomba,
things like that.

Not everyone thinks it’s a bad idea.

MALCOLM TURNBULL, FEDERAL PARLIAMENTRY SECRETARY FOR WATER: This ‘Poowoomba’ thing is ludicrous, it's
childish and it's only being promoted by those people on the ‘no’ side.

You may be wondering how recycled water compares to what you're drinking now. Tap water is filtered, but still
contains certain chemicals like aluminium sulfate, chlorine, and fluoride. Interestingly, water recycled and purified
from sewage actually ends up more pure because it goes though more filtration processes. That sounds ok but how
does it taste?

SURVEY WOMAN: Does it taste normal?


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SMAPLER: Yeah.

STUDENT: It's great mate, tastes like normal water to me.

In a country as dry as Australia, it's a safe bet that Toowoomba won't be the only place to try to introduce recycled
sewage water to quench our thirst.

ZOOM
Other stories in the news this week…

500 people from around the world have been in Brisbane taking part in the 12th International Handbell Symposium.

Your need 14 ringers to play a 6 octave set of handbells, which are worth about 90 thousand dollars.

So the 2,500 bells in this room would be worth a lot.

Upsot: Waltzing Matilda

PHILIP BEDFORD - Conductor: We can play anything from Jingle Bells right up to the Khachaturian Sabre Dance or
William Tell Overture, at speed with no music at all. It's thrilling.

What kind of instrument is a didgeridoo: percussion, wind or string?
Answer: Wind

Many communities experience problems and sometimes need help in dealing with them.
Well, for the past couple of months we've been hearing about problems in some indigenous communities.
Andrea has been looking at some of the issues and possible solutions.

Indigenous Issues

Countries with poor basic living conditions are known as developing or "Third World Countries".

We often see images of basic living conditions in (continents like) Africa, India or Asia. We don't think it could
happen here in Australia, which is supposed to be a developed country.

But in Alice Springs some people are living in third world conditions.

WHAT'S THE PROBLEM?

Around 18 town camps surround Alice Springs, housing nearly 2000 Indigenous people. The living conditions in
these camps are dirty, full of rubbish and they're often vandalised. They're also over-crowded. These 2000 people
have to cram into 193 houses, which means 10 or more people live in the one place.

ANDREA NICOLAS, REPORTER: You might think having a group of people around for a sleepover sounds like fun.
But imagine living with them all the time. There'd be someone to talk to all the time. But waiting for the bathroom
or toilet, and having to share a limited amount of food. Sometimes you'd just miss out!

Basic facilities such as taps with running water are scarce there's no good sewerage system for waste. This young
girl has to help her aunties collect firewood because her camp has no electricity, so there are no streetlights, and
there are no public phones.

WHY IS IT HAPPENING?

Many of the people living in these camps have had little schooling and do not have enough confidence or skills to
work and many are unemployed.

You may have also seen news reports about some of the damage that alcohol and petrol sniffing are doing to
Indigenous Australians in camps like these. Drinking or inhaling these substances can lead to confusion and
fighting within families. Some people become isolated from the community because of the way they behave. This
makes it even more difficult for them to get a job and to care for their homes.


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There are 22 different indigenous languages spoken so understanding each other can be difficult. For many of
them English is their second or third language.

This also makes it hard for them to talk to doctors and use health services. Many Aboriginal children need these
services because of the bad conditions they live in and in this hospital they fill most of the beds. Their health often
suffers because they don't eat enough nutritious food and some develop ear, nose and throat infections.

Geoffrey Shaw escaped his life at Mount Nancy camp for a while when he enlisted in the army in 1964. He still
proudly wears his medals from Vietnam. But he came home and it was straight back to the bad conditions. So he
decided to take action and formed the Tangentyere Council to get a few basic facilities set-up in the town. Now
they've got a bank, this supermarket and housing in the area.

Others in the community agree that more changes need to be made:

MARK LOCKYER: Children need to be proud of the people around them - to be proud of their culture. Ours is the
world's oldest living culture.

The Australian Government has also stepped in, giving $130 Million to employ more police to help control law and
order.

Geoffrey Shaw hopes this will lead to a better future for his children and grandchildren.

GEOFFREY SHAW: I'd like to see them get a good education and get employment that they'd like to do, things that
they'd like to do, and have a happy family.

You've probably heard about clones, maybe on TV or in the movies. Then there's been a lot in the media about
cloning animals and plants. But this story is about using cloning technology to treat diseases. Many people think its
a good idea, but many are against it. Lucy gives a us a basic idea of how it works.

