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Chapter 8

VIEWS: 11 PAGES: 81

									Chapter 11
• Getting on with business




            Siegerman Daigle American Studies
                       Chapter 11
Sacco and Vanzetti
• Anarchism – the belief that the restraint
  of one person by another is evil, and
  they do not recognize the authority
  than a government.
• Accused of murdering people.
• Not given a fair trial.
• Six years of appeal.
• World-famous case, when executed
  riots broke out throughout the world.
               Siegerman Daigle American Studies
                          Chapter 11
The red scare
• The red scare was a violent wave of
  anti-Communist panic that spread
  through the United States in 1919 in
  1920.
• After the Bolshevik Revolution people
  felt that communism would spread
  through the world.

             Siegerman Daigle American Studies
                        Chapter 11
Red scare continued
• During World War I, public hatred of
  Germany came about.
• After the war, many Americans transfer
  their hate of Germany to anyone who
  was born in another country.
• Public officials, business leaders, and a
  press, all contributed to the red scare.

              Siegerman Daigle American Studies
                         Chapter 11
Palmer Raids
• A progressive lawyer named Palmer
  believes that Communists were going to
  take over this country.
• June 2nd 1919 bombs exploded in eight
  cities throughout the United States.
• One bomb even shattered the front of
  Palmer’s home.
• Evidence suggested that the bomber
  was an Italian immigrant an anarchist.
               Siegerman Daigle American Studies
                          Chapter 11
Palmer continued
• Palmer got $500,000 from Congress to
  launch a campaign to find all radicals
  and anarchists.
• His new department would be part of
  the Justice Department Bureau of
  Investigation. The purpose of this
  department was to gather information
  about radical activity.
             Siegerman Daigle American Studies
                        Chapter 11
Palmer
• Palmer’s main staged raids in 12 cities
  on the Union of Russian workers. 249
  aliens were deported to Russia on a
  Ship called “Soviet Ark”.
• Many of the deportees had never
  participated in any terrorist or criminal
  activity.
• Many Americans believed that we were
               Siegerman Daigle American terrible danger.
                           of 11
  ridding ourselves Chapter theStudies
The arrest of many more
• 4000 people were arrested, many of
  them U.S. citizens in 33 major cities
  during a single night of raids.
• Many of the citizens where denied their
  rights. -- No attorneys, no food, water,
  heat, bathrooms.
• Very few challenged Palmer’s methods.
• The public generally applauded Palmer’s
  raids.      Siegerman Daigle American Studies
                         Chapter 11
Palmer continued
• Most of the prisoners were eventually
  released. 600 radicals were expelled from the
  country until the Department of Labor halted
  the deportation of others.
• By 1920 the red scare seemed to be over.
• Bolshevism had failed to spread beyond
  Russia.
• Sept. 1920 a bomb exploded on Wall Street
  killing more than 30 people.

               Siegerman Daigle American Studies
                          Chapter 11
Labor unrest
• An outbreak of strikes brought the threat of
  revolution uncomfortably close to home.
• The cost of living had more than doubled
  from prewar levels, wages lag far behind,
  angry workers went on strike.
• Of the 3600 strikes during 1919, the Seattle
  General strike the police strike in Boston, the
  steel strike, and coal strike provide the most
  disruptive.
                Siegerman Daigle American Studies
                           Chapter 11
What the strikes did
• No one was happy when people went on strike.
• The 350,000 Steelworkers who went on strike in
  September 1990 worked 12-hour days seven days a
  week.
• Each time they change between the day and night
  shift they had to work 24 hours straight, risking
  injury and death.
• All they were asking for was one day’s rest out of the
  week. Elbert Gary, the head of U.S. Steel, denied
  this.

                  Siegerman Daigle American Studies
                             Chapter 11
How the union was portrayed
• At first there was public support for the striking
  workers, U.S. Steel however portrayed them as
  radical and dangerous.
• As public opinion began to turn against them, the
  strikers had little chance.
• The Steel owners provoked riots, broke up union
  meetings, and employed police and soldiers to end
  the strike.
• African-Americans were recruited to replace the
  striking workers.

                  Siegerman Daigle American Studies
                             Chapter 11
Strike breakers
• In the end, 18 strikers were killed in the Steelworkers
  union. They won none of their demands.
• The coal strike lasted for a month in the late fall of
  1919, it threatens to paralyzed the country. The
  strikers finally obeyed a presidential order to go back
  to work. They went back to the same working
  conditions.
• All the major strikes in 1919 were portrayed as anti-
  American actions threatening the United States
  government.

