Cultivating Organizational Culture and Ethical Behavior by eco60708

VIEWS: 96 PAGES: 38

									        Cultivating Organizational
           Culture and Ethical
                 Behavior

Comportamiento   M. En C. Eduardo Bustos Farías   1
organizacional
                                       Outline
        •Foundation of Organizational Culture
                 •Layers of Organizational Culture
                 •Four Functions of Organizational Culture
                 •Types of Organizational Culture
                 •Outcomes Associated with Organizational Culture
                 •How Cultures are Embedded in Organizations

        •Embedding Organizational Culture Through
        Socialization Processes and Mentoring.
                 •A Three-Phase Model of Organizational Socialization
                 •Practical Application of Socialization Research
                 •Attitudes
                 •Using Mentoring to Your Advantage
Comportamiento                  M. En C. Eduardo Bustos Farías          2
organizacional
                            Outline (continued)

        Fostering Ethical Organizational Behavior
                 • A model of Ethical Behavior
                 • Do Moral Principles Vary by Gender?
                 • How to Improve the Organization’s Ethical Climate




Comportamiento                 M. En C. Eduardo Bustos Farías          3
organizacional
                 Organizational Culture Is
        “The set of shared, taken-for-granted implicit
          assumptions that a group holds and that
          determines how it perceives, thinks about, and
          reacts to its various environments.”
                                                        - Edgar Schein




Comportamiento         M. En C. Eduardo Bustos Farías                    4
organizacional
                     The Layers of Organizational
                               Culture
                                                              Observable
                                                                Artifacts



                                                               Espoused
                                                                  Values



                                                                 Basic
                                                               Underlying
                                                             Assumptions
       Source: Adapted from E H Schein, Organizational Culture and Leadership, 2nd ed (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1992), p 17.


Comportamiento                                M. En C. Eduardo Bustos Farías                                                      5
organizacional
             Understanding Organizational
                       Culture
    Antecedents          Organizational              Organizational         Group & Social
                            Culture                   Structure &             Processes
• Founder’s values                                     Practices          • Socialization
                        • Observable artifacts
• Industry & business                               • Reward systems      • Mentoring
   environment
• National culture                                  • Organizational      • Decision
                        • Espoused values                                   making
• Senior leaders’                                     design
  vision and behavior                                                     • Group
                        • Basic assumptions                                 dynamics
                                                                          • Communication
                                                         Collective       • Influence &
                                                        Attitudes &         empowerment
                             Organizational                               • Leadership
                                                         Behavior
                               Outcomes
                                                    • Work attitudes
                            • Effectiveness
                                                     • Job satisfaction
                            • Innovation &
  Comportamiento                                     • Motivation
                              stress C. Eduardo Bustos Farías
                                M. En                                                       6
  organizacional
      Four Functions of Organizational Culture

                       Organizational
                          identity




Sense-making         Organizational                  Collective
   device               culture                     commitment




                        Social system
                          stability

  Comportamiento   M. En C. Eduardo Bustos Farías            7
  organizacional
              Types of Organizational Culture
 Type of             Normative
 Culture             Belief                           Characteristics
Constructive        Achievement                      Goal and achievement
                                                     oriented
Constructive        Self-actualizing                 Value self-development
                                                     and creativity

Constructive         Humanistic-                      Participative, employee
                    encouraging                       centered, and supportive

Constructive         Affiliative                     High priority on constructive
                                                     interpersonal relationships,
                                                     and focus on work group
                                                     satisfaction

 Comportamiento          M. En C. Eduardo Bustos Farías                          8
 organizacional
         Types of Organizational Culture (continued)
 Type of          Normative
 Culture          Belief                   Characteristics
Passive-          Approval                Avoid conflict, strive to be liked
Defensive                                 by others, and approval oriented

Passive-          Conventional           Conservative, bureaucratic, and
Defensive                                people follow the rules
Passive-          Dependent              Nonparticipative, centralized
Defensive                                decision making, and employees
                                         do what they are told

Passive-          Avoidance               Negative reward system and
Defensive                                 avoid accountability


 Comportamiento       M. En C. Eduardo Bustos Farías                       9
 organizacional
      Types of Organizational Culture (continued)
 Type of          Normative
 Culture          Belief                       Characteristics
Aggressive-       Oppositional                 Confrontation and negativism
Defensive                                      rewarded
Aggressive-       Power                         Nonparticipative, take charge of
Defensive                                       subordinates and responsive to
                                               superiors
Aggressive-        Competitive                  Winning is values and a win-
Defensive                                       lose approach is used.