Maybe there'll even be a generic brand of stem cells! That's just a taste of what's to come in Science Week, which
starts on Saturday. BtN will have stories that explain Podcasting and Broadband.

(Links to Science Week activities can be found at the bottom of the BTN homepage.)

Cloning

Dolly was a true star! And yes, she was a sheep. Dolly was the world's first animal clone and she became the most
famous sheep in the world.

LUCY ANDREW, REPORTER: We've all heard about cloning. It's making a genetic copy. So clones are identical. No
one has managed to clone a person and it's banned in most countries.

Human cloning stirs up lots of religious, moral and political arguments. But there is another kind; there is also
therapeutic cloning. It's not about cloning a whole person but trying to clone cells to treat disease. Both human
cloning and therapeutic cloning are banned in Australia.

So, what is therapeutic cloning?

Therapeutic cloning is a technique to make cloned embryonic stem cells. DNA from an unfertilised female egg is
removed and replaced with DNA from a patient's own cells, creating cloned stem cells with the same DNA as the
patient.

Stem cells are a special type of cell. They are able to keep dividing to make more stem cells and they are also able
to turn into any type of cell in the body.

Each of us is made up of about one trillion cells!

LUCY ANDREW: REPORTER: One trillion!

And there are two hundred and twenty different types of cells in our bodies.


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Many illnesses are caused by cells that aren't doing their job. The cells may be injured, or die or just not work
properly.

In paraplegics, the nerve cells in their spinal cord are damaged so messages from the brain can't get through to the
legs and tell them to move. After a heart attack, some of the heart muscle cells may die leaving the heart weaker.
In patients with Cystic Fibrosis the lung cells don't work properly and increase the chance of lung infections.

If you had a supply of your own cloned stem cells it would be like having a bank of new cells that could be used to
replace dysfunctional cells - in the spinal cord, heart, lungs or anywhere that they're needed.

But why do they have to be cloned embryonic stem cells?

Your body is designed to seek out and destroy any cell that is not your own. If the DNA of a stem cell is different to
the DNA of the person who needs treatment, the new cells would be destroyed. Cloned embryonic stem cells don't
have that problem because they contain the patient's DNA. So the new cells match the person's cells.

These new cells could be used to treat heart attacks or paraplegia.

The problem is that even in countries where therapeutic cloning is allowed, no one has managed to do it.

Even if scientists successfully make individually matched cloned stem cells it is unlikely they would be made to treat
everyone, so they are also working on a generic stem cell that could be used to treat anyone.

True or False? Egg white is called albumen.
Answer: True

It comes from the Latin word albus, which means white. There've been stories in the news recently about how eggs
are produced and how they are labelled. Free-range eggs, which are sometimes called 'happy eggs' cost more, but
are they all really free-range? Andrea explains what the argument is about.

Free-range eggs

ANDREA NICOLAS, REPORTER: When you're eating eggs you probably don't think about how they were produced.

Well it makes a big difference to the farmers and the price.

There are a few ways to produce eggs.

Cage-laid eggs are laid by hens kept in cages, and it's the usual way to farm eggs. Around 80 percent of
Australia's eggs are cage-laid.

Barn-laid eggs are laid by hens that can move around in a large, covered barn and have protection from
predators and weather.

Free-range eggs are laid by hens living in a natural environment. They are able to range, that is move, around in
the open and scavenge for food.

So what's the difference? This is a cage-laid egg, this one's free range. (Holding two eggs) They look the same;
they taste the same. Why does it matter how the hens laid the eggs?

Some people believe the cage-laid process is cruel, because hens don't have much room to move around and can't
go outside. But the Australian Egg Corporation says conditions have improved and by the end of 2008 all cages
must be bigger.

Free-range eggs are a pricey business because hens are supposed to be cared for in a certain way. They must be
allowed outside for around 8 hours a day, have access to shelter, and be protected from predators. Because this
method is more expensive the eggs are also sold at a higher price.

But recently some free-range egg farmers have been complaining that other producers are not being as strict and
that some cage-laid or barn-laid eggs are being sold as free-range.


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TOM FRYAR, EGG PRODUCER: Probably one of the clauses should be that you should either be free-range, barn or
caged, not caged, barn and free-range all on the same farm.

ANDREA NICOLAS, REPORTER: Producers like Tom believe that farmers producing both types of eggs can easily
throw a cage-laid egg in the carton if their free-range hens don't lay enough eggs. That means they make a higher
profit, without paying the extra cost of caring for free-range hens.