                  Siegerman Daigle American Studies
                             Chapter 11
The great migration
• Between 1916 and 1920, half a million
  African-Americans left the south for
  new jobs in the North.
• Many these migrants were World War I
  veterans.
• African-Americans were tired of
  struggling for the farmers and decided
  to see better opportunities up north.
             Siegerman Daigle American Studies
                        Chapter 11
Migration continued
• Many African-Americans read the
  Chicago Defender, a key source of
  information of jobs and conditions in
  the North.




              Siegerman Daigle American Studies
                         Chapter 11
 African-Americans find better
             pay
• African-Americans find jobs as meat
  packers, metalworkers, and
  autoworkers for more pay than they
  could make down south.
• In 1916 only 50 African-Americans
  worked for Ford motor Co. 1920 2500
  black workers, six years later 10,000.

             Siegerman Daigle American Studies
                        Chapter 11
Better pay
• Between 1910 in 1930s the great black
  migration swells Chicago’s African-American
  population from 44,000 to almost 234,000.
• Cleveland, in 1910 had 8,500 blacks by the
  end of the 1920’s 68,000 blacks.
• Northern whites were not happy to share
  power and opportunity with blacks.
• Many Northern White’s reacted violently.

               Siegerman Daigle American Studies
                          Chapter 11
Racial unrest
• In 1917 race riots erupted in 26
  Northern cities.
• Riots broke out in many cities including
  the nation’s capital, during the hot
  summer of 1919.
• Newspaper reports contributed to the
  tension.

              Siegerman Daigle American Studies
                         Chapter 11
Racial unrest continued
• One newspaper story encouraged 200
  Sailors and Marines to march into the
  city beating black men and women.
• President Wilson had to call in federal
  troops to control the crowds.
• They were many casualties.
• Few cities escaped racial violence
  during the 1920s.
              Siegerman Daigle American Studies
                         Chapter 11
The Garvey Movement
• Marcus Garvey was from the bottme of
  Jamaican society. Black Jamaicans had
  no economic or political voice in the
  British control colony.
• Educated as a journalist, Garvey arrived
  in New York at the age 28.
• Garvey found a willing audience for his
  version of black self-help doctrine.
             Siegerman Daigle American Studies
                        Chapter 11
Garvey continued
• Garvey encouraged African-Americans to
  return to Africa “to establish a country and a
  government absolutely on their own.” his
  party founded the Universal Negro
  Improvement Association, which peaked at a
  membership of 250,000.
• With its program of black pride and power,
  Garvey’s “back to Africa” movements was the
  forerunner to the Black Muslim movement
               Siegerman Daigle American Studies
                          Chapter 11
Garvey still
• Garvey’s messaging encouraged
  African-Americans.
• A master showman, Garvey dressed in a
  hat with a white plume, and a fancy
  uniform of purple, black, and green.
• He declared himself president of the
  African empire.
• Thousands invested in Garvey
            Siegerman Daigle American Studies
                       Chapter 11
Garvey
• Many invested in Garvey’s ship line to bring
  blacks back to Africa.
• Garvey’s plan failed, he was arrested and
  charged with mail fraud, then deported.
• Whites called Garvey the “Moses of the
  Negroes,” others criticized his unconventional
  methods.
• Garvey did give hope to some blacks and
  even instilled some pride for their future.

                Siegerman Daigle American Studies
                           Chapter 11
The Progressive spirit in the
1920s
• The postwar decade began with two
  important reforms whose roots were
  firmly planted in the Progressive era.
• The 18th amendment established
  national Prohibition in 1919, and the
  19th amendment gave women the right
  to vote 1920.

             Siegerman Daigle American Studies
                        Chapter 11
Prohibition
• Between 1906 in 1919, 26 states had passed
  laws limiting the sale of liquor.
• During the war, anti- saloon advocates
  successfully linked prohibition with patriotism.
• Conserving the grain that would have gone
  into liquor became part of the war effort.
• By 1918, ¾ of the population lived in “dry”
  states or counties.

                Siegerman Daigle American Studies
                           Chapter 11
Prohibition continued
• When the Volstead Act took effect in
  January 1920, many Americans had
  high hopes that the new law would
  reduce poverty and wiped out
  prostitution and crime.




