Benchmark Employment in Representative Pennsylvania Green

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Penn State Workforce Education and Development Initiative




                     Benchmark Employment in
                   Representative Pennsylvania
                  Green Occupations, 2005–2008

                                                            Rose M. Baker
                                                        David L. Passmore




                                                                    January 2009
                                                           Penn State Workforce Education and Development Initiative



Contents

           In Brief: In this Report .............................................................................................................................................................................1

           Purpose of Benchmarking Employment in Green Occupations ......................................................................2

           Could the Pennsylvania Economy Become Greener Soon? ................................................................................3

           What Makes Jobs Green? ....................................................................................................................................................................4

           Green Jobs Defined by the Center for American Progress....................................................................................6
                                Table 1. Representative Occupations Associated with Strategies for Green Economic Investment by the the Center for
                                         American Progress & the Political Economy Research Institute


           Employment Benchmarks for Green Occupations ........................................................................................................7
                           Retrofitting Buildings ...........................................................................................................................................................................7
                                Table 2. Characteristics of Representative Pennsylvania Occupations in Center for American Progress & Political
                                         Economy Research Institute Building Retrofitting Scenario for Green Economic Investment
                                Table 3. Characteristics of Top Ten Industries Employing Representative Pennsylvania Occupations in Center for
                                         American Progress & Political Economy Research Institute Building Retrofitting Scenario for Green Economic
                                         Investment
                           Mass Transit/Freight Rail.................................................................................................................................................................10
                                Table 4. Characteristics of Representative Pennsylvania Occupations in Center for American Progress & Political
                                         Economy Research Institute Mass Transit/Freight Rail Scenario for Green Economic Investment
                                Table 5. Characteristics of Top Ten Industries Employing Representative Pennsylvania Occupations in Center for
                                         American Progress & Political Economy Research Institute Mass Transit/Freight Rail Scenario for Green
                                         Economic Investment
                           Smart Grids ..........................................................................................................................................................................................13
                                Table 6. Characteristics of Representative Pennsylvania Occupations in Center for American Progress & Political
                                         Economy Research Institute Smart Grid Scenario for Green Economic Investment
                                Table 7. Characteristics of Top Ten Industries Employing Representative Pennsylvania Occupations in Center for
                                         American Progress & Political Economy Research Institute Smart Grids Scenario for Green Economic
                                         Investment
                           Renewable Energy ............................................................................................................................................................................16
                                Table 8. Characteristics of Representative Pennsylvania Occupations in Center for American Progress & Political
                                         Economy Research Institute Wind Power Scenario for Green Economic Investment
                                Table 9. Characteristics of Top Ten Industries Employing Representative Pennsylvania Occupations in Center for
                                         American Progress & Political Economy Research Institute Wind Power Scenario for Green Economic
                                         Investment


           Availability of Regional Benchmarks for Pennsylvania ..........................................................................................24

           References .......................................................................................................................................................................................................26

           About This Report .....................................................................................................................................................................................28
                           Penn State Workforce Education & Development Initiative ...............................................................................................28
                           Authors, Assistants, & Assistance ................................................................................................................................................29




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                                    Penn State Workforce Education and Development Initiative




In Brief: In this Report



                           Benchmark Employment in Representative
                          Pennsylvania Green Occupations, 2005–2008
“This moment of peril must be turned to one of progress,” President Barack Obama said as
he signed on January 26, 2009 his first two Presidential Memoranda aimed at putting the U.S.
on the path to energy independence. The President further said that, the U.S. must “reverse
our dependence on foreign oil, while building a new energy economy that will create millions
of jobs.” This type of employment has become known colloquially as “green jobs.” Presented
in this report are benchmarks that allow assessment of, first, current Pennsylvania worker
assets in green occupations and, then, any progress that is made as returns are realized from
green economic investments in Pennsylvania. In particular, this report contains the following
information:
    •	 Could the Pennsylvania economy become greener soon? Prospects are considered for the
       “greening” of the Pennsylvania economy.
    •	 What makes jobs green? Problems are reviewed that are encountered when defining “green
       jobs.”
    •	 Definition of green jobs by the Center for American Progress. Representative “green
       occupations” are listed which were made prominent by the nonprofit Center for American
       Progress.
    •	 Employment benchmarks for green occupations. Pennsylvania employment in 2005 and 2008
       is tabulated for representative green occupations identified by the nonprofit Center for
       American Progress for six green economic investments, along with the top ten Pennsylvania
       industries that employ workers in these representative green occupations.
    •	 Availability of regional benchmarks for Pennsylvania. A link to a web site is furnished at which
       reports can be ordered from the Penn State Workforce Education and Development Initiative
       to benchmark green jobs data for almost any geographic area in Pennsylvania.




                     Research provided in this report was prepared by Penn State’s Workforce Education and
                     Development (WED) Initiative, an alliance between Penn State Outreach and Penn State’s
                     College of Education. The regional economic analysis for this research was conducted
                     by the Center for Regional Economic and Workforce Analysis in Penn State Outreach in
                     collaboration with the Institute for Research in Training and Development, a research unit
                     in Penn State’s College of Education. Contact the staff of the Penn State WED Initiative at
                     rmb194@psu.edu (e–mail), 814.865.9919 (voice), or 814.865.3589 (fax) for information
                     about services available to help plan and evaluate economic and workforce development
                     in the Commonwealth and beyond. Information on the web about the work of the Penn
                     State WED Initiative is available at http://PennStateWED.notlong.com.

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                             Penn State Workforce Education and Development Initiative



Purpose of Benchmarking Employment in Green Occupations
            “This moment of peril must be turned to one of progress,” President Barack Obama said as he
            signed on January 26, 2009 his first two Presidential Memoranda aimed at putting the U.S. on
            the path to energy independence (The White House, 2009, ¶1). The President further said that,
               Over the last few days we’ve learned that Microsoft, Intel, United Airlines, Home Depot, Sprint
               Nextel, and Caterpillar are each cutting thousands of jobs. These are not just numbers on a page. As
               with the millions of jobs lost in 2008, these are working men and women whose families have been
               disrupted and whose dreams have been put on hold. (The White House, 2009, ¶8)

               We owe it to each of them and to every, single American to act with a sense of urgency and common
               purpose. We can’t afford distractions and we cannot afford delays. And that is why I look forward to
               signing an American Recovery and Reinvestment Plan that will put millions of Americans to work
               and lay the foundation for stable growth that our economy needs and that our people demand. (The
               White House, 2009, ¶9)

               At a time of such great challenge for America, no single issue is as fundamental to our future as
               energy....Embedded in American soil and the wind and the sun, we have the resources to change....
               It will be the policy of my administration to reverse our dependence on foreign oil, while building a
               new energy economy that will create millions of jobs. (The White House, 2009, ¶10, 12, 13)

            How will we gauge progress we will make as we “reverse our dependence on foreign oil, while
            building a new energy economy that will create millions of jobs”? From where do we start?
            And, how will these broad national hopes and plans affect Pennsylvania? Civil engineers
            and surveyors create a permanently affixed mark—a benchmark—that establishes the exact
            elevation of a place, often as a starting point for work that follows. In a like manner, in this
            report we establish simple benchmarks for Pennsylvania employment in the new energy
            economy. This type of employment has become known colloquially as “green jobs.” The
            benchmarks established in this report allow Pennsylvania to assess, first, current Pennsylvania
            worker assets in green occupations and, then, any progress that is made as returns are realized
            from green economic investments in Pennsylvania.

            The remainder of this report is organized into five major sections:
            •	 Could the Pennsylvania economy become greener soon? Prospects are considered for the “greening”
               of the Pennsylvania economy.
            •	 What makes jobs green? Problems are reviewed that are encountered when defining “green jobs.”
            •	 Definition of green jobs by the Center for American Progress. Representative “green occupations” are
               listed which were made prominent by the nonprofit Center for American Progress.
            •	 Employment benchmarks for green occupations. Pennsylvania employment in 2005 and 2008 is
               tabulated for representative green occupations identified by the nonprofit Center for American
               Progress, along with the top ten Pennsylvania industries that employ workers in these representative
               green occupations.
            •	 Availability of regional benchmarks for Pennsylvania. A link to a web site is furnished at which
               reports can be ordered from the Penn State Workforce Education and Development Initiative for
               benchmark green jobs data for almost any geographic area defined in Pennsylvania.




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                             Penn State Workforce Education and Development Initiative



Could the Pennsylvania Economy Become Greener Soon?
            An often–cited analysis of the economic potential for green jobs was offered by the Political
            Economy Research Institute, a progressive think tank at the University of Massachusetts/
            Amherst (http://www.peri.umass.edu), that was funded by the Center for American Progress
            (see http://www.americanprogress.com), Green Recovery: A Program to Create Good Jobs and
            Start Building a Low–Carbon Economy (Pollin, Garrett–Peltier, Heintz, & Scharber, 2008).
            John Podesta, President and Chief Executive Officer of the Center for American Progress, was
            the co–chairman of the Obama–Biden Transition Project (The Office of the President–Elect,
            2009). Citing the significant number of its staff and former staff that have been appointed to
            positions in the Obama Administration, Time magazine declared in late 2008 that there was
            “no group in Washington with more influence at this moment in history” (Scherer, 2008).

            The national green economic spending strategies proposed by the Political Economy Research
            Institute and the Center for American Progress (Pollin, Garrett–Peltier, Heintz, & Scharber,
            n.d., p.2) include investments totalling $100 billion, with an anticipated 2 million new jobs
            created and a reduction in the unemployment rate of 1.3% after two years. Pennsylvania’s
            portion of the national green recovery program—the Commonwealth’s pro rata share of the
            national amount based on Pennsylvania’s population and gross regional product—would be $4
            billion, which is forecasted to create 86,385 net new jobs and reduce the state’s unemployment
            rate by 1.3% over two years (Pollin, Garrett–Peltier, Heintz, & Scharber, n.d., p.2).