Animal Liberation backs this up, saying that some cage-laid eggs are being sold as free-range. It reckons the
number of free-range hens laying eggs, couldn't lay the amount of free-range eggs being sold.

But the Australian Egg Corporation says these claims are false and that nobody has come forward with evidence.

Some scientists have developed a test using ultra-violet light, to examine dust settlements and patterns on the egg.
This is meant to prove whether the egg was produced in a cage, a barn or outdoors. But not everyone believes
that method is 100% reliable.

The problem is there's no legal definition for what a free-range egg is. There are just guidelines that say hens must
be able to range outdoors for 8 hours a day, except in extreme weather or cases of disease. But there is no law to
ensure this happens, so it's possible to falsely label eggs.

Some producers ask the RSPCA or Animal Welfare to inspect their farms to prove they are true free-range egg
producers. The RSPCA charges a fee to do it, but if they get the tick of approval, producers can put the RSPCA or
Animal Welfare label on their cartons.

For these hens life is a dusty bliss (hens burrow in the dirt).

But their owner wants shoppers to know just how special their free-range eggs are.

SPIN

Landis Ban

The winner of the Tour de France, American cyclist Floyd Landis has vowed to clear his name.

The second sample taken during the race has tested positive to abnormal levels of testosterone.

Race officials say they no longer consider Landis the champion and plan to strip him of the title.

But they can't do that until Landis has gone through a complicated appeals process, which could take months.


Rugby

The Wallabies can take out the Tri-nations Series after beating South Africa over the weekend.

COMMENTATOR: Oh it's a try

The Wallabies led ten-nil at the break but Springboks took the lead in the second half...

At 18-all with five minutes to go, it was up to Mortlock to put Australia in front...

Oh it hit the post and went over. What drama!

The Wallabies won 20 -18

Australia's first national census was in 1901 and this Tuesday everyone in Australia's been answering lots of
questions. So what exactly is a census, and why does the government need all this information? I thought I'd better
find out.

Census

KRISTA ELEFTHERIOU, REPORTER: These photos show just how much I have changed over time.
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Well it’s time for you, in fact every Australian to have their snap shot taken, not with a camera but with this, a
census form.

Every five years a survey form is delivered to every home, hotel and hospital room in Australia.
People have to answer questions about who lives in a home, how much they earn, how they get to work or school
and whether they care for a sick person.

Firstly, the census reveals the number of people living in or visiting Australia on August 8, 2006.
It means every person staying within Australia on that night is counted. So: one, two, three, four and Uncle Nick
from England. Even if someone is from overseas and is only staying in someone else's place for one night they must
be counted. You will be counted wherever you are staying
So, If you stay the night at a friend's house on August 8th, you'll be listed on their census form.

It's not just about counting the number of people in Australia. Just like pictures, the information gathered through
the census will tell our Government just how much Australia has changed over time. It also helps us predict likely
changes to the population in the future.

Most importantly the information from the survey helps the government plan how it's going to spend its money. If
there are more older people in the population, the government will know it has to spend more on hospitals and
aged care and where the facilities are needed.

ERNIE DINGO, CENSUS COMMUNITY SERVICE ANNOUNCEMENT: Information you give is vital for the future of
education.
KRISTA ELEFTHERIOU: If there are more children at school, the government may spend more money on teachers
or new school buildings. This year the government is encouraging people to say if they have a disability or care for
some one who is disabled, because it affects funding.

Now some people may be concerned about writing down all that private information. The Australian Bureau of
Statistics, which collects the information, makes sure your personal details are kept secret. But if you don't mind
revealing your personal info you can choose to have your name and answers kept in a time capsule. They won't be
burying it like this time capsule, your name and information would be kept on file to be accessed by others, maybe
even your great great grandchildren, in 100 years time.

Ok how did you go with our mystery object?
It's a rainwater tank. Well done of you guessed it correctly.

Two weeks ago Behind the News ran a story on the current crisis in the Middle East. Unfortunately we made some
mistakes in that story - in trying to keep the story simple we got some of the facts wrong. We are very sorry.
We have removed the story and the transcript from our website. New corrected information is available at
abc.net.au/btn
That's Btn for this week.
We'll leave you with Marrytville High School Concert Choir, which won the South Australian State finals of the ABC
Classic FM's Choir of the Year competition.
You can see more on our website.
bye




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