SG Computing Target Setting

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UNIT 1 – General Purpose Packages                                    √ =          ?=       x = do not
                                                                     very        unsure   understand
Define and explain:
 What is a GPP
      A computer program which has a number purposes. The
        user adds their own data to the GPP and manipulates this
        data in some way
 Examples of GPPs
      Word Processing, Spreadsheet, Database, Graphics,
       Desktop Publishing, Presentation, Web Page creation
 What does a GPP consist of
      Manual, Tutorial Guide, Demo Program, Installer and
 Common GPP Features
      Run, New, Load, Save, Print
 Common GPP Operations
      Insert, Amend, Delete, Copy, Move
 The Human Computer Interface
       The way the user and the program communicate with
        each other
 Customising the HCI
      Changing the HCI to suit the user, for example, altering
        the menus, changing, the wallpaper, display font or
        organising the files in a particular order
 Windows Icon Menu Pointer
      This is a type of Graphical User Interface
 Template
      A ready made document with placeholders for inserting
       text or images
 Wizard
      A feature which takes you step by step through installing
        software or creating a document
 Online Help
       Information screens which you call up if you need help
        with a particular feature of the GPP
UNIT 1 – General Purpose Packages                                       √ =     ?=      x = do not
                                                                        very   unsure    understand
Define and explain:
   Online Tutorial
     Guided lessons which teach you enough about a GPP to get
       you started
   Integrated Package
     A package which combines 2 or more GPPs, for example
       Microsoft Works
   Advantages of Integrated Packages
     Common HCI = The integrated package has the same
      menus and icons in each part of the package
     Easy to transfer data = It is easy to transfer data between
      different parts of the software
     Links between tasks = You can have a number of different
      documents open at the same time
   Static Linkage = Each part of data is separate and when change
    one piece of data it does not update it in another package
   Dynamic Linkage = When you change data is one package, it
    automatically updates in the other package
   Data Types = Number, Text, Graphics, Audio, Animation and
   File Formats = A way of storing a file so that it can be opened
    up on a different computer systems
   Txt, RTF, JPEG, GIF
   Backup = A second copy of data incase the original is lost or
   Data Protection Act = A law which has been passed to control
    the storage of personal information
   Data Controller = The person or organization storing the data
   Data Subject = The person about whom the data is on
   Responsibility of Data Controller
     Data should be accurate and up to date, Data should be kept
        secure, Data should only be used for specified purposes
   Rights of Data Subject
     See date held within 40 days, Have errors corrected, Prevent
        processing for Direct Marketing
   Computer Misuse Act = a law which has been passed, making
    it a criminal offence to spread viruses or hack into unauthorised
   Copyright Designs and Patents Act = Makes it illegal to copy
    data without permission
UNIT 2 – Word Processing                                                √ =     ?=      x = do not
                                                                        very   unsure    understand
Define and explain:
      Editing Text = Making changes
      Formatting Text
          o Changing the alignment
                 Left, Right, Centre, Justify
          o Change text style, size, colour
          o Set margins
          o Line spacing
      Word-wrap = placing a word on a new line when it is too
       large to fit on the line above
      Search and Replace = this feature is used when you need
       to replace a word a number of times in the document
      Spell Checker = this feature scans through your document
       and compares the words you have typed in to the words in
       its dictionary. Any word it does not recognise it will place a
       red line under and offer alternative words
      Grammar Check = this feature works in a similar way to
       the spell checker but checks the grammar in the document
       for full stops, commas etc
      Standard Paragraph = this is a piece of text that has been
       typed up, saved to backing storage and can be inserted into a
       document a number of times
      Standard Letter = a letter with no personal information.