             Siegerman Daigle American Studies
                        Chapter 11
Suffrage
• Women’s struggle for voting rights got its
  final push from the war experience.
• Women had begun pursuing the right to vote
  in 1848, but the fight died down in the
  decades before the progressive era.
• The campaign for national suffrage gathered
  steam in 1916, thanks to Carrie Chapman
  Catt’s National American Women’s Suffrage
  Association. (NAWSA)
               Siegerman Daigle American Studies
                          Chapter 11
Suffrage groups
• Alice Paul’s Congressional Union was another
  group pushing for suffrage.
• Both groups did not agree with what tactics
  should be used to gain the right to vote.
• Some groups wanted to use violence; others
  wanted to use hunger strikes.
• Ratification of the National Suffrage
  amendment finally came on Aug. 26,1920.

               Siegerman Daigle American Studies
                          Chapter 11
Wanting more rights for
women
• The right to vote denied women full
  equality. Some states women still could
  not serve on juries, hold office, enter
  business, or signed contracts without
  her husband’s permission.
• Despite the years of hard work that
  went into gaining the right to vote, two
  out of three women who had the vote
                 it in the 1920
  failed to useSiegerman Daigle American Studies election.
                          Chapter 11
Women in need
• The Shepherd – Towner Maternity act
  of 1921.
• The act provided funds for states to
  employ public health nurses, hold
  childcare conferences, and educate new
  mothers. This act was the first to
  allocate federal funds for welfare
  purposes. The AMA (American Medical
               opposed this
  Association)Siegerman Daigle American Studiesact.
                       Chapter 11
       Turning away from
         progressivism
• Progressive legislation that survived
  Congress or the state legislatures
  sometimes perished when it came
  before the Supreme Court.
• Certain child labor act was deemed
  unconstitutional by the Supreme Court,
  which undid what the progresses had
  hoped for.
             Siegerman Daigle American Studies
                        Chapter 11
Decline of progressivism
• Progressive legislation to benefit working women
  fared little better. In 1923 the court struck down a
  Washington D.C. law and requiring a minimum wage
  for women.
• After the brutal war, many reformers lost faith in
  finding a political solution to sell social problems.
  The turmoil of the postwar years also weakens the
  progressive movement. Many former progresses
  found their sympathy now more firmly in the side of
  the business. For they were middle-class property
  owners.

                  Siegerman Daigle American Studies
                             Chapter 11
Section Two
• The Republican influence




             Siegerman Daigle American Studies
                        Chapter 11
Harding and the Teapot Dome
• In 1920 Warren G. Harding trounced
  Democrat James M. Cox in general
  election.
• Many observers saw this as a rejection
  of Wilson’s brand of internationalism.
• Harding as a senator, fought against
  Wilson’s league of Nations.

             Siegerman Daigle American Studies
                        Chapter 11
Teapot continued
• Harding owed his success to Americans
  exhaustion with the war years, with
  progressivism and with the turbulence of
  1919.
• Harding reassured Americans that he would
  help them returned to normalcy.
• Harding’s first two years in office began well.
  He called the presidential conference to
  consider the problems of unemployment.
                Siegerman Daigle American Studies
                           Chapter 11
Harding
• Harding, named some bright and able
  officers to his Cabinet, he knew his
  limitations. Secretary of State Charles
  Evans Hughes, Secretary of the treasury
  Andrew Mellon,and the Secretary of
  commerce Herbert Hoover.
• Harding also surrounded himself with
  his old friends from Ohio.”Good old
  boys”        Siegerman Daigle American Studies
                     Chapter 11
The good old boys
• Some of Harding’s poker buddies used their position
  to line their pockets with money.
• Some of his friends were guilty of making personal
  gains from their jobs.
• Two of Harding’s other advisers committed suicide
  rather than face public humiliation.
• With many scandalous situations that occurred during
  Harding’s administration, the Teapot Dome
  affair became the most famous.

                 Siegerman Daigle American Studies
                            Chapter 11
“Good old boys” are in trouble
• Albert Fall, leased government oilfields
  in Wyoming to wealthy friends in
  exchange for hundreds of thousands of
  dollars in bribes.
• Fall made history by being the first
  cabinet member officer to go to prison,
  but the wealthy businesspeople who
  bribed him were never punished.
              Siegerman Daigle American Studies
                         Chapter 11
Harding feels the effects
• Harding grew depressed and distraught
  over his friends betrayal. He became ill
  in Seattle, contracted pneumonia, and
  died in San Francisco on August 2nd
  1923, before the press began to reveal
  news of his administration’s corruption.