            The Green Recovery study described “six key infrastructure investment strategies for our
            short–term green economic recovery program—retrofitting buildings, expanding mass transit
            and freight rail, constructing smart energy grids, and expanding production of wind power,
            solar power, and next–generation biofuels” (Pollin, Garrett–Peltier, Heintz, & Scharber, 2008,
            p.5). The Political Economy Research Institute and the Center for American Progress suggest
            that Pennsylvania’s $4 billion share of national green public–and private–sector economic
            investments could be distributed in the following manner:
            •	   Energy efficient building retrofits—$1.6 billion;
            •	   Mass transit and freight rail—$800 million;
            •	   Smart grids—$400 million; and
            •	   Wind power, solar power, and advanced biofuels—$1.2 billion.
            Of course, the level and types of funds actually to be distributed to Pennsylvania remain
            unknown because priorities and allocations for funds will result from legislative and political
            processes. Yet, as asserted in a report by Economic Modeling Specialists, Inc. (2008), “There
            is no question that there will be policy (and money) directed at these areas” (p. 2). The
            Economic Modeling Specialists, Inc. (2008) report further suggests that prerequisite to
            effective and efficient implementations of green economic investments are “(1) data on the
            specific regional economy, (2) data on the direct spending of the various investments, and (3)
            a careful distinction and estimation of short–term, (i.e., construction phase impacts), from the
            longer–term impacts associated with the investments in place” (p. 2).




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                            Penn State Workforce Education and Development Initiative



What Makes Jobs Green?
            Jobs used to come in two collar colors: white and blue. Now, there are green collar jobs.
            Adding this new collar color is making job identification and counting difficult.

            In order to measure something, it is a good idea to know what it is. So, just what is a green job
            anyway? The quick answer: nobody really knows. A longer, more considered answer would
            advance public policy in these nascent days of the Obama presidency.

            The stakes are high, indeed, for defining green jobs. Many in the U.S. are banking on
            recapturing our leadership and innovation, stabilizing our economy and making up for lost
            manufacturing jobs through evolution of an alternative energy economy. These hopes are
            embedded in the various prospectuses for economic revitalization and energy policy floated
            by the Obama administration before and after the new President’s inauguration.

            The cold, sober truth is that the tooth fairy does not slide jobs under our pillows. A
            fundamental fact of economic life is that lasting, sustainable jobs exist because people produce
            goods and services that are sold in the market. Green jobs would evolve, in part, only because
            they are required in green businesses to produce those goods and services.

            According to a 2008 report, State of Green Business (Makeower, 2008), no common, accepted
            definition of green business exists. As a result, the number of green businesses, their sales, or
            their employment are not known unambiguously and definitively. Are businesses that produce
            environmentally preferable products or services classified as green? Or, are any businesses that
            employ environmentally–friendly practices, such as dry cleaners or print shops, considered
            green?

            Not surprisingly, identifying green jobs is just as problematic as defining green businesses.
            For example, Pinderhughes (2004) asserted that green jobs are blue collar jobs in green
            businesses—that is, manual labor jobs in businesses whose products and services directly
            improve environmental quality. Among the types of green jobs Pinderhughes identified
            were: recycling and reuse; hazardous materials clean–up; building retrofits to increase energy
            efficiency and conservation; housing deconstruction; solar installation; urban agriculture; and
            manufacturing of items related to the green economy (e.g., solar panels).

            In a late 2008 interview, Phil Angelides, chair of Apollo Alliance, a coalition of industry, labor,
            and environmental groups, described a green collar job as one that pays “decent wages and
            benefits that can support a family. It has to be part of a real career path, with upward mobility.
            And it needs to reduce waste and pollution and benefit the environment” (The Huffington
            Post, 2008, ¶2). According to this definition, temporary jobs and sweatshop jobs do not qualify
            as green collar jobs.

            Carl Pope, executive director of the Sierra Club, said that “A green job has to do something
            useful for people, and it has to be helpful to, or at least not damaging to, the environment”
            (Greenhouse, 2008, ¶7). In The Green Collar Economy: How One Solution Can Fix Our
            Two Biggest Problems, Jones defined green collar jobs as “good local jobs that pay well,
            strengthen communities, provide pathways out of poverty, and help solve our environmental

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                                                  Penn State Workforce Education and Development Initiative



                            problems” (cited by Jervey, 2008, ¶9). Jones noted that many of these jobs are place–based:
                            for Pennsylvanians this means that installing a solar panel on a building in, say, Altoona or
                            Williamsport must be done on site and cannot be outsourced to another country.

                            As inspiring as these definitions might sound, they are too vague and indistinct to guide
                            measurement and projection of green jobs and to evaluate potential investments leading
                            to new job growth in an alternative energy economy. As questioned in the 2008 State of
                            Green Business report (Makeower, 2008), does a procurement manager, whose job entails
                            implementing a company’s environmentally preferable procurement mandate, count as
                            a green job? What about the loading dock laborer who recycles all packaging materials?
                            Separating the sheep from the goats, the wheat from the chaff, seems impossible.

                            With such an indefinite handle on the definition of green jobs, it is, again, not surprising that
                            estimates of the number and kinds of green jobs vary remarkably in practice. For instance, on
                            one extreme, a report commissioned by the American Solar Energy Society indicated that the
                            nation had 8.5 million jobs in renewable energy or energy efficient industries (Lurie, 2007).
                            On the other end of the continuum, a report for the U.S. Conference of Mayors estimated that,
                            as of 2006, there were approximately 750,000 green jobs in the U.S. economy (Global Insight,
                            2008).

                            Defining and identifying green jobs in a defensible manner has practical use. A close, skeptical
                            examination of hopes and proposals for green jobs is required to avoid being handed a
                            humbug—a hoax, gibberish, a fraud—in the name of job creation. Data–driven decisions
                            about policies and legislation for linking energy and jobs are needed desperately at this point
                            to take us out of the policy environment in which nearly every job seems to be identified as
                            “green” and every interest group seems to define green jobs within their interests (Greenhouse,
                            2008).

                            Remember the Emerald City in the Wizard of Oz? Emerald City is the fictional capital city of
                            the Land of Oz, sitting at the end of the famous Yellow Brick Road, which starts in Munchkin
                            Land. Everyone entering Emerald City must wear green–tinted eyeglasses to protect their
                            eyes from the “brightness and glory” of the city (the official interpretation), but the result is
                            that everything in the Emerald City appears to be some shade of green. This was yet another
                            humbug created by the Wizard to confuse and fool. Careful thought, deliberation, and analysis
                            is required not to be fooled by the many green job humbugs being offered.

                            To be fair, though, definitions of green jobs still are in the process of being fomented by
                            policy–makers and analysts. The notion of green jobs has become prominent in the public’s
                            attention only recently. At this stage, debate is necessary and inevitable about the intensional
                            definition1 of the term, green job, at this stage. However, investments meant to affect green
                            jobs are likely to progress quickly no matter whether a consensus definition of green jobs is
                            accepted eventually.




1“In logic and mathematics, an intensional definition gives the meaning of a term by specifying all the properties required to come to that definition, that is,
the necessary and sufficient conditions for belonging to the set being defined” (“Intensional definition,” 2008).
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                                                             Penn State Workforce Education and Development Initiative



Green Jobs Defined by the Center for American Progress
                                   Shown in Table 1 are occupations that the Political Economy Research Institute and the
                                   Center for American Progress consider to be “representative occupations that will be needed
                                   to advance investments in each of these areas” (Pollin, Garrett–Peltier, Heintz, & Scharber,
                                   2008, p.5). More occupations than merely the representative occupations listed in Table 1 for
                                   each investment strategy are stimulated by the infrastructure investment strategies envisioned
                                   by the Political Economy Research Institute and the Center for American Progress. Pollin et al.
                                   (2008) indicate that
                                         In addition, all of these green energy investment strategies engage a normal range of service and
                                         support activities—including accountants, lawyers, office clerks, human resource managers, cashiers,
                                         and retail sales people. We have not listed these and other related occupations [in Table 1]…because
                                         these jobs are not directly linked to any of our six green investment strategies. But new employment
                                         opportunities will certainly also open up in these areas as a result of the green recovery program.
                                         (p.5)

                                   Tracking the sentinel occupations listed in Table 1 will help Pennsylvanians keep track
                                   of progress made in creating and maintaining green jobs as a result of green economic
                                   investments.

Table 1. Representative Occupations Associated with Strategies for Green Economic Investment by the the Center for American Progress
         & the Political Economy Research Institute

      Strategies for Green
                                                                                                Representative Jobs
     Economic Investment

                                             Electricians, Heating/Air Conditioning Installers, Carpenters, Construction Equipment, Operators, Roofers, Insulation
 Building Retrofitting
                                             Workers, Carpenter Helpers, Industrial Truck Drivers, Construction Managers, Building Inspectors


                                             Civil Engineers, Rail Track Layers, Electricians, Welders, Metal Fabricators, Engine Assemblers, Bus Drivers,
 Mass Transit/Freight Rail
                                             Dispatchers, Locomotive Engineers, Railroad Conductors

                                             Computer Software Engineers, Electrical Engineers, Electrical Equipment Assemblers, Electrical Equipment
 Smart Grids                                 Technicians, Machinists, Team Assemblers, Construction Laborers, Operating Engineers, Electrical Power Line
                                             Installers and Repairers

                                             Environmental Engineers, Iron and Steel Workers, Milwrights, Sheet Metal Workers, Machinists, Electrical
 Wind Power                                  Equipment Assemblers, Construction Equipment Operators, Industrial Truck Drivers, Industrial Production Managers,
                                             First–Line Production Supervisors

                                             Electrical Engineers, Electricians, Industrial Machinery Mechanics, Welders, Metal Fabricators, Electrical Equipment
 Solar Power
                                             Assemblers, Construction Equipment Operators, Installation Helpers, Laborers, Construction Managers

                                             Chemical Engineers, Chemists, Chemical Equipment Operators, Chemical Technicians, Mixing and Blending
 Advanced Biofuels                           Machine Operators, Agricultural Workers, Industrial Truck Drivers, Farm Product Purchasers, Agricultural and
                                             Forestry Supervisors, Agricultural Inspectors

Source: Adapted from Green Recovery (Pollin, Garrett–Peltier, Heintz, & Scharber, 2008, p.6).