Aggressive-        Perfectionistic             Perfectionistic, persistent, and
Defensive                                      hard-working


 Comportamiento        M. En C. Eduardo Bustos Farías                       10
 organizacional
                 Developing an Adaptive Culture
                 Early business leaders create an implement a business vision
                     and strategy that fits the business environment well.


                                    Business leaders emphasize the importance of
             Firm succeeds.
                                 constituencies and leadership in creating the success.


       A strong culture emerges with a core that emphasizes service to customers,
          stockholders, and employees, as well as the importance of leadership.


                    Subsequent top managers work to preserve the
                            adaptive core of the culture.

                     They demonstrate greater commitment to its
                      basic principles than any specific business
                                 strategy or practice.

Comportamiento                 M. En C. Eduardo Bustos Farías                             11
organizacional
      Embedding Organizational Culture

        •   Formal statements of organizational philosophy,
            mission, vision, values, and materials used
            for recruiting, selection and socialization
        •   The design of physical space, work
            environments, and buildings
        •   Slogans, language, acronyms, and sayings
        •   Deliberate role modeling, training programs,
            teaching and coaching by managers and
            supervisors
        •   Explicit rewards, status symbols (e.g., titles),
            and promotion criteria
        •   Stories, legends, and myths about key people
            and events
Comportamiento           M. En C. Eduardo Bustos Farías        12
organizacional
      Embedding Organizational Culture
               (continued)

       •   The organizational activities, processes, or
           outcomes that leaders pay attention to,
           measure, and control
       •   Leader reactions to critical incidents and
           organizational crises
       •   The workflow and organizational structure
       •   Organizational systems and procedures
       •   Organizational goals and the associated criteria
           used for recruitment, selection, development,
           promotion, layoffs, and retirement of people
Comportamiento          M. En C. Eduardo Bustos Farías        13
organizacional
                   A Model of Organizational
                        Socialization
                                                 Perceptual and Social
                 Phases                               Processes

                                                • Anticipating realities
        1. Anticipatory
                                                  about the organization
           socialization
                                                  and the new job
                                                • Anticipating organization’s
        Learning that occurs
                                                  need for one’s skills
        prior to joining the
                                                  and abilities
        organization
                                                • Anticipating organization’s
                                                  sensitivity to one’s needs
                                                  and values
Comportamiento             M. En C. Eduardo Bustos Farías                 14
organizacional
                 A Model of Organizational
                    Socialization (cont.)
                                                Perceptual and Social
                 Phases                              Processes
        2. Encounter                             • Managing lifestyle-
                                                   versus-work conflicts
        Values, skills and                       • Managing intergroup
        attitudes start to shift                   role conflicts
         as new recruit                          • Seeking role definition
        discovers what the                          and clarity
        organization is truly                    • Becoming familiar
        like                                       with task and group
                                                   dynamics

Comportamiento            M. En C. Eduardo Bustos Farías                 15
organizacional
                  A Model of Organizational
                     Socialization (cont.)
                                                Perceptual and Social
                 Phases                              Processes

       3. Change and acquisition                 • Competing role demands
                                                   are resolved
       Recruit masters skills and                • Critical tasks are
       roles and adjusts to work                   mastered
       group’s values and norms                  • Group norms and values
                                                   are internalized




Comportamiento            M. En C. Eduardo Bustos Farías              16
organizacional
          A Model of Organizational Socialization (continued)
                                        Outsider
              Phases
1. Anticipatory socialization
2. Encounter
3. Change and acquisition



    Behavioral Outcomes               Socialized                    Affective Outcomes
                                       Insider
• Performs role assignments                                      • Generally satisfied

• Remains with organization                                      • Internally motivated to
                                                                   work
• Spontaneously innovates
  and cooperates                                                 • High job involvement


  Comportamiento                M. En C. Eduardo Bustos Farías                           17
  organizacional
                  Have you Been Adequately
                         Socialized?
• Have you been adequately socialized?
• Does your employer adequately socialize employees?
• How do high levels of socialization impact a new employee’s
  job satisfaction? Explain.

• What is a new employee’s role in the socialization process?




 Comportamiento        M. En C. Eduardo Bustos Farías           18
 organizacional
                          Mentoring


The process of forming and
maintaining intensive and lasting
developmental relationships
between a variety of developers
(i.e., people who provide career and
psychosocial support) and a junior
person (the protégé, if male; or
protégée if female).