      Mailmerge = this is the process of linking the fields from a
       database to a standard letter, creating a personalised letter
      Template = this is a ready made document, where the
       layout of the document is given to you. The template has
       placeholders, where you can insert images and text
UNIT 3 – Spreadsheets                                                 √ =     ? =     x = do not
                                                                      very   unsure   understand
Define and explain:
 What is a Spreadsheet
      Cells – one box to hold information
      Rows – horizontal “line” of cells
      Column – vertical “group” of cells
 Formulas
      You should know how to write simple formula where
       you are simply ( + - * / ) different cells
 Altering Cell Formats
       You can format the cell so that it changes the display of
         the cell
       Centered, left align, right align
 Altering Cell Attributes
       Changing the display of the cell so that the information is
         displayed differently
       Currency, percentage, more/less decimal places
       You should know how to alter the attributes of cells
 Cell Protection
       Cell Protection is used to ensure that information is not
         accidentally altered in a Spreadsheet
       You should know how to add Cell Protection to a
 Inserting Rows and Columns
       You should be able to tell when a spreadsheet needs to
         have a new row/column added to it
       You should be able to describe how to insert a new
 Replication
      Replication simply means copying
      Two types of referencing
      Relative – when the formula changes accordingly to the
         new cells
      Absolute – the absolute parts of the formula do not
         change when copied $$$
UNIT 3 – Spreadsheets                                                √=     ?=       x = do not
                                                                    very   unsure   understand
Define and explain:
 Calculation
       Automatic Calculation
       When you change a formula or insert a new value any
        other cells in that document which are affected by that
        value are automatically updated
       Manual Calculation
       This means that the updated will only be carried out when
        you tell it to
 Charting
      Fully Labeled Charts (X Y, Title, Key)
      Types of Chart
      Reasons for using Charts (easier to visualize information)
 Functions
      Special pre-defined functions which carry out specific
      SUM (Calculates the total from a range of cells)
      AVERAGE (Calculates the average from a range of cells)
      MIN (Finds the lowest from a range of cells)
      MAX (Finds the highest from a range of cells)
      IF (used to make choices)
      If( Condition, “Do This”, “Else Do This”)
 Printing
       To print a specific area of a document we set the “print
UNIT 4 – Databases                                                   √ =     ?=       x = do not
                                                                     very   unsure   understand
Define and explain:
 What is a Information?
      A computer processes Data, it only becomes
        information when it has meaning.
 What is a Database
          A database is a structured collection of information.
 It can be manual or computer based. Data is organized into fields
and records

 What is a File?
      A collection of structured information
 What is a field?
      A field is an area on a record which contains an
        individual item of information
 What is a record?
      A record the information on one thing or person
 Types of fields are
      Numeric
      Text
      Graphic
      Date
      Time
 How to add a Record
      Add row in table view (or use radio button)
 How to add Field
      Add column in table view (or use radio button)
 How to do a simple Search
      Search on Field Name = “Fred”
 How to do a complex Search
Search on two or more fields
Search on field GENDER = “female” AND field AGE = 12
 How to do a sort on one field
      Sort on Field Name ascending (descending)
UNIT 4 – Databases                                                  √ =     ?=      x = do not
                                                                    very   unsure    understand
Define and explain:
   How to do a sort on more than one field
     Sort on Field Name ascending and on Field age descending
   What is a computed field (Calculated)?