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Employment Benchmarks for Green Occupations
                   For each of the six green economic investments outlined by the Political Economy Research
                   Institute and the Center for American Progress, the numbers of workers in representative
                   green occupations is tabulated for 2005 to 2008. Then, employment counts for 2005 and 2008
                   are provided for the top ten industries employing the workers in representative Pennsylvania
                   green occupations. Occupations examined are defined by Standard Occupational
                   Classification System (SOC) codes (see http://www.bls.gov/soc/), and industries are identified
                   by North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes (see http://NAICS.notlong.
                   com). SOC codes for occupations associated with green economic investments in retrofitting
                   buildings and mass transit/freight rail scenarios were selected by Economic Modeling
                   Specialists, Inc. (2008). Staff of the Penn State Workforce Education and Development
                   Initiative selected SOC codes for representative green occupations for the smart grids scenario
                   and renewable energy scenarios including solar, wind, and advanced biofuels.

Retrofitting Buildings
                               The most obvious option for rapid green investment in communities is a large–scale building
                               retrofit program, which would rely entirely on known technologies such as high–performance
                               windows, efficient heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems, geothermal heating and
                               cooling systems, efficient lighting and day–lighting, building integrated photovoltaic–powered
                               energy, and the installation of efficient appliances. Retrofitting can begin almost immediately
                               on buildings of all sizes, in all regions of the country, and can provide short–term returns on
                               the money being invested. Existing federal programs that could serve as vehicles for this swift
                               investment include but are not limited to:
                               •	 Fully funding weatherization assistance to the level authorized by the Energy
                                  Independence and Security Act
                               •	 Expanding the energy–efficiency retrofit program in the Low Income Home Energy
                                  Assistance Program
                               •	 Matching state public funds and other locally based programs supporting energy efficiency
                                  and green building retrofits to both public and private buildings.
                               —From Green Recovery (Pollin, Garrett–Peltier, Heintz, & Scharber, 2008, p.6)

                   Investments in retrofitting buildings could produce significant gains and savings for
                   Pennsylvania. In 2006, U.S. buildings accounted for 35% of the nation’s greenhouse gas
                   emissions, more than the transportation sector (Energy Information Administration, 2007).
                   Buildings consume 70% of the electricity load in the U.S. (U.S. Green Building Council, 2007).
                   The bulk of the problem lies with existing buildings, which outnumber new buildings by
                   more than 100 to 1 (Deloitte & Lockwood, 2008). A number of Pennsylvania initiatives are
                   focused on building renovations and retrofits (Governor’s Green Government Council, 2006).
                   A Google search of the phrase, “Pennsylvania building retrofitting” is available at: http://
                   PA–retrofitting.notlong.com.

                   Displayed in Table 2 are characteristics of 2005–2008 employment in representative
                   Pennsylvania green occupations that could be involved with retrofitting buildings. Table 2 and
                   subsequent similar tables provided in this report contain the following information elements:
                   •	 SOC Code—Standard occupational classification of the representative occupation.
                   •	 Title—Brief title assigned to the SOC code.

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                           •	 2005 and 2008 jobs—Full and part-time jobs held by nearly all types of workers: payroll workers
                              (who have unemployment insurance), farm workers, railroad workers, military workers, and sole
                              proprietors.
                           •	 New + replacement jobs—New jobs created by growth and change in the economy. At times, there
                              are no new jobs, but, rather, job turnover occurs. Replacement jobs are job openings (over a
                              given timeframe) expected in an occupation as the result of turnover—e.g., employees changing
                              occupations, retiring, or otherwise leaving the occupation. The number and percentage of
                              replacement jobs are derived by multiplying estimated annual turnover by the number of years in
                              the given timeframe.
                           •	 2007 median hourly earnings—Hourly earnings, excluding benefits, of the typical worker in an
                              occupation.
                           •	 Typical education or training required— The typical education or training requirements of each
                              occupation, from “Short-term on-the-job training” to “Post-graduate or professional degree.”


Table 2. Characteristics of Representative Pennsylvania Occupations in Center for American Progress & Political Economy Research
         Institute Building Retrofitting Scenario for Green Economic Investment

                                                                           2005 to        New +            2007           Typical
  SOC                                                                       2008        Relacement        Median        Education
                          Title            2005 Jobs     2008 Jobs
  Code                                                                    Change           Jobs           Hourly        or Training
                                                                          (% total)      (% total)       Earnings        Required

                                                                             260            501                        Bachelor's
 11–9021   Construction managers             4,997          5,257                                         $35.83
                                                                           (5.0%)         (10.0%)                      degree

                                                                                                                       Long–term
                                                                             907            2,736
 47–2031   Carpenters                        44,897        45,804                                         $17.79       on–the–job
                                                                           (2.0%)          (6.0%)
                                                                                                                       training

           Operating engineers & other                                                                                 Moderate–term
                                                                             677           1,600
 47–2073   construction equipment            15,317        15,994                                         $19.78       on–the–job
                                                                           (4.0%)         (10.0%)
           operators                                                                                                   training

                                                                                                                       Long–term
                                                                             875           2,696
 47–2111   Electricians                      22,872        23,747                                          $24.3       on–the–job
                                                                           (4.0%)         (12.0%)
                                                                                                                       training

                                                                                                                       Moderate–term
           Insulation workers, floor,                                       (33)             93
 47–2131                                      853           886                                           $16.92       on–the–job
           ceiling, & wall                                                 (4.0%)         (11.0%)
                                                                                                                       training

                                                                                                                       Moderate–term
                                                                             (31)            325
 47–2181   Roofers                           5,325          5,294                                         $16.28       on–the–job
                                                                           (1.0%)          (6.0%)
                                                                                                                       training

                                                                                                                       Short–term
                                                                             52              427
 47–3012   Helpers, carpenters               4,974          5,026                                          $11.53      on–the–job
                                                                           (1.0%)          (9.0%)
                                                                                                                       training

                                                                                                                       Work
           Construction & building                                           356            682
 47–4011                                     5,586          5,942                                          $20.05      experience in a
           inspectors                                                      (6.0%)         (12.0%)
                                                                                                                       related field

           Heating, air conditioning, &                                                                                Long–term
                                                                             598           1,245
 49–9021   refrigeration mechanics &         11,885        12,483                                          $18.96      on–the–job
                                                                           (5.0%)         (10.0%)
           installers                                                                                                  training




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                                                             Penn State Workforce Education and Development Initiative




                                                                                                             2005 to              New +                2007           Typical
   SOC                                                                                                        2008              Relacement            Median        Education
                                Title                       2005 Jobs              2008 Jobs
   Code                                                                                                     Change                 Jobs               Hourly        or Training
                                                                                                            (% total)            (% total)           Earnings        Required

                                                                                                                                                                   Short–term
                Industrial truck & tractor                                                                     1,616                 4,375
 53–7051                                                       32,420                 34,036                                                          $13.69       on–the–job
                operators                                                                                     (5.0%)                (13.0%)
                                                                                                                                                                   training

                                                                                                               5,343                 14,678
                                Total                          149,126                154,469                                                         $18.63
                                                                                                              (4.0%)                (10.0%)

Source: Calculated by staff of Penn State Workforce Education & Development Initiative using data from Economic Modeling Specialists, Inc. (2009).


                                  Contained in Table 3 are 2005–2008 counts of workers in the ten Pennsylvania industries
                                  employing the largest number of workers in the green occupations listed in Table 2.

Table 3. Characteristics of Top Ten Industries Employing Representative Pennsylvania Occupations in Center for American Progress &
         Political Economy Research Institute Building Retrofitting Scenario for Green Economic Investment

                                                                                                                                                               2005 to 2008
  NAICS
                                             Title                                          2005 Jobs                             2008 Jobs                      Change
  Code
                                                                                                                                                                 (% total)


                                                                                                                                                                   (717)
 236100          Residential building construction                                             18,278                                17,561
                                                                                                                                                                  (4.0%)


                                                                                                                                                                    774
 238210          Electrical contractors                                                        16,313                                17,087
                                                                                                                                                                  (5.0%)


                                                                                                                                                                    589
 236200          Nonresidential building construction                                           9,332                                 9,921
                                                                                                                                                                  (6.0%)


                 Plumbing, heating, and air–conditioning                                                                                                            645
 238220                                                                                         8,348                                 8,993
                 contractors                                                                                                                                      (8.0%)


                                                                                                                                                                    387
 930000          Local government                                                               6,662                                 7,049
                                                                                                                                                                  (6.0%)


                 Finish carpentry contractors and all other                                                                                                         467
 2383XX                                                                                         6,575                                 7,042
                 building finishing contractors                                                                                                                   (7.0%)


                                                                                                                                                                  2,340
 493100          Warehousing and storage                                                        6,559                                 8,899
                                                                                                                                                                 (36.0%)


                 Framing contractors and all other foundation,                                                                                                      281
 2381XX                                                                                         6,296                                 6,577
                 structure, and building exterior contractors                                                                                                     (6.0%)


                                                                                                                                                                    351
 238900          Other specialty trade contractors                                              5,527                                 5,878
                                                                                                                                                                  (6.0%)


                                                                                                                                                                           /page 9/
                                                             Penn State Workforce Education and Development Initiative




                                                                                                                                                     2005 to 2008
  NAICS
                                             Title                                          2005 Jobs                             2008 Jobs            Change
  Code
                                                                                                                                                       (% total)


                                                                                                                                                         (36)
 238160          Roofing contractors                                                            4,454                                 4,418
                                                                                                                                                        (1.0%)


                                                                                                                                                         5,081
                                             Total                                             88,344                                93,425
                                                                                                                                                        (5.8%)

Source: Calculated by staff of Penn State Workforce Education & Development Initiative using data from Economic Modeling Specialists, Inc. (2009).