Comportamiento           M. En C. Eduardo Bustos Farías   19
organizacional
                 Functions of Mentoring
       Career Functions
         –   Sponsorship
         –   Exposure-and-Visibility
         –   Coaching
         –   Protection
         –   Challenging Assignments
       Psychological Functions
         – Role Modeling
         – Acceptance-and-
           Confirmation
         – Counseling
         – Friendship


Comportamiento               M. En C. Eduardo Bustos Farías   20
organizacional
                      Developmental Networks Associated
                               with Mentoring
                                                                     Developmental relationship strength
                                                                                                Strong ties
             Developmental relationship diversity


                                                                    Weak ties

                                                                          •D2                                 •D2
                                                    Low
                                                    range
                                                                    D1•                                 D1•
                                                                                •P                                       •P
                                                                     Receptive                          Traditional


                                                             D1•                     •D2         D1•                          •D2

                                                    High                   •                                      •
                                                                           P                                      P
                                                    range                                         D3•                         •D4
                                                              D3•                    •D4

                                                                    Opportunistic                      Entrepreneurial
                                                     Key: D, developer; P, protégé.

                                           M. En C. Eduardo Bustos Farías                                                              21
Comportamiento K Kram, “Reconceptualizing Mentoring at Work: A Developmental Network Perspective,” Academy of Management Review, April 2001, p.
  Source: M Higgins and
  270
organizacional
          A Model of Ethical Behavior in the
                     Workplace
          Cultural Influences
                - Family




                                                           ns
              - Education




                                                       tio
                -Religion
        - Media/entertainment




                                                   cta
                                                                 Individual




                                              Ex le
                                                pe
                                                               - Personality




                                                Ro
                                                                  - Values
    Organizational Influences                                      - Moral     Ethical
         - Ethical codes                                         principles    behavior
     - Organizational culture                                   - History of
          - Role models                                       reinforcement
- Perceived pressure for results                                  - Gender
 - Rewards/punishment system


              Political/legal/
                 economic
                influences
   Comportamiento                M. En C. Eduardo Bustos Farías                   22
   organizacional
                 Institutionalization: A
                 Forerunner of Culture
     Institutionalization
     When an organization takes on a life of its own,
     apart from any of its members, becomes valued for
     itself, and acquires immortality.




Comportamiento         M. En C. Eduardo Bustos Farías    23
organizacional
             What Is Organizational
                    Culture?
     Organizational Culture
     A common perception                   Characteristics:
                                           Characteristics:
     held by the organization’s            1. Innovation and risk
                                            1. Innovation and risk
                                              taking
     members; a system of                      taking
     shared meaning.                       2. Attention to detail
                                            2. Attention to detail
                                           3. Outcome orientation
                                            3. Outcome orientation
                                           4. People orientation
                                            4. People orientation
                                           5. Team orientation
                                            5. Team orientation
                                           6. Aggressiveness
                                            6. Aggressiveness
                                           7. Stability
                                            7. Stability


Comportamiento         M. En C. Eduardo Bustos Farías                24
organizacional
                 Do Organizations Have
                   Uniform Cultures?
     Dominant Culture
     Expresses the core values that are shared by a
     majority of the organization’s members.




     Subcultures
     Minicultures within an organization, typically defined
     by department designations and geographical
     separation.


Comportamiento         M. En C. Eduardo Bustos Farías         25
organizacional
      Do Organizations Have Uniform
            Cultures? (cont’d)

     Core Values
     The primary or dominant values that are accepted
     throughout the organization.


     Strong Culture
     A culture in which the core values are intensely held
     and widely shared.



Comportamiento         M. En C. Eduardo Bustos Farías        26
organizacional
      What Is Organizational
        Culture? (cont’d)
       Culture Versus Formalization
         – A strong culture increases behavioral consistency and
           can act as a substitute for formalization.

       Organizational Culture Versus National Culture
         – National culture has a greater impact on employees than
           does their organization’s culture.
         – Nationals selected to work for foreign companies may be
           atypical of the local/native population.



Comportamiento            M. En C. Eduardo Bustos Farías             27
organizacional
                 What Do Cultures Do?

       Culture’s Functions:
       Culture’s Functions:
       1. Defines the boundary between one organization
        1. Defines the boundary between one organization
          and others.
           and others.
       2. Conveys aasense of identity for its members.
        2. Conveys sense of identity for its members.
       3. Facilitates the generation of commitment to
        3. Facilitates the generation of commitment to
          something larger than self-interest.
           something larger than self-interest.
       4. Enhances the stability of the social system.
        4. Enhances the stability of the social system.
       5. Serves as aasense-making and control mechanism
        5. Serves as sense-making and control mechanism
          for fitting employees in the organization.
           for fitting employees in the organization.