     A field created from a calculation on other fields i.e age
      calculated from the current date and the DOB of the subject
   Alter the Input and Output Formats
     Create or change the input form
     Create or change the report forms
   Search for Information on the Internet or CDROM
   Calculate the size of backing store
                      Size of record X the number of records
UNIT 5 – Graphics                                                  √ =     ? =     x = do not
                                                                   very   unsure   understand
Define and explain:
 Crop a graphic
      This results in the removal of parts of a graphic that
        aren’t required
 Scan and Edit a Graphic
       This involves scanning a graphic in using a scanner
       And editing it using the graphics package
 Bitmapped Graphics Packages
       These change the colours of every single pixel on the
       When you overlap things on bitmapped graphics it only
        stores the colour of the pixels not the shape
 Vector Graphics Packages
       This simply stores the attributes of every object in the
        graphic. This means you can move around the objects
        after you have placed them
 Resolution
       This determines the quality of a picture
       High Resolution graphics have loads of pixels and look
       Low resolution graphics have less pixels and look
        rubbish (like teletext)
UNIT 6 – Internet and Email                                      √ =     ? =     x = do not
                                                                 very   unsure   understand
Define and explain:
 What is Netiquette
      Network Etiquette
      Rules that you should follow when writing emails to
      Be nice, keep the emails to the point, DON’T WRITE IN
 File Transfer
        can send files as attachments
        this means you can send a file along with an email
        need to be careful of viruses
 Browser Software
      This allows you to view pages on the WWW
 Hyperlinks
      These allow you to click on them to take you to another
        web page
      They could be text or a graphic
 Hotspots
       The mouse pointer changes to the “link” icon when
        moved over the hot spot
       Part of an image which can be turned into a hyperlink
UNIT 7 – Computer Systems                                                √ =     ?=      x = do not
                                                                         very   unsure    understand
Define and explain:
      Hardware = the physical parts of the computer, e.g. the
       parts you can see or touch
      Input Device = any device that puts data into the computer
      Examples = keyboard, mouse, scanner, tracker ball,
       microphone, webcam, digital camera, light pen, joystick
      Output Device = any device which get data out of the
       computer system
      Examples = printer, monitor, plotter, headphones,
       loudspeakers, projector
      Types of printer
      Laser = uses laser beam and toner powder to get a hard
       copy of a document
      Inkjet = sprays ink on the page
      Types of Monitor = Liquid Crystal Display, Thin Film
       Transistor, Cathode Ray Tube
      Processor = the brain of the computer system, you provide
       the processor with a list of instructions (program) and it will
       carry out these instructions
      Arithmetic Logic Unit = carries out all arithmetical
       calculations and logic functions
      Control Unit = manages the other parts of the processor
       and makes sure programs are processed in the correct order
      Register = storage locations inside the processor
      Main Memory = a series of memory chips which are used
       to store programs and data
      Random Access Memory = where data is stored
       temporarily while the computer system is switched on. The
       contents are lost when the computer is switched off
      Read Only Memory = Where data is stored permanently.
       The contents of ROM are not lost when the computer is
       switched off
      Backing Storage = devices that are used to store programs
       and data when the computer is switched off
      Examples of Media = magnetic tape, floppy disk, hard
       disk, usb flash memory, CDROM, CD-R, CD-RW,
      Sequential Access = where you have to go through data in a
       sequence e.g. magnetic tape
      Direct Access = where you can access data in any order e.g
UNIT 8 – Automated Systems                                           √ =     ?=      x = do not
                                                                     very   unsure    understand
Define and explain:
      Automated System = a system where you provide the
       input, the machine carries out the process and provides you
       with an output
      Automated Systems in Everyday life
          o Washing machine
          o Digital camera
          o Video recorder
      Automated Systems in Industry
          o Car manufacture
          o Aircraft manufacture
          o Automated milk production
      Advantages of Auto Systems
         o Can carry out tasks much faster than humans
         o Can complete repetitive tasks to a high standard
         o Can work in hazardous environments
         o Possible more accurate
         o Adaptable to complete other tasks
      Social Implications – factors affecting people
          o Retraining of staff