Mass Transit/Freight Rail
                                                       Public investment in expanding mass transit systems and freight rail networks in the United
                                                       States could begin immediately in some areas but would take longer in others. In the mass
                                                       transit arena, investments that could be pursued in a very short time include, but are not
                                                       limited to:
                                                       •	 Expanded bus and subway services
                                                       •	 Lower public transportation fares
                                                       •	 Expanded federal support for state and municipal transit operation and maintenance
                                                          budgets to deal with increased ridership
                                                       •	 Higher funding for critical mass transit programs currently bottlenecked for lack of federal
                                                          dollars to encourage new ridership and more transportation choices.
                                                       Other areas, such as building light–rail or subway systems, will entail long lead times before a
                                                       large amount of new hiring and spending occurs, but higher funding for existing mass transit
                                                       and light–rail projects would result in job growth in engineering, electrical work, welding,
                                                       metal fabrication, and engine assembly sectors. Investing in diverse transportation options
                                                       is important in both urban and rural communities and can be an engine for far greater
                                                       economic activity.
                                                       Upgrades to our freight rail through public investment would also yield some immediate
                                                       job gains in similar professions, creating substantial employment through both construction
                                                       and operations, alongside a down payment on more job creation over two years through
                                                       improved maintenance and expansion of services. Existing federal programs through
                                                       which these investments could be made quickly include expanding federal support and
                                                       underwriting for freight rail infrastructure and rural economic development programs.
                                                       —From Green Recovery (Pollin, Garrett–Peltier, Heintz, & Scharber, 2008, pp.7–8)

                                  Improved mass transit and freight rail services could yield energy savings for Pennsylvania.
                                  According to the Christian Science Monitor (Francis, 2008),
                                         High gas prices are prying record numbers of Americans from their cars and onto buses, subways,
                                         and commuter trains. That has many pluses: It eases pocketbook expenses, road congestion, and
                                         pollution. But it’s also straining providers of mass transit—a signal for needed change. (¶1)

                                  Freight rail is fuel–efficient and generates less air pollution per ton–mile than trucking and
                                  also is a preferred mode for hazardous materials shipments because of its positive safety
                                  record (AASHTO Freight Transportation, 2004, p.2). A Google search of the phrase, “mass
                                  transit/freight rail investments in Pennsylvania,” is available at: http://PA–masstransit–
                                  freightrail.notlong.com.


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                                                             Penn State Workforce Education and Development Initiative



                                  Displayed in Table 4 are characteristics of 2005–2008 employment in representative
                                  Pennsylvania green occupations that could be involved with mass transit/freight rail.

Table 4. Characteristics of Representative Pennsylvania Occupations in Center for American Progress & Political Economy Research
         Institute Mass Transit/Freight Rail Scenario for Green Economic Investment

                                                                                                             2005 to              New +                2007        Typical
   SOC                                                                                                        2008              Relacement            Median     Education
                                Title                       2005 Jobs              2008 Jobs
   Code                                                                                                     Change                 Jobs               Hourly     or Training
                                                                                                            (% total)            (% total)           Earnings     Required

                                                                                                                532                  1,347                      Bachelor's
 17–2051        Civil engineers                                 9,841                 10,373                                                          $31.08
                                                                                                              (5.0%)                (14.0%)                     degree

                                                                                                                                                                Moderate–term
                Dispatchers, except police,                                                                     123                    640
 43–5032                                                        6,745                  6,868                                                          $15.49    on–the–job
                fire, & ambulance                                                                             (2.0%)                 (9.0%)
                                                                                                                                                                training

                                                                                                                                                                Long–term
                                                                                                                875                  2,696
 47–2111        Electricians                                   22,872                 23,747                                                          $24.3     on–the–job
                                                                                                              (4.0%)                (12.0%)
                                                                                                                                                                training

                Rail–track laying &                                                                                                                             Moderate–term
                                                                                                                (37)                    1
 47–4061        maintenance equipment                            546                    509                                                           $24.64    on–the–job
                                                                                                              (7.0%)                 (0.0%)
                operators                                                                                                                                       training

                                                                                                                                                                Short–term
                Engine & other machine                                                                          85                    182
 51–2031                                                         881                    966                                                           $15.46    on–the–job
                assemblers                                                                                   (10.0%)                (21.0%)
                                                                                                                                                                training

                                                                                                                                                                Moderate–term
                Structural metal fabricators                                                                     8                     397
 51–2041                                                        7,357                  7,365                                                          $15.67    on–the–job
                & fitters                                                                                     (0.0%)                 (5.0%)
                                                                                                                                                                training

                                                                                                                                                                Long–term
                                                                                                               (211)                   355
 51–3021        Butchers & meat cutters                         6,118                  5,907                                                          $13.18    on–the–job
                                                                                                              (3.0%)                 (6.0%)
                                                                                                                                                                training

                                                                                                                                                                Long–term
                Welders, cutters, solderers, &                                                                  423                   1,494
 51–4121                                                       16,367                 16,790                                                          $15.78    on–the–job
                brazers                                                                                       (3.0%)                 (9.0%)
                                                                                                                                                                training

                                                                                                                                                                Moderate–term
                Locomotive engineers &                                                                         (198)                   35
 53–4019                                                        2,411                  2,213                                                          $29.37    on–the–job
                operators                                                                                     (8.0%)                 (1.0%)
                                                                                                                                                                training

                                                                                                                                                                Moderate–term
                Railroad conductors &                                                                          (171)                   61
 53–4031                                                        2,150                  1,979                                                          $21.95    on–the–job
                yardmasters                                                                                   (8.0%)                 (3.0%)
                                                                                                                                                                training

                                                                                                               1,430                 7,208
                                Total                          75,288                 76,718                                                          $20.83
                                                                                                              (2.0%)                (10.0%)

Source: Calculated by staff of Penn State Workforce Education & Development Initiative using data from Economic Modeling Specialists, Inc. (2009).




                                                                                                                                                                      /page 11/
                                                             Penn State Workforce Education and Development Initiative



                                  Contained in Table 5 are 2005–2008 counts of workers in the ten Pennsylvania industries
                                  employing the largest number of workers in the green occupations listed in Table 4.

Table 5. Characteristics of Top Ten Industries Employing Representative Pennsylvania Occupations in Center for American Progress &
         Political Economy Research Institute Mass Transit/Freight Rail Scenario for Green Economic Investment

                                                                                                                                                     2005 to 2008
  NAICS
                                             Title                                          2005 Jobs                             2008 Jobs            Change
  Code
                                                                                                                                                       (% total)


                                                                                                                                                          741
 238210          Electrical contractors                                                        15,558                                16,299
                                                                                                                                                        (5.0%)


                                                                                                                                                          395
 5413XX          Architectural, engineering, & related services                                 5,227                                 5,622
                                                                                                                                                        (8.0%)


                                                                                                                                                           9
 332300          Architectural & structural metals manufacturing                                5,170                                 5,179
                                                                                                                                                        (0.0%)


                                                                                                                                                         (483)
 482100          Rail transportation                                                            5,110                                 4,627
                                                                                                                                                        (9.0%)


                                                                                                                                                         (160)
 445100          Grocery stores                                                                 4,367                                 4,207
                                                                                                                                                        (4.0%)


                                                                                                                                                          135
 930000          Local government                                                               2,468                                 2,603
                                                                                                                                                        (5.0%)


                 Agriculture, construction, & mining machinery                                                                                           280
 333100                                                                                         2,133                                 2,413
                 manufacturing                                                                                                                         (13.0%)


                                                                                                                                                         (56)
 336200          Motor vehicle body & trailer manufacturing                                     2,031                                 1,975
                                                                                                                                                        (3.0%)


                                                                                                                                                           8
 920000          State government                                                               1,998                                 2,006
                                                                                                                                                        (0.0%)


                                                                                                                                                         (82)
 336500          Railroad rolling stock manufacturing                                           1,398                                 1,316
                                                                                                                                                        (6.0%)


                                                                                                                                                          787
                                             Total                                             45,460                                46,247
                                                                                                                                                        (1.7%)


Source: Calculated by staff of Penn State Workforce Education & Development Initiative using data from Economic Modeling Specialists, Inc. (2009).




                                                                                                                                                                 /page 12/
                                               Penn State Workforce Education and Development Initiative



Smart Grids
                                           Some smart grid investment projects are already in planning stages around the country. The
                                           projects entail combining advances in information technology with innovations in power
                                           system management to create a significantly more efficient distribution system for electrical
                                           energy. Through a green economic recovery program the U.S. government could deploy swift
                                           federal government support for these pilot projects....Possible spending vehicles for these kinds
                                           of investments by the federal government include expanding the Smart Grid Investment
                                           Matching Grant Program established in the 2007 Energy Independence and Security Act.
                                           —From Green Recovery (Pollin, Garrett–Peltier, Heintz, & Scharber, 2008, p.8)

                         Smart grids deliver electricity from suppliers to consumers using digital technology to save
                         energy and cost. President Barack Obama asked the U.S. Congress “to act without delay” to
                         pass legislation that included building a new electricity smart grid (see Steitz & Jensen, 2009,
                         for analysis). One estimate (Kannberg, et al., 2003) indicated modernization of U.S. grids with
                         smart grid capabilities would save between 46 and 117 billion dollars through 2023. A Google
                         search of the phrase, “Pennsylvania smart grids,” is available at: http://PA–SmartGrid.notlong.
                         com.

                         Displayed in Table 6 are characteristics of 2005–2008 employment in representative
                         Pennsylvania green occupations that could be involved with smart grids.