              Siegerman Daigle American Studies
                         Chapter 11
America was tired of
muckraking
• America was tired of muckraking and
  truly wanted to return to “normalcy.”
• America got this when Harding’s Vice
  President Calvin Coolidge succeeded to
  the presidency.



             Siegerman Daigle American Studies
                        Chapter 11
Silent Cal and big business
• Born on a Vermont farm that had been
  worked by his family for five
  generations, Coolidge attended a one
  room schoolhouse.
• After Harding’s death, Coolidge’s father,
  a justice of the peace, administered the
  presidential oath to his son by the light
  of a kerosene lamp.
              Siegerman Daigle American Studies
                         Chapter 11
Silent Cal continued
• Coolidge soon erased any damage the
  Harding scandals that cause Republican
  administration.
• Coolidge carried out Harding's
  programs. Both administrations rejected
  government programs to help ordinary
  citizens.
• Big business was another matter
             Siegerman Daigle American Studies
                        Chapter 11
Silent Cal continues
• The Wall Street Journal could justly
  brag that “Never before, here or
  anywhere else, has a government been
  so completely fused with businesses.”




             Siegerman Daigle American Studies
                        Chapter 11
The boost to Big Business
• Coolridge and Harding gave boast to big
  business.
• 1. They appointed business people to
  commissions that were supposed to regulate
  business
• 2. They selected Supreme Court justices who
  ruled against Progressive legislation.
• 3. They named conservatives to powerful
  cabin positions.

               Siegerman Daigle American Studies
                          Chapter 11
Boosted big business
continued
• Harding and Coolidge appointed people
  who oppose regulation.
• Members of various commissions began
  to overlook business violations of the
  antitrust acts.
• Harding and Coolidge made five
  conservative appointments to the
  Supreme Court.
             Siegerman Daigle American Studies
                        Chapter 11
Supreme Court
• The Supreme Court struck down 53 acts
  of Congress.
• During the 1920s the Supreme Court
  found 12 progressive laws
  unconstitutional.



            Siegerman Daigle American Studies
                       Chapter 11
Cabinet positions
• Cabinet positions in the Republican
  administration went to wealthy business
  leaders, they protected their interests.
• For example, when Andrew Mellon
  became Secretary of Treasury, he cut
  government spending and reduce taxes
  on corporations he also cut taxes for
  people with high incomes.
             Siegerman Daigle American Studies
                        Chapter 11
Herbert Hoover the wonder
boy
• Herbert Hoover was a key architect of
  the Republican era.
• Hoover would inherit the blame when
  Republican ideas came crashing down.
• Hoover expanded his Commerce
  Department to control unregulated
  airlines, radio, and other new industries.

              Siegerman Daigle American Studies
                         Chapter 11
Wonder boy continued
• Hoover helped organize trade associations.
• Hoover pushed the Bureau Standards, this
  made sure manufactured goods throughout
  the country would be standardized.
• Hoover supported eight hour days in major
  industries, better nutrition for children, and
  the conservation of natural resources.
• He pushed through the Pollution Act of 1924
  to control coastline oil production.

                Siegerman Daigle American Studies
                           Chapter 11
Hoover’s global vision
• Herbert Hoover encourage U.S. firms to
  expand their international business.
  During this decade American businesses
  came to dominate world markets in
  cars, tractors, electrical equipment, and
  farm machinery.


              Siegerman Daigle American Studies
                         Chapter 11
The Dawes Plan
• This plan showed how the United States
  influence European economies without direct
  government intervention.
• Charles G. Dawes, a wealthy Chicago banker,
  negotiated loans from private U.S. banks to
  Germany and set up a new payment
  schedule.
• Now Germany could pay its reparations to the
  allies and the allies could repay the United
  States.
               Siegerman Daigle American Studies
                          Chapter 11
Dawes plan continued
• U.S. banks loan Germany $2.5 billion so
  that Germany could make war
  reparations to the Allies. In turn, the
  Allies repaid this money to the U.S.
  government.