          o Loss of jobs
          o Low staff morale
          o Better working conditions
          o More leisure time
      Technical Implications – safety precautions
          o Cover moving parts
          o Program vehicles to move slowly
          o Fit sensors and provide feedback
      Economic Implications – money factors
          o High initial cost
          o Running costs – electricity, repairs
          o Replacement costs
          o Long term savings
UNIT 8 – Automated Systems                                               √=     ?=       x = do not
                                                                        very   unsure   understand
Define and explain:
     Stationary Robots
       Waist, shoulder, elbow, wrist, end effector
       Powered by a motor
       Tools – gripper, screwdriver, suction cup, spray paint
     Sensor = a device that detects a physical quantity, e.g, light,
      heat, motion
     Feedback = the signal sent from the sensor back to the
      controlling computer system
     Analogue – Digital conversion = converting the analogue
      signal from the sensor into digital e.g. 1 or 0
     Programming Robots
       Lead through method = programming the robot arm by
         example, leading it through the desired movement
       Programming using a control language
     Mobile Robots – Autonomous Guided Vehicles = A vehicle
      that is programmed to move about the factory floor,
      delivering parts to workstations
     Guidance
       Magnetic Guidance System
       Light Guidance System
     Remotely Operated Vehicle = A vehicle you use in
      hazardous environments where you can stand at a safe
      distance and control
     Uses = Bomb disposal, Deep sea exploration, Space
     Computer Aided Design = using a computer system to
      design the structure or appearance of an item
     Uses = Kitchen, car design, cartoon animation
     Computer Aided Manufacture = using a computer to
      control the production process
     Simulation = Using a computer system to recreate a real life
      situation, for example, flying a plane, commanding a tank,
     Advantages= You can practice “possible” situations, cheaper
      than practicing the real thing
     Virtual Reality = a method of recreating the outside world in
      a computer system
     Hardware = VR Headset, Data Gloves
UNIT 9 – Commercial Data Processing                                √ =     ?=       x = do not
                                                                   very   unsure   understand
Define and explain:
 Need for Computers in Commercial Data Processing
      the need for mainframe computers (speed, volume of
      Advantages of CDP over manual systems
      Difference between Data and Information
 The Data Processing Cycle
       Able to Draw the CDP cycle
       know about, Data Collection and Preparation, source
       Data Input; Bar codes, Mark sense cards, Magnetic
        stripes, Smart Cards, MICR, OCR
 How to make sure data is correct
      Verification and Validation
      Check digit, Range Check, Length Check
 Processing and Storage
       Databases, File, Record and Field
       Backup
       Real-time and Interactive Processing
       Reading Data Files – sequential access and direct access
       multi-user database, file server, database server.
 Hardware and Software
      Mainframe Hardware & Dumb Terminals
      How Mainframes differ from Client-Server networks
      Multi-access & Multi-user software
 Job types and careers
       The roles of Network manager, systems analyst,
         programmer and engineer
 Computer Crime
      Fraud
      Hacking
      Computer Viruses
UNIT 9 – Commercial Data Processing                                   √ =     ?=      x = do not
                                                                      very   unsure    understand
Define and explain:
   Implications of using Computers for CDP: Technical
     know about the processes of; e-commerce, on-line banking,
       on-line shopping
     Different types of bank cards; cheque guarantee cards, credit
       cards, debit cards, cash cards, multifunction cards.
     security of data; passwords, encryption of data being sent
   On-line Shopping
     Understanding the process of on-line shopping
     Advantages for companies
     Advantages for customers
     Disadvantages of on-line shopping
   On-line Banking
     Understand the process of on-line banking
     Advantages of on-line banking for banks
     Advantages of on-line banking for customers
     A consequence of on-line banking
     understand the process of Electronic Fund Transfer
     understand the process of Electronic Point of Sale
   Shopping with EPOS
     Understand shopping with an EPOS system
     Advantages of EPOS systems to business and the customer
     Disadvantages of EPOS systems to business and the
   Electronic Fund Transfer at Point of Sale
     Understand the process of EFTPOS
     Advantages and disadvantages of EFTPOS
   Implications of Using Computers in CDP: Economic
     Identify Initial Costs
     Understand the economic implications of the Mass Market
     Understand the Running Costs
   Able to discuss the Security and Privacy Issues arising from
    holding data on computers.
     Data Protection Act, Physical and software security and
       the sale of customer lists.

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