Table 6. Characteristics of Representative Pennsylvania Occupations in Center for American Progress & Political Economy Research
         Institute Smart Grid Scenario for Green Economic Investment

                                                                                    2005 to          New +              2007             Typical
  SOC                                                                                2008          Relacement          Median          Education
                       Title                  2005 Jobs         2008 Jobs
  Code                                                                             Change             Jobs             Hourly          or Training
                                                                                   (% total)        (% total)         Earnings          Required

           Computer software engineers,                                              1,674                                            Bachelor's
 15–1031                                         12,700            14,374                              12,811           $21.45
           applications                                                             (13.0%)                                           degree


           Computer software engineers,                                                788             1,199                          Bachelor's
 15–1032                                         8,893             9,681                                                $38.45
           systems software                                                          (9.0%)           (13.0%)                         degree


                                                                                       76                490                          Bachelor's
 17–2071   Electrical engineers                  5,817             5,893                                                $35.01
                                                                                     (1.0%)            (8.0%)                         degree

                                                                                                                                      Moderate–term
                                                                                      1,639             2,441
 47–2061   Construction laborers                 34,384            36,023                                               $14.84        on–the–job
                                                                                     (5.0%)            (7.0%)
                                                                                                                                      training

           Operating engineers & other                                                                                                Moderate–term
                                                                                       677             1,600
 47–2073   construction equipment                15,317            15,994                                               $19.78        on–the–job
                                                                                     (4.0%)           (10.0%)
           operators                                                                                                                  training

                                                                                                                                      Postsecondary
           Computer, automated teller, &                                               (11)              160
 49–2011                                         4,946             4,935                                                $19.08        vocational
           office machine repairers                                                  (0.0%)            (3.0%)
                                                                                                                                      award

                                                                                                                                      Postsecondary
                                                                                       (20)               8
 49–2021   Radio mechanics                        347               327                                                 $15.06        vocational
                                                                                     (6.0%)            (2.0%)
                                                                                                                                      award



                                                                                                                                               /page 13/
                                                             Penn State Workforce Education and Development Initiative




                                                                                                             2005 to              New +                2007        Typical
   SOC                                                                                                        2008              Relacement            Median     Education
                                Title                       2005 Jobs              2008 Jobs
   Code                                                                                                     Change                 Jobs               Hourly     or Training
                                                                                                            (% total)            (% total)           Earnings     Required

                Telecommunications                                                                                                                              Long–term
                                                                                                                 4                     428
 49–2022        equipment installers &                          5,759                  5,763                                                          $23.87    on–the–job
                                                                                                              (0.0%)                 (7.0%)
                repairers, except line installers                                                                                                               training

                                                                                                                                                                Postsecondary
                                                                                                                (13)                   (5)
 49–2091        Avionics technicians                             259                    246                                                           $30.38    vocational
                                                                                                              (5.0%)                 (2.0%)
                                                                                                                                                                award

                                                                                                                                                                Postsecondary
                Electric motor, power tool, &                                                                   13                    135
 49–2092                                                         968                    981                                                           $19.8     vocational
                related repairers                                                                             (1.0%)                (14.0%)
                                                                                                                                                                award

                Electrical & electronics                                                                                                                        Postsecondary
                                                                                                                (37)                   22
 49–2093        installers & repairers,                          948                    911                                                           $25.36    vocational
                                                                                                              (4.0%)                 (2.0%)
                transportation equipment                                                                                                                        award

                Electrical & electronics                                                                                                                        Postsecondary
                                                                                                                63                    446
 49–2094        repairers, commercial &                         3,721                  3,784                                                          $22.33    vocational
                                                                                                              (2.0%)                (12.0%)
                industrial equipment                                                                                                                            award

                Electrical & electronics                                                                                                                        Postsecondary
                                                                                                               (107)                  (16)
 49–2095        repairers, powerhouse,                           867                    760                                                           $32.8     vocational
                                                                                                             (12.0%)                 (2.0%)
                substation, & relay                                                                                                                             award

                Electronic equipment                                                                                                                            Postsecondary
                                                                                                                 7                     87
 49–2096        installers & repairers, motor                    837                    844                                                           $18.34    vocational
                                                                                                              (1.0%)                (10.0%)
                vehicles                                                                                                                                        award

                Electronic home entertainment                                                                                                                   Postsecondary
                                                                                                                (30)                   26
 49–2097        equipment installers &                          2,067                  2,037                                                          $13.47    vocational
                                                                                                              (1.0%)                 (1.0%)
                repairers                                                                                                                                       award

                                                                                                                                                                Postsecondary
                Security & fire alarm systems                                                                  220                    290
 49–2098                                                        1,584                  1,804                                                          $18.72    vocational
                installers                                                                                   (14.0%)                (18.0%)
                                                                                                                                                                award

                                                                                                                                                                Long–term
                Electrical power–line installers                                                                257                   593
 49–9051                                                        3,319                  3,576                                                          $25.52    on–the–job
                & repairers                                                                                   (8.0%)                (18.0%)
                                                                                                                                                                training

                                                                                                                                                                Short–term
                Electrical & electronic                                                                        (449)                   983
 51–2022                                                       10,755                 10,306                                                          $12.5     on–the–job
                equipment assemblers                                                                          (4.0%)                 (9.0%)
                                                                                                                                                                training

                                                                                                                                                                Long–term
                                                                                                                516                   1,647
 51–4041        Machinists                                     19,562                 20,078                                                          $16.33    on–the–job
                                                                                                              (3.0%)                 (8.0%)
                                                                                                                                                                training

                                                                                                               5,268                 12,811
                                Total                          133,049                138,317                                                         $21.45
                                                                                                              (4.0%)                (10.0%)

Source: Calculated by staff of Penn State Workforce Education & Development Initiative using data from Economic Modeling Specialists, Inc. (2009).




                                                                                                                                                                     /page 14/
                                                             Penn State Workforce Education and Development Initiative



                                  Contained in Table 7 are 2005–2008 counts of workers in the ten Pennsylvania industries
                                  employing the largest number of workers in the green occupations listed in Table 6.

Table 7. Characteristics of Top Ten Industries Employing Representative Pennsylvania Occupations in Center for American Progress &
         Political Economy Research Institute Smart Grids Scenario for Green Economic Investment

                                                                                                                                                     2005 to 2008
  NAICS
                                             Title                                          2005 Jobs                             2008 Jobs            Change
  Code
                                                                                                                                                       (% total)


                                                                                                                                                          633
 238900          Other specialty trade contractors                                             10,302                                10,935
                                                                                                                                                        (6.0%)


                                                                                                                                                        1,219
 541500          Computer systems design & related services                                     7,710                                 8,929
                                                                                                                                                       (16.0%)


                                                                                                                                                          317
 930000          Local government                                                               4,997                                 5,314
                                                                                                                                                        (6.0%)


                                                                                                                                                         (190)
 236100          Residential building construction                                              4,984                                 4,794
                                                                                                                                                        (4.0%)


                                                                                                                                                          348
 237300          Highway, street, & bridge construction                                         4,716                                 5,064
                                                                                                                                                        (7.0%)


                                                                                                                                                         410
 332710          Machine shops                                                                  4,304                                 4,714
                                                                                                                                                       (10.0%)


                                                                                                                                                          306
 561300          Employment services                                                            4,199                                 4,505
                                                                                                                                                        (7.0%)


                                                                                                                                                          227
 236200          Nonresidential building construction                                           4,174                                 4,401
                                                                                                                                                        (5.0%)


                                                                                                                                                         (245)
 517100          Wired telecommunications carriers                                              3,832                                 3,587
                                                                                                                                                        (6.0%)


                 Water & sewer system & all other utility system                                                                                           8
 2371XX                                                                                         3,515                                 3,523
                 construction                                                                                                                           (0.0%)


                                                                                                                                                         3,303
                                             Total                                             52,733                                55,766
                                                                                                                                                        (5.8%)

Source: Calculated by staff of Penn State Workforce Education & Development Initiative using data from Economic Modeling Specialists, Inc. (2009).




                                                                                                                                                                 /page 15/
                                    Penn State Workforce Education and Development Initiative



Renewable Energy
                                In our three renewable energy areas—wind, solar, and next–generation biofuels—public–
                                and private–sector investment growth is already picking up pace, with renewable energy
                                technology supporting sustained double–digit rates of growth nationwide. Yet an unstable
                                policy environment and the lack of long–term incentives have hurt the investment climate
                                for these technologies, preventing them from realizing even greater growth. With sufficiently
                                generous and stable federal tax incentives and credit subsidies, significant new private–sector
                                investment would flow naturally and quickly into these three renewable energy areas.
                                Existing federal programs through which these green economic recovery funds could
                                flow include renewing and expanding the federal tax credit and production tax credit for
                                solar and wind energy. In addition, federal policy can be instrumental in building the
                                infrastructure for next–generation biofuels, where new companies are significant financing
                                hurdles to break ground on next–generation manufacturing facilities that operate at a
                                commercial scale.
                                Immediate vehicles for federal spending on biofuel infrastructure include (but are not
                                limited to) funding and expanding the following programs established in the 2007 Energy
                                Independence and Security Act:
                                •	 Renewable fuel infrastructure grants for retail and wholesale dealers
                                •	 Pilot grant programs to invest in renewable fuel distribution corridors.
                                —From Green Recovery (Pollin, Garrett–Peltier, Heintz, & Scharber, 2008, p.8)

                   Wind Power
                   Wind energy is a viable energy source for Pennsylvania. Wind energy can be transformed into
                   electricity using wind turbines. A recent survey by the Global Wind Energy Council found
                   that
                      Global wind energy capacity surged by 28.8 percent in 2008, as the United States became the world’s
                      leading market.... The United States accounted for 8.35 gigawatts of the new total capacity, increasing
                      its capacity by 50 percent, to overtake Germany as number one in wind power, with a total of 25.1
                      gigawatts compared to 23.9 gigawatts. (AFP, 2009)

                   According to the American Wind Energy Association (2009), as of 31 December 2008, 12
                   wind energy projects were operating in Pennsylvania, with power capacity of 361 megawatts
                   (16th among U.S.) within 5,120 megawatts of potential capacity for the entire Commonwealth
                   (22nd among U.S.). At the end of 2008, an additional three wind projects were under
                   construction in Pennsylvania, which would add another 235 megawatts of capacity. Taken
                   together, wind projects that exist or are in development tap roughly 12% of Pennsylvania’s
                   potential wind energy capacity. A kick start through government purchasing, adoption, and
                   investment could help Pennsylvania move toward realizing its potential for energy generation
                   through wind. The Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (2009) reported
                   that, “At the end of 2008, financing for wind projects and orders for turbine components
                   slowed to a trickle and layoffs began to hit the wind industry” (¶2). American Wind Energy
                   Association CEO, Denise Boyd, said that, “The hope is that provisions such as those included
                   in the House stimulus bill to restore the effectiveness of the tax incentives for renewable
                   energy will quickly become law and provide the capital needed to continue to build projects....
                   Because wind projects can be built quickly, positive legislation from Congress will have
                   immediate and visible effects” (Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection, 2009,



                                                                                                                                  /page 16/
                                                             Penn State Workforce Education and Development Initiative



                                  ¶12). A Google search for the phrase, “wind power Pennsylvania,” is available at: http://PA–
                                  WindPower.notlong.com.

                                  Displayed in Table 8 are characteristics of 2005–2008 employment in representative
                                  Pennsylvania green occupations that could be involved with wind power.