Comportamiento          M. En C. Eduardo Bustos Farías     28
organizacional
        What Do Cultures Do?
                 Culture as a Liability:
                 Culture as a Liability:
                 1. Barrier to change.
                  1. Barrier to change.
                 2. Barrier to diversity
                  2. Barrier to diversity
                 3. Barrier to acquisitions and mergers
                  3. Barrier to acquisitions and mergers




Comportamiento              M. En C. Eduardo Bustos Farías   29
organizacional
           How Culture Begins
       Founders hire and keep only employees who think
       and feel the same way they do.
       Founders indoctrinate and socialize these
       employees to their way of thinking and feeling.
       The founders’ own behavior acts as a role model
       that encourages employees to identify with them
       and thereby internalize their beliefs, values, and
       assumptions.


Comportamiento         M. En C. Eduardo Bustos Farías       30
organizacional
        Keeping Culture Alive
       Selection
         – Concern with how well the candidates will fit into the
           organization.
         – Provides information to candidates about the
           organization.
       Top Management
         – Senior executives help establish behavioral norms that
           are adopted by the organization.
       Socialization
         – The process that helps new employees adapt to the
           organization’s culture.
Comportamiento             M. En C. Eduardo Bustos Farías           31
organizacional
        Stages in the Socialization
                 Process
     Prearrival Stage
     The period of learning in the socialization process that occurs
     before a new employee joins the organization.

     Encounter Stage
     The stage in the socialization process in which a new employee
     sees what the organization is really like and confronts the
     possibility that expectations and reality may diverge.

     Metamorphosis Stage
     The stage in the socialization process in which a new employee
     changes and adjusts to the work, work group, and organization.


Comportamiento             M. En C. Eduardo Bustos Farías              32
organizacional
       How Employees Learn
             Culture

                 •• Stories
                    Stories
                 •• Rituals
                    Rituals
                 •• Material Symbols
                     Material Symbols
                 •• Language
                     Language




Comportamiento    M. En C. Eduardo Bustos Farías   33
organizacional
       Creating An Ethical
      Organizational Culture
       Characteristics of Organizations that Develop High Ethical
       Standards
         – High tolerance for risk
         – Low to moderate in aggressiveness
         – Focus on means as well as outcomes
       Managerial Practices Promoting an Ethical Culture
         –   Being a visible role model.
         –   Communicating ethical expectations.
         –   Providing ethical training.
         –   Rewarding ethical acts and punishing unethical ones.
         –   Providing protective mechanisms.


Comportamiento                M. En C. Eduardo Bustos Farías        34
organizacional
         Creating a Customer-
          Responsive Culture
         Key Variables Shaping Customer-Responsive Cultures
         1. The types of employees hired by the organization.
         2. Low formalization: the freedom to meet customer service
            requirements.
         3. Empowering employees with decision-making discretion to
            please the customer.
         4. Good listening skills to understand customer messages.
         5. Role clarity that allows service employees to act as “boundary
            spanners.”
         6. Employees who engage in organizational citizenship
            behaviors.



Comportamiento               M. En C. Eduardo Bustos Farías                  35
organizacional
      Creating a Customer-
    Responsive Culture (cont’d)

   Managerial Actions ::
   Managerial Actions
   •• Select new employees with personality and
       Select new employees with personality and
      attitudes consistent with high service
       attitudes consistent with high service
      orientation.
       orientation.
   •• Train and socialize current employees to be
       Train and socialize current employees to be
      more customer focused.
       more customer focused.
   •• Change organizational structure to give
       Change organizational structure to give
      employees more control.
       employees more control.
      •• Empower employees to make decision about
           Empower employees to make decision about
Comportamiento         M. En C. Eduardo Bustos Farías   36
          their jobs.
           their jobs.
organizacional
        Creating a Customer-
      Responsive Culture (cont’d)

   Managerial Actions (cont’d) ::
   Managerial Actions (cont’d)
   •• Lead by conveying a customer-focused vision
       Lead by conveying a customer-focused vision
      and demonstrating commitment to customers.
       and demonstrating commitment to customers.
   •• Conduct performance appraisals based on
       Conduct performance appraisals based on
      customer-focused employee behaviors.
       customer-focused employee behaviors.
   •• Provide ongoing recognition for employees who
      Provide ongoing recognition for employees who
      make special efforts to please customers.
      make special efforts to please customers.

Comportamiento      M. En C. Eduardo Bustos Farías    37
organizacional
                    Spirituality and
                 Organizational Culture
     Workplace Spirituality
     The recognition that people have an inner life that
     nourishes and is nourished by meaningful work that
     takes place in the context of the community.


                  Characteristics:
                  Characteristics:
                  • • Strong sense of purpose
                       Strong sense of purpose
                  • • Focus on individual development
                       Focus on individual development
                  • • Trust and openness
                       Trust and openness
                  • • Employee empowerment
                       Employee empowerment
                  • • Toleration of employee expression
                       Toleration of employee expression
Comportamiento            M. En C. Eduardo Bustos Farías   38
organizacional

								
To top