             Siegerman Daigle American Studies
                        Chapter 11
The Disarmament Movement
• The U.S. proved to be a reluctant giant.
• The U.S. attempted to destroy the weapons
  of war through the Washington Conference.
  The U.S. also signed the Kellogg-Brigand Pact
  to outlaw armed struggle.
• Nov 1921 Charles Hughes addressed the nine
  nations meeting at the Washington Naval
  Conference to discuss disarmament, the
  limiting of arms.
               Siegerman Daigle American Studies
                          Chapter 11
Result of the conference
• Three major treaties emerged from the first
  successful disarmament conference in
  modern history.
• U.S., England, France, and Italy pledged to
  limit the number of their largest ships and to
  stop constructing new ships.
• Japan agreed only after winning concessions
  that prohibited new U.S., British, and
  Japanese naval bases on the Western Pacific
  Islands.
                Siegerman Daigle American Studies
                           Chapter 11
Japan agreement
• The Japanese promise to respect
  China’s sovereignty and independence.
• The U.S. was concern about Japanese
  power ambitions in the Pacific however.




             Siegerman Daigle American Studies
                        Chapter 11
U.S.
• United States freed itself from
  involvement in Europe.
  The Kellogg-Briand Pact started out
  as a way to keep war out of Europe.
• The pact in 1928 made war illegal, but
  it failed to include punishments for
  future attackers.

             Siegerman Daigle American Studies
                        Chapter 11
Relations with Latin America
• United States felt it needed to protect
  its investments in Latin America.
• U.S. firms continue to expand markets
  and search for new markets and raw
  materials.
• By 1924 the U.S. controlled financial
  policies of 14 out of 20 Latin American
  countries.
              Siegerman Daigle American Studies
                         Chapter 11
    U.S. pushes people around
• United States felt it was their duty and right to
  extend its civilizations out of the border.
• United States did not hesitate to protect its
  business interests with soldiers.
• Cesar Sandino was a rebel in Nicaragua.
• He wanted America out of Nicaragu




                     Siegerman Daigle American Studies
                                Chapter 11
Section Three
The Glorification of business
In 1920, a list of 59 people
who ruled America appeared
in the newspaper. The list
omitted all at the officials but
included Rockefeller, Morgan,
the Dupont’s and treasury
secretary Andrew Mellon.
          Siegerman Daigle American Studies
                     Chapter 11
     A Booming economy
• Americans thanked big business for the
  prosperity the country enjoyed during
  the twenties.
• At the beginning of the war, the US had
  owed other countries money.
• Now the US was a creditor nation,
  collecting debts from war torn, Europe.

             Siegerman Daigle American Studies
                        Chapter 11
            Economy continued
• Between 1922 and 1928 industrial productivity the
  amount of goods produced by each hour of labor rose
  by 70%.
• Corporate investors reaped the largest rewards but
  the ordinary American also benefited. Workers earned
  higher wages than at any previous time in history of
  the US.
• Because of business booming, companies needed
  bigger and better offices.
• A growing urban population required new apartment
  buildings, and a spreading suburban population
                    Siegerman Daigle houses.
  demanded new roads and American Studies
                        Chapter 11
             New Industry
• New industries sprung up all over the place
• 1913-1914 Ford introduced the moving
  production line, an innovation that made it
  possible to assemble his car in 93 minutes
  instead of the 14 hours it had taken a year
  before.
• The auto industry’s dramatic expansion in the
  1920s gave birth to a host of related
  industries: steel, rubber, petroleum, machine
  tools, and road building.
               Siegerman Daigle American Studies
                          Chapter 11
New Commercial Downtowns
• Skyscrapers began to revolutionize the
  country’s vertical landscape.
• American’s were reaching for the sky as
  they made up for lost time.
• Each city was competing against each
  other for the great sky line.


             Siegerman Daigle American Studies
                        Chapter 11
       Corporate Revolution
• In this decade the US also witnessed the
  culmination of the corporate revolution that
  had begun in the late 19th century.
• Many small firms could not compete with big
  business. American business became big
  business, as thousands of small firms went
  out of business or were absorbed into large
  companies or corporations.