Table 8. Characteristics of Representative Pennsylvania Occupations in Center for American Progress & Political Economy Research
         Institute Wind Power Scenario for Green Economic Investment

                                                                                                             2005 to              New +                2007        Typical
   SOC                                                                                                        2008              Relacement            Median     Education
                                Title                       2005 Jobs              2008 Jobs
   Code                                                                                                     Change                 Jobs               Hourly     or Training
                                                                                                            (% total)            (% total)           Earnings     Required

                                                                                                                                                                Work
                Industrial production                                                                          (144)                  726
 11–3051                                                        7,203                  7,059                                                          $36.71    experience in a
                managers                                                                                      (2.0%)                (10.0%)
                                                                                                                                                                related field

                                                                                                                                                                Moderate–term
                Paving, surfacing, & tamping                                                                    145                   306
 47–2071                                                        2,566                  2,711                                                          $15.98    on–the–job
                equipment operators                                                                           (6.0%)                (12.0%)
                                                                                                                                                                training

                                                                                                                                                                Moderate–term
                                                                                                                 2                     5
 47–2072        Pile–driver operators                             46                     48                                                            $24      on–the–job
                                                                                                              (4.0%)                (10.0%)
                                                                                                                                                                training

                Operating engineers & other                                                                                                                     Moderate–term
                                                                                                                677                  1,600
 47–2073        construction equipment                         15,317                 15,994                                                          $19.78    on–the–job
                                                                                                              (4.0%)                (10.0%)
                operators                                                                                                                                       training

                                                                                                                                                                Long–term
                                                                                                                234                   647
 47–2211        Sheet metal workers                             5,486                  5,720                                                          $22.04    on–the–job
                                                                                                              (4.0%)                (12.0%)
                                                                                                                                                                training

                                                                                                                                                                Long–term
                                                                                                                180                   466
 47–2221        Structural iron & steel workers                 2,769                  2,949                                                          $22.99    on–the–job
                                                                                                              (7.0%)                (17.0%)
                                                                                                                                                                training

                                                                                                                                                                Long–term
                                                                                                                91                     166
 49–9044        Millwrights                                     1,914                  2,005                                                          $18.46    on–the–job
                                                                                                              (5.0%)                 (9.0%)
                                                                                                                                                                training

                First–line supervisors/                                                                                                                         Work
                                                                                                               (703)                  1,249
 51–1011        managers of production &                       30,389                 29,686                                                          $23.64    experience in a
                                                                                                              (2.0%)                 (4.0%)
                operating workers                                                                                                                               related field

                                                                                                                                                                Short–term
                Electrical & electronic                                                                        (449)                   983
 51–2022                                                       10,755                 10,306                                                          $12.5     on–the–job
                equipment assemblers                                                                          (4.0%)                 (9.0%)
                                                                                                                                                                training

                                                                                                                                                                Long–term
                                                                                                                516                   1,647
 51–4041        Machinists                                     19,562                 20,078                                                          $16.33    on–the–job
                                                                                                              (3.0%)                 (8.0%)
                                                                                                                                                                training

                                                                                                                549                   7,795
                                Total                          96,008                 96,557                                                          $20.79
                                                                                                              (1.0%)                 (8.0%)

Source: Calculated by staff of Penn State Workforce Education & Development Initiative using data from Economic Modeling Specialists, Inc. (2009).




                                                                                                                                                                      /page 17/
                                                             Penn State Workforce Education and Development Initiative



                                  Contained in Table 9 are 2005–2008 counts of workers in the ten Pennsylvania industries
                                  employing the largest number of workers in the green occupations listed in Table 8.

Table 9. Characteristics of Top Ten Industries Employing Representative Pennsylvania Occupations in Center for American Progress &
         Political Economy Research Institute Wind Power Scenario for Green Economic Investment

                                                                                                                                                     2005 to 2008
  NAICS
                                             Title                                          2005 Jobs                             2008 Jobs            Change
  Code
                                                                                                                                                       (% total)


                                                                                                                                                          344
 238900          Other specialty trade contractors                                              5,269                                 5,613
                                                                                                                                                        (7.0%)


                                                                                                                                                          482
 332710          Machine shops                                                                  5,232                                 5,714
                                                                                                                                                        (9.0%)


                                                                                                                                                          206
 930000          Local government                                                               3,526                                 3,732
                                                                                                                                                        (6.0%)


                                                                                                                                                          273
 238220          Plumbing, heating, & air–conditioning contractors                              3,242                                 3,515
                                                                                                                                                        (8.0%)


                 Semiconductor & other electronic component                                                                                               (80)
 334400                                                                                         2,849                                 2,769
                 manufacturing                                                                                                                          (3.0%)


                                                                                                                                                         (172)
 333500          Metalworking machinery manufacturing                                           2,694                                 2,522
                                                                                                                                                        (6.0%)


                                                                                                                                                          155
 237300          Highway, street, & bridge construction                                         2,693                                 2,848
                                                                                                                                                        (6.0%)


                 Other electrical equipment & component                                                                                                  (42)
 335900                                                                                         2,616                                 2,574
                 manufacturing                                                                                                                          (2.0%)


                                                                                                                                                           6
 332300          Architectural & structural metals manufacturing                                2,603                                 2,609
                                                                                                                                                        (0.0%)


                 Navigational, measuring, electromedical, &                                                                                              (68)
 334500                                                                                         2,171                                 2,103
                 control instruments manufacturing                                                                                                      (3.0%)


                                                                                                                                                         1,104
                                             Total                                             32,895                                33,999
                                                                                                                                                        (3.4%)

Source: Calculated by staff of Penn State Workforce Education & Development Initiative using data from Economic Modeling Specialists, Inc. (2009).




                                                                                                                                                                 /page 18/
                                          Penn State Workforce Education and Development Initiative



                           Solar Power
                           Solar power is a vast, largely untapped opportunity for investment in jobs and economic
                           growth in Pennsylvania. Solar power technologies provide electrical generation by means
                           of heat engines or photovoltaics. Although the number of solar electric installations has
                           increased worldwide, solar electric energy accounts only for a small portion of global
                           (approximately 0.1%) and U.S. (approximately 1%) primary energy demand (Solarbuzz,
                           2008). Solar power was not even reported as a percentage of Pennsylvania’s renewable
                           electrical power industry capacity and generation (Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and
                           Alternate Fuels, Energy Information Administration, U.S. Department of Energy, 2008). A
                           Google search using the phrase, “Pennsylvania solar,” is available at: http://PA–Solar.notlong.
                           com. Pennsylvania has substantial opportunities for improvement through green economic
                           investment in solar power.

                           Displayed in Table 10 are characteristics of 2005–2008 employment in representative
                           Pennsylvania green occupations that could be involved with solar power.

Table 10. Characteristics of Representative Pennsylvania Occupations in Center for American Progress & Political Economy Research
          Institute Solar Power Scenario for Green Economic Investment

                                                                           2005 to        New +            2007           Typical
  SOC                                                                       2008        Relacement        Median        Education
                          Title           2005 Jobs      2008 Jobs
  Code                                                                    Change           Jobs           Hourly        or Training
                                                                          (% total)      (% total)       Earnings        Required

                                                                             260            501                        Bachelor's
 11–9021   Construction managers             4,997          5,257                                          $35.83
                                                                           (5.0%)         (10.0%)                      degree


                                                                             76              490                       Bachelor's
 17–2071   Electrical engineers              5,817          5,893                                          $35.01
                                                                           (1.0%)          (8.0%)                      degree

                                                                                                                       Moderate–term
                                                                            1,639           2,441
 47–2061   Construction laborers            34,384         36,023                                          $14.84      on–the–job
                                                                           (5.0%)          (7.0%)
                                                                                                                       training

                                                                                                                       Moderate–term
           Paving, surfacing, & tamping                                      145            306
 47–2071                                     2,566          2,711                                          $15.98      on–the–job
           equipment operators                                             (6.0%)         (12.0%)
                                                                                                                       training

                                                                                                                       Moderate–term
                                                                              2              5
 47–2072   Pile–driver operators              46             48                                             $24        on–the–job
                                                                           (4.0%)         (10.0%)
                                                                                                                       training

           Operating engineers & other                                                                                 Moderate–term
                                                                             677           1,600
 47–2073   construction equipment           15,317         15,994                                          $19.78      on–the–job
                                                                           (4.0%)         (10.0%)
           operators                                                                                                   training

                                                                                                                       Long–term
                                                                             875           2,696
 47–2111   Electricians                     22,872         23,747                                          $24.3       on–the–job
                                                                           (4.0%)         (12.0%)
                                                                                                                       training

                                                                                                                       Long–term
           Industrial machinery                                              348            1,088
 49–9041                                    14,424         14,772                                          $19.16      on–the–job
           mechanics                                                       (2.0%)          (8.0%)
                                                                                                                       training




                                                                                                                             /page 19/
                                                             Penn State Workforce Education and Development Initiative




                                                                                                             2005 to              New +                2007           Typical
   SOC                                                                                                        2008              Relacement            Median        Education
                                Title                       2005 Jobs              2008 Jobs
   Code                                                                                                     Change                 Jobs               Hourly        or Training
                                                                                                            (% total)            (% total)           Earnings        Required

                Helpers––Installation,                                                                                                                             Short–term
                                                                                                                245                   820
 49–9098        maintenance, & repair                           8,020                  8,265                                                           $11         on–the–job
                                                                                                              (3.0%)                (10.0%)
                workers                                                                                                                                            training

                                                                                                                                                                   Moderate–term
                Installation, maintenance, &                                                                    97                     161
 49–9099                                                        3,234                  3,331                                                          $17.14       on–the–job
                repair workers, all other                                                                     (3.0%)                 (5.0%)
                                                                                                                                                                   training

                                                                                                                                                                   Short–term
                Electrical & electronic                                                                        (449)                   983
 51–2022                                                       10,755                 10,306                                                          $12.5        on–the–job
                equipment assemblers                                                                          (4.0%)                 (9.0%)
                                                                                                                                                                   training

                                                                                                                                                                   Moderate–term
                Structural metal fabricators                                                                     8                     397
 51–2041                                                        7,357                  7,365                                                          $15.67       on–the–job
                & fitters                                                                                     (0.0%)                 (5.0%)
                                                                                                                                                                   training

                                                                                                                                                                   Long–term
                Welders, cutters, solderers, &                                                                  423                   1,494
 51–4121                                                       16,367                 16,790                                                          $15.78       on–the–job
                brazers                                                                                       (3.0%)                 (9.0%)
                                                                                                                                                                   training

                                                                                                               4,348                 12,984
                                Total                          146,155                150,503                                                         $18.63
                                                                                                              (3.0%)                 (9.0%)

Source: Calculated by staff of Penn State Workforce Education & Development Initiative using data from Economic Modeling Specialists, Inc. (2009).


                                  Contained in Table 11 are 2005–2008 counts of workers in the ten Pennsylvania industries
                                  employing the largest number of workers in the green occupations listed in Table 10.

Table 11. Characteristics of Top Ten Industries Employing Representative Pennsylvania Occupations in Center for American Progress &
          Political Economy Research Institute Solar Power Scenario for Green Economic Investment

                                                                                                                                                               2005 to 2008
  NAICS
                                             Title                                          2005 Jobs                             2008 Jobs                      Change
  Code
                                                                                                                                                                 (% total)


                                                                                                                                                                    782
 238210          Electrical contractors                                                        16,631                                17,413
                                                                                                                                                                  (5.0%)


                                                                                                                                                                    736
 238900          Other specialty trade contractors                                             11,813                                12,549
                                                                                                                                                                  (6.0%)


                                                                                                                                                                    392
 930000          Local government                                                               6,464                                 6,856
                                                                                                                                                                  (6.0%)


                                                                                                                                                                   (231)
 236100          Residential building construction                                              6,261                                 6,030
                                                                                                                                                                  (4.0%)


                                                                                                                                                                    393
 236200          Nonresidential building construction                                           5,796                                 6,189
                                                                                                                                                                  (7.0%)


                                                                                                                                                                           /page 20/
                                                             Penn State Workforce Education and Development Initiative




                                                                                                                                                     2005 to 2008
  NAICS
                                             Title                                          2005 Jobs                             2008 Jobs            Change
  Code
                                                                                                                                                       (% total)


                                                                                                                                                          400
 237300          Highway, street, & bridge construction                                         5,763                                 6,163
                                                                                                                                                        (7.0%)


                                                                                                                                                          19
 332300          Architectural & structural metals manufacturing                                5,480                                 5,499
                                                                                                                                                        (0.0%)


                 Water & sewer system & all other utility system                                                                                          19
 2371XX                                                                                         3,999                                 4,018
                 construction                                                                                                                           (0.0%)


                                                                                                                                                          233
 561300          Employment services                                                            3,885                                 4,118
                                                                                                                                                        (6.0%)


                 Semiconductor & other electronic component                                                                                              (95)
 334400                                                                                         2,671                                 2,576
                 manufacturing                                                                                                                          (4.0%)


                                                                                                                                                         2,648
                                             Total                                             68,763                                71,411
                                                                                                                                                        (3.9%)

Source: Calculated by staff of Penn State Workforce Education & Development Initiative using data from Economic Modeling Specialists, Inc. (2009).



                                  Advanced Biofuels
                                  Biofuel is defined as “solid, liquid or gaseous fuel derived from relatively recently dead
                                  biological material and is distinguished from fossil fuels, which are derived from long dead
                                  biological material” (“Biofuel,” 2009, ¶1). Recently dead biological materials also are called
                                  biomass. First generation biofuels are produced by fermenting plant–derived sugars from
                                  crops such as sugar cane, corn, wheat, or sugar beets. Such first generation sources usually are
                                  food crops, so their use for fuel competes with their use for food. Second and third generation
                                  biofuels, sometimes called advanced biofuels (“Second generation biofuels,” 2009) because they
                                  are derived from non–food parts of crops such as stems, leaves, and husks, from non–food
                                  crops such as switch grass, or from industry waste such as wood chips, skins, and fruit pulp.
                                  Commercialization of many second and third generation biofuels is still in its infancy. Of the
                                  many conceivable biofuels, fuels from lignocellulose biomass seem to be the most attractive
                                  because they allow for a higher fuel yield per acre, have better projected economics, require
                                  less additional energy for growth and harvest to create feedstock, and can be grown under
                                  many different circumstances in contrast to annual crops that require good–quality land
                                  (Hamelinck & Faaij, 2006).

                                  Sound policies and investments in biofuels are needed in Pennsylvania. The Commonwealth’s
                                  initial, enthusiastic embrace of ethanol production as a triumphant economic development
                                  strategy probably was hasty. The typical food crop–based ethanol plant provides the
                                  enticing benefits of a manufacturing plant with 35 to 40 jobs, but several characteristics and
                                  uncertainties of the industry merit a careful look when making local economic development
                                                                                                                                                                 /page 21/
                                             Penn State Workforce Education and Development Initiative



                          decisions (Low & Isherman, 2009). Inputs to first generation ethanol production are energy–
                          and water–intensive. Proximity to food crops that are inputs to production is necessary
                          to avoid high transportation costs. Likewise, economic use of secondary products from
                          ethanol production, such as distilled grains for animal feed, requires proximity to markets,
                          such as feedlots. Price volatility in markets for substitutes for first generation ethanol (e.g.,
                          gasoline) injects risk into the profitability of ethanol production. All of this adds up to the
                          need for green economic investments to produce and commercialize advanced, rather than
                          first generation, biofuels to transform the Pennsylvania economy sufficiently to spur job and
                          economic growth.

                          A Google search with the phrase, “Pennsylvania advanced biofuel,” is available at: http://PA–
                          AdvBiofuel.notlong.com.

                          Displayed in Table 12 are characteristics of 2005–2008 employment in representative
                          Pennsylvania green occupations that could be involved with wind power.

Table 12. Characteristics of Representative Pennsylvania Occupations in Center for American Progress & Political Economy Research
          Institute Advanced Biofuels Scenario for Green Economic Investment

                                                                           2005 to        New +            2007           Typical
  SOC                                                                       2008        Relacement        Median        Education
                        Title                2005 Jobs   2008 Jobs
  Code                                                                    Change           Jobs           Hourly        or Training
                                                                          (% total)      (% total)       Earnings        Required

                                                                                                                       Work
           Purchasing agents & buyers,                                       (1)             31
 13–1021                                        490         489                                             $18        experience in a
           farm products                                                   (0.0%)          (6.0%)
                                                                                                                       related field

                                                                            (19)             53                        Bachelor's
 17–2041   Chemical engineers                   967         948                                            $35.86
                                                                           (2.0%)          (6.0%)                      degree


                                                                            (138)            242                       Bachelor's
 19–2031   Chemists                            4,896        4,758                                          $28.21
                                                                           (3.0%)          (5.0%)                      degree


                                                                            (53)             403                       Associate's
 19–4031   Chemical technicians                4,572        4,519                                          $18.69
                                                                           (1.0%)          (9.0%)                      degree

                                                                                                                       Work
           Supervisors, farming, fishing,                                    15              33
 45–1099                                        297         312                                            $21.48      experience in a
           & forestry workers                                              (5.0%)         (11.0%)
                                                                                                                       related field

                                                                                                                       Work
                                                                              2              20
 45–2011   Agricultural inspectors              228         230                                            $21.04      experience in a
                                                                           (1.0%)          (9.0%)
                                                                                                                       related field

                                                                                                                       Short–term
                                                                              1              4
 45–2021   Animal breeders                      38           39                                            $12.33      on–the–job
                                                                           (3.0%)         (10.0%)
                                                                                                                       training

                                                                                                                       Work
           Graders & sorters, agricultural                                    7              25
 45–2041                                        375         382                                            $9.42       experience in a
           products                                                        (2.0%)          (7.0%)
                                                                                                                       related field




                                                                                                                             /page 22/
                                                             Penn State Workforce Education and Development Initiative




                                                                                                             2005 to              New +                2007           Typical
   SOC                                                                                                        2008              Relacement            Median        Education
                                Title                       2005 Jobs              2008 Jobs
   Code                                                                                                     Change                 Jobs               Hourly        or Training
                                                                                                            (% total)            (% total)           Earnings        Required

                                                                                                                                                                   Moderate–term
                Agricultural equipment                                                                          15                     33
 45–2091                                                         193                    208                                                           $20.48       on–the–job
                operators                                                                                     (8.0%)                (17.0%)
                                                                                                                                                                   training

                                                                                                                                                                   Short–term
                Farmworkers & laborers, crop,                                                                   125                   279
 45–2092                                                        1,716                  1,841                                                          $9.19        on–the–job
                nursery, & greenhouse                                                                         (7.0%)                (16.0%)
                                                                                                                                                                   training

                                                                                                                                                                   Short–term
                Farmworkers, farm & ranch                                                                       125                   251
 45–2093                                                        1,582                  1,707                                                          $9.54        on–the–job
                animals                                                                                       (8.0%)                (16.0%)
                                                                                                                                                                   training

                                                                                                                                                                   Short–term
                                                                                                                 5                     11
 45–2099        Agricultural workers, all other                   73                     78                                                           $10.69       on–the–job
                                                                                                              (7.0%)                (15.0%)
                                                                                                                                                                   training

                                                                                                                                                                   Moderate–term
                Chemical equipment                                                                            (626)                   (330)
 51–9011                                                        4,238                  3,612                                                          $19.16       on–the–job
                operators & tenders                                                                          (15.0%)                 (8.0%)
                                                                                                                                                                   training

                                                                                                                                                                   Moderate–term
                Mixing & blending machine                                                                      (420)                   (6)
 51–9023                                                        6,766                  6,346                                                          $15.89       on–the–job
                setters, operators, & tenders                                                                 (6.0%)                 (0.0%)
                                                                                                                                                                   training

                                                                                                                                                                   Short–term
                                                                                                               (489)                   752
 53–3031        Driver/sales workers                           18,307                 17,818                                                          $10.47       on–the–job
                                                                                                              (3.0%)                 (4.0%)
                                                                                                                                                                   training

                                                                                                                                                                   Moderate–term
                Truck drivers, heavy &                                                                         3,549                 7,551
 53–3032                                                       72,802                 76,351                                                          $17.15       on–the–job
                tractor–trailer                                                                               (5.0%)                (10.0%)
                                                                                                                                                                   training

                                                                                                                                                                   Short–term
                Truck drivers, light or delivery                                                               1,496                  3,822
 53–3033                                                       42,840                 44,336                                                          $12.09       on–the–job
                services                                                                                      (3.0%)                 (9.0%)
                                                                                                                                                                   training

                                                                                                               3,594                 13,173
                                Total                          160,379                163,974                                                         $15.36
                                                                                                              (2.0%)                 (8.0%)

Source: Calculated by staff of Penn State Workforce Education & Development Initiative using data from Economic Modeling Specialists, Inc. (2009).