               Siegerman Daigle American Studies
                          Chapter 11
The Urge to merge

• 5,000 mergers took place between 1920-
  1928. This resulted in loss of thousands of
  firms. The Federal Trade Commission had
  protected small businesses against takeovers.
  With the Coolidge presidency the FTC began
  to encourage business merges.
• Utility companies became large firms and
  control vast areas.
• Oligopoly is a situation in which a few major
  producers control an entire industry.
               Siegerman Daigle American Studies
                          Chapter 11
      Managerial Revolution
• During the 20’s most leading Universities
  established its own business school. 1924 The
  Harvard Graduate School of Business
  Administration dedicated 23 elegant new
  buildings on a site across the Charles River
  from the University. New Course were being
  created to fit the need of management.
• New positions were also being created. This
  increased the amount of management
  positions.
               Siegerman Daigle American Studies
                          Chapter 11
     Industry’s Labor Policies
• The Red Scare dealt a crushing blow to labor
  unions.
• For the rest of the decade, corporations kept
  labor unions submissive.
• The American plan-This was a plan to destroy
  unions. Open shop associations allowed
  employees to stick together in blacklisting
  union members.
• Spies were used to find out what was going
  on with unions and inform on employees.
               Siegerman Daigle American Studies
                          Chapter 11
           Union Tactics
• Yellow dog contracts were used to kept
  workers from joining unions. The
  Supreme Court allowed Yellow Dog
  Contracts. Between 1921 and 1929
  Union membership declined.




             Siegerman Daigle American Studies
                        Chapter 11
             Welfare Capitalism
• The combination of programs employers adopted in
  order to convince workers that they did not need
  unions became known as WELFARE CAPTIALISM.
• Many companies also began programs in which
  workers could elect representatives to speak to
  management for them. This was called Industrial
  Democracy; it was supposed to erase the differences
  between workers and bosses.
• The workers knew that the company unions had no
  real power and called them “Kiss Me Clubs”
                   Siegerman Daigle American Studies
                              Chapter 11
Welfare Capitalism continued
• Welfare Capitalism may not have done away
  with the vast inequities between employers
  and employed, but by 1920s, worker-led
  unions were in a serious decline. By 1929,
  only about one in twelve workers belonged to
  a union.
• Corporations also used welfare capitalism to
  restore the public image after the muckraking
  scandals of the progress era.
               Siegerman Daigle American Studies
                          Chapter 11
Section Four




         Siegerman Daigle American Studies
                    Chapter 11
Henry Ford
• Ford paid better than the average.
• Well-paid workers become happy
  workers and good consumers.
• Willing to stay on the job and not leave
• 40 hour work week, five days instead of
  six
• Hired immigrants and felons.
             Siegerman Daigle American Studies
                        Chapter 11
Man or Machine
• The word “robot” came to mean a
  machine that acts like a person or a
  person who acts like a machine.
• Breaking down skill work into tiny jobs
  increased productivity.
• Opened thousands of jobs.


              Siegerman Daigle American Studies
                         Chapter 11
Scientific Management
• The idea of getting the most out of an
  employee.
• Break each job into its simplest operations.
• Offer cash incentives to workers who produce
  more than the standard.
• 1911- The Principles of Scientific
  Management
• Saving time meant greater profits.
• Offices began to resemble factories.
               Siegerman Daigle American Studies
                          Chapter 11
New White Collar Workers
• White shirts and ties uniformly worn by
  men.
• 1920 through 1930- the ranks of white
  collar workers- professional, wholesales
  and retail salespersons, and clerks grew
  largely.
• Two professions grew the most -sales
  and advertising

             Siegerman Daigle American Studies
                        Chapter 11
The Lure of Sales
• Sales was a way to make lots of money.
• The pressure to succeed could be
  devastating.




             Siegerman Daigle American Studies
                        Chapter 11
The Advertising Worker
• They persuaded Americans to need and
  want what was being advertised.
• Young and driven
• Men out numbered women in the field.




            Siegerman Daigle American Studies
                       Chapter 11
Women in the Work Force
• Less than one in five women workers
  held clerical, managerial, sales, and
  professional positions.
• By 1930 , 44 percent of employed
  women worked at white collar jobs.



             Siegerman Daigle American Studies
                        Chapter 11
Typecasting Women
• The typewriter changed the role of
  women.
• Choices were now open for women.
• Typewriters, dictaphones, telephones –
  could be operated by women who did
  not command high wages or look
  forward to advancement.

             Siegerman Daigle American Studies
                        Chapter 11
  Shop Clerks and Telephone
          Operators
• 1930- 736,000 women worked as shop
  clerks, cash girls, wrappers, stock
  clerks, cashiers, or switchboard
  operators.
• Polite
• Eager


            Siegerman Daigle American Studies
                       Chapter 11
Men and Women in the Office
• Office and stores had two distinct
  cultures.
• Women had no real chance for
  advancement.
• For first time in history, men and
  women meet and share the workplace.


            Siegerman Daigle American Studies
                       Chapter 11

								
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