                                  Contained in Table 13 are 2005–2008 counts of workers in the ten Pennsylvania industries
                                  employing the largest number of workers in the green occupations listed in Table 12.

Table 13. Characteristics of Top Ten Industries Employing Representative Pennsylvania Occupations in Center for American Progress &
          Political Economy Research Institute Advance Biofuels Scenario for Green Economic Investment

                                                                                                                                                               2005 to 2008
  NAICS
                                             Title                                          2005 Jobs                             2008 Jobs                      Change
  Code
                                                                                                                                                                 (% total)


                                                                                                                                                                   1,115
 484100          General freight trucking                                                      28,689                                29,804
                                                                                                                                                                  (4.0%)


                                                                                                                                                                           /page 23/
                                                             Penn State Workforce Education and Development Initiative




                                                                                                                                                     2005 to 2008
  NAICS
                                             Title                                          2005 Jobs                             2008 Jobs            Change
  Code
                                                                                                                                                       (% total)


                                                                                                                                                          540
 484200          Specialized freight trucking                                                  10,284                                10,824
                                                                                                                                                        (5.0%)


                                                                                                                                                          453
 492100          Couriers                                                                       8,907                                 9,360
                                                                                                                                                        (5.0%)


                                                                                                                                                          126
 424400          Grocery & related product wholesalers                                          6,734                                 6,860
                                                                                                                                                        (2.0%)


                                                                                                                                                          308
 11A000          Crop & animal production                                                       5,200                                 5,508
                                                                                                                                                        (6.0%)


                                                                                                                                                          18
 722200          Limited–service eating places                                                  4,512                                 4,530
                                                                                                                                                        (0.0%)


                                                                                                                                                          62
 327300          Cement & concrete product manufacturing                                        4,086                                 4,148
                                                                                                                                                        (2.0%)


                                                                                                                                                          73
 325400          Pharmaceutical & medicine manufacturing                                        4,012                                 4,085
                                                                                                                                                        (2.0%)


                                                                                                                                                         (285)
 454300          Direct selling establishments                                                  3,301                                 3,016
                                                                                                                                                        (9.0%)


                                                                                                                                                        1,257
 493100          Warehousing & storage                                                          3,140                                 4,397
                                                                                                                                                       (40.0%)


                                                                                                                                                         3,667
                                             Total                                             78,865                                82,532
                                                                                                                                                        (4.6%)

Source: Calculated by staff of Penn State Workforce Education & Development Initiative using data from Economic Modeling Specialists, Inc. (2009).




Availability of Regional Benchmarks for Pennsylvania
                                  The Penn State Workforce Education & Development Initiative can produce reports that
                                  benchmark employment in representative green occupations in regions of Pennsylvania.
                                  For instance reports can be prepared for single or contiguous counties and Workforce
                                  Investment Areas in Pennsylvania shown in Figure 1. Or, reports can be tailored to match
                                  specific geographic regions of Pennsylvania that can be circumscribed by ZIP codes. To have a
                                  representative of the Penn State Workforce Education & Development Initiative contact you to
                                  discuss reports you would like to order, complete the form posted at the following web page:

                                                                                                                                                                 /page 24/
                                         Penn State Workforce Education and Development Initiative



                        http://PA–GreenBenchmark–Order.notlong.com




Figure 1. Pennsylvania Workforce Investment Areas and counties (graphic by permission from Linda Blake, Pennsylvania Partners
         (http://www.papartners.org)




                                                                                                                            /page 25/
                              Penn State Workforce Education and Development Initiative



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                                                                                                                /page 26/
                 Penn State Workforce Education and Development Initiative



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The White House. (2009, January 26). From peril to progress (Update 1: Full remarks). Retrieved January
    28, 2009, from The White House Blog: http://www.whitehouse.gov/blog_post/Fromperiltoprogress/
U.S. Green Building Council. (2007, May 7). Building design leaders collaborating on carbon–neutral
     buildings by 2030: Goal to meet specific energy reduction targets. Retrieved January 25, 2009, from
     U.S. Green Building Council Press Releases: http://www.usgbc.org/News/PressReleaseDetails.
     aspx?ID=3124




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                                 Penn State Workforce Education and Development Initiative



About This Report
                  This report about benchmark employment in representative Pennsylvania green occupations
                  was prepared using the resources and expertise of the Penn State Workforce Education &
                  Development (WED) Initiative, which is an alliance between Penn State’s College of Education
                  and Penn State Outreach. Rose Baker and David Passmore authored this report, with the
                  assistance of Kyung–Nyun Kim and Katie Tenny. Baker and Passmore have been contributing
                  columnists for a regional business newspaper, Pennsylvania Business Central (PBC) (see
                  http://PBCBriefing.notlong.com), since June 2008. Their PBC column is titled, Economic and
                  Workforce Briefing.

Penn State Workforce Education & Development Initiative

                  Mission
                  The mission of the WED Initiative is to support the development of the workforce in
                  Pennsylvania primarily through the application of Penn State resources to conduct economic
                  and workforce analyses for employers, industry partnerships, nonprofit organizations,
                  and government entities. For additional information about the WED Initiative, see http://
                  PennStateWED.notlong.com.

                  In addition to technical research reports, the WED Initiative produces a variety of reports for
                  public use, such as through its Economic and Workforce Brief product (see http://PSUBrief.
                  notlong.com). The web site for the WED Initiative is available at http://PennStateWED.
                  notlong.com, and a two–page summary of the Initiative is displayed in an Adobe PDF
                  file posted at http://PSU–WEDInitiative.notlong.com. For additional information about
                  the capabilities of the WED Initiative, see http://WDICapabilities.notlong.com. Legacy
                  publications of the Initiative prior to 2005 are listed at http://WEDActivities.notlong.com.

                  Integrity & Independence in the Conduct & Reporting of Research
                  The Penn State WED Initiative often conducts research analysis about topics and issues that, at
                  times, are the focus of vigorous debate and public attention and that frequently are associated
                  with diverse stakeholders who represent divergent opinions. The Initiative adds value to this
                  debate, attention, and discussion by conducting and reporting research and analysis about
                  economic and workforce development using the most objective approaches possible. The
                  research and analysis of the WED Initiative are pursued independent of the commercial or
                  political interests of any actual or potential sponsor of WED Initiative work.




                                                                                                          /page 28/
                                 Penn State Workforce Education and Development Initiative



Authors, Assistants, & Assistance

                  Rose M. Baker, Author
                  Rose M. Baker (rmb194@psu.edu; 814.865.9919; http://RoseMBaker.notlong.com) is the
                  Director of Penn State’s Center for Regional Economic and Workforce Analysis, a unit within
                  the Office of Economic and Workforce Development in Penn State Outreach. She also is
                  Assistant Professor of Education in the Workforce Education and Development program and a
                  Professional Associate of Penn State Management Development Programs and Services.

                  Dr. Baker is a certified Project Management Professional through the Project Management
                  Institute. Her current research includes management techniques and statistical applications
                  for operations improvement, economic and workforce analysis, occupational forecasting,
                  benchmarking, evaluation of training outcomes, worker performance assessments, and
                  job task analysis. Dr. Baker has extensive experience in the analysis, interpretation, and
                  reporting of labor market data. She recently was appointed by Penn State’s President, Graham
                  Spanier, to serve on the Penn State Commission for Women. Dr. Baker earned a BA degree
                  in Mathematics and Chemistry from Washington and Jefferson College and an MEd degree
                  in Adult Education Theory and Practice from Penn State. Her PhD degree in Instructional
                  Systems, with an emphasis in Training, Technology, and Systems Design and Development,
                  also is from Penn State.

                  David L. Passmore, Author
                  David L. Passmore (see dlp@psu.edu; 814.863.2583; http://DavidPassmore.notlong.com)
                  is Professor of Education in the Workforce Education and Development Program at The
                  Pennsylvania State University. He also is Professor of Operations Research in the dual degree,
                  intercollege Operations Research Program, Director of the Institute for Research in Training
                  and Development, and a Professional Associate in Management Development Programs and
                  Services. He is an Adjoint Graduate Faculty Member in Human Resource Development and
                  Technology for the College of Business and Technology at The University of Texas at Tyler.
                  Passmore earned academic degrees from State University College of New York at Buffalo
                  (BS, 1969), Bowling Green State University (MEd, 1970), and University of Minnesota (PhD,
                  1973). He has held appointments at the University of Massachusetts, the National Technical
                  Institute for the Deaf, the University of Northern Iowa, and the Harvard School of Public
                  Health.

                  Kyung–Nyun Kim & Katie Tenny, Research Assistants
                  Kyung–Nyun Kim (http://Kyung–Nyun–Kim.notlong.com) and Katie Tenny (http://
                  KatieTenny.notlong.com) who are graduate assistants with Penn State’s Institute for Research
                  in Training and Development (http://irtd.ed.psu.edu), provided research assistance for this
                  project by conducting data analysis, constructing tables, and providing general editorial
                  assistance in the preparation of this report. In particular, Kim extracted data from Economic
                  Modeling Specialists, Inc.’s Strategic Advantage: Economic Forecaster (2009); Tenny populated
                  all tables in this document with data provided by Kim using Adobe InDesign and conducted a
                  thorough editing of this entire document.

                                                                                                         /page 29/
                Penn State Workforce Education and Development Initiative



Assistance
Melissa Kaye, Senior Editor/Writer with Penn State Outreach, provided feedback on an
earlier draft of this document. The authors benefitted from discussion of the first draft of this
document with the Economic and Workforce Develoment Workgroup chaired by Bob Igo,
Manager of Accounts and Contracts in Penn State Outreach.




                                                                                           /page 30/

